Skip to main content

Full text of "The Book of the discipline : (Vinaya-pitaka)"

See other formats


SacreD  JBoohs  ot  tbe  J6ubt)bist0,  IDoL  J. 


THE   BOOK  OF   THE   DISCIPLINE 
VOLUME   I. 


THE    BOOK 
OF   THE    DISCIPLINE 

(VINAYA-PITAKA) 

VOL.  I. 
(SUTTAVIBHANGA) 

TRANSLATED    BY 

I.  B.  HORNER,  M.A. 

ASSOCIATE   OF    NEWNHAM    COLLEGE,    CAMBRIDG.E 


PUBLISHED  FOR  THE  PALI  TEXT  SOCIETY 

by 
LUZAC  &  COMPANY  LTD. 

46  GREAT  RUSSELL  STREET,  LONDON,  W.C.i 
1949 


First  published     -     1938 
By  The  Oxford  University  Press 


v.lO 


'i'B  iS.  /\  ^ 


S0379 


Pkinted  in  Gkeat  Hkitain 


TRANSr.ATOR'S    INTRODUCTION 

The  present  translation  of  the  Vinaya-Pitaka  is  based 
upon  Hermann  Oldenberg's  extremely  careful  edition 
of  the  Pali  text  of  the  Vinaya-Pitaka,  published  in  five 
volumes  in  the  years  1879-1883.  In  the  Introduction 
to  Vol.  I.  of  his  edition,  Oldenberg  wrote  (p.  x)  that 
he  had  been  compelled  to  relinquish  his  original  in- 
tention of  adding  a  complete  translation  to  the  text. 
But  in  the  years  1881,  1882,  1885  T.  W.  Rhys  Davids 
and  Oldenberg  collaborated  in  the  production  of  a 
partial  translation,  called  Vinaya  Texts,  published  in 
the  Sacred  Books  of  the  East  Series  (Vols.  XIII.,  XVII., 
XX.)  in  three  volumes. 

The  detailed  handling,  exposition  and  analysis  of 
many  important,  interesting,  difficult  and  obscure 
points  make  of  Vinaya  Texts  a  work  of  remarkable 
scholarship.  In  addition,  the  erudition  of  one  who  had 
had  opportunities  of  investigating  contemporary  monas- 
ticism  in  Ceylon  has  been  bestowed  upon  it.  Indeed, 
Rhys  Davids'  and  Oldenberg's  translation  can  admit 
of  supplement  in  only  two  respects,  while  in  all  others 
I  am  aware  that  my  attempt  at  a  critical  translation 
compares  but  unfavourably  with  theirs. 

In  the  first  place,  .what  is  now  needed,  both  for  its 
own  sake  and  in  order  to  bring  the  Vinaya  into  line 
with,  at  least,  the  Sutta-Pitaka,  is  a  complete,  as  against 
a  partial  translation  into  English.  This  is  one  of  the 
two  respects  in  which  Vinaya  Texts  can  be  supple- 
mented. Secondly,  our  knowledge  of  various  aspects 
of  Buddhism  has  doubtless  increased  during  the  fifty- 
two  years  which  separate  the  appearance  of  Vol.  III. 
of  Vinaya  Texts  and  the  appearance  of  Vol.  I.  of  The 
Book  of  the  Discipline.  During  this  time  the  Pali  Text 
Society  has  been  founded,  and  has  published  all  the 
Pali    Canonical    "  books,"    practically    all    the    Com- 


VI  TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION 

mentaries  and  other  post-Canonical  "  books,"  together 
with  a  considerable  number  of  translations,  not  to 
mention  a  Dictionary. 

This  mass  of  material,  not  available  to  the  original 
translators  of  the  Vinaya,  has  made  possible  a  com- 
parison of  passages,  phrases-  and  words  occurring  in 
scattered  parts  of  the  Canon,  so  that  now  a  more  definite 
and  perhaps  less  tentative  interpretation  of  the  signifi- 
cance of  some  of  them,  as  they  appear  in  the  Vinaya, 
can  be  presented.  This  is  the  second  way  in  which 
Vinaya  Texts  can  be  supplemented.  It  is  only  by  dis- 
covering what  words  and  phrases  signify  in  passages 
other  than  those  with  which  one  is  at  the  moment 
concerned,  that  the  general,  and  even  the  exceptional, 
meaning  of  those  same  words  and  phrases  can  be  more 
or  less  accurately  gauged.  I  have  considered  it  de- 
sirable, in  the  light  of  the  knowledge  made  accessible 
during  the  last  fifty  years  by  the  issues  of  the  Pali 
Text  Society  and  certain  books  on  Early  Buddhism, 
to  revise  and  remould  some  of  the  renderings  in  Vinaya 
Texts.  Even  so,  one  cannot  fail  to  be  impressed  by 
the  vision  of  the  original  translators,  whose  interpreta- 
tions, sometimes  no  more  than  leaps  in  the  dark,  have 
often  proved  successful  and  iinimpeachable. 

There  is  reason  to  suspect  that  some  words  and 
phrases  are  peculiar  to  the  Vinaya,  or  have  a  special 
connotation  in  it,  but  there  can  be  no  certainty  upon 
this  point,  until  the  Concordance,  which  is  being  compiled 
under  the  auspices  of  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids,  is  brought  to 
completion. 

Since  the  study  of  Early  Buddhism  is  admittedly 
still  in  its  infancy,  many  of  the  rich  and  variegated 
treasures  of  its  storehouse  as  yet  await  investigation. 
Hence,  I  am  fully  aware  that  The  Book  of  the  Discipline 
is  nothing  more  than  an  interim  translation,  needed  for 
the  reasons  given  above,  but  in  no  way  claiming  to 
be  final  and  definitive. 

The  word  vinaya  has  come  to  be  paired,  as  it  were 
(although  since  precisely  when  we  do  not  know),  with 


TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION  Vll 


the  word  dhamma.  This  is  a  word  whose  long  history- 
needs  a  detailed  study,  such  as  we  have  in  W.  Geiger's 
Dhamma,  1920,  while  vinaya  is  considerably  easier  of 
definition.  Whatever  the  .exact  meaning  or  meanings 
of  dhamma  may  have  been  at  one  stage  in  the  history 
of  Early  Buddhism  or  at  another,  or  at  one  part  of  the 
Sayings  or  at  another,  it  is  a  fair  enough  description 
to  say  that  dhamma  concerned  the  inner  life  of  Gotama's 
followers,  their  conscience,  their  mental  training  and 
outlook  and,  later,  stood  for  the  body  of  teaching  that 
they  were  to  believe  and  follow;  and  that  vinaya  was 
the  discipline  governing  and  regulating  the  outward 
life  of  the  monks  and  nuns  who  had  entered  the  mon- 
astic Orders,  the  foundation  of  which  is  attributed  to 
Gotama.  Dhammxi  may  indeed  be  said  to  be  all  that 
vinaya  is  not.^  Two  Pitakas  are  devoted  to  dham- 
ma: the  Sutta-Pitaka  and  the  (later)  Abhidhamma- 
Pitaka;  one,  the  Vinaya-Pitaka,  as  its  name  implies, 
to  vinaya} 

I  have  called  the  present  translation  The  Book  of  the 
Discipline,  rather  than  The  Basket  (Pitaka)  of  the 
Discipline,  on  the  analogy  of  The  Book  (Nikdya)  of  the 
Kindred  Sayings  and  The  Book  of  the  Gradual  Sayings, 
What  was  originally  an  oral  tradition  of  Sayings 
became,  at  some  time,  committed  to  palm-leaf  manu- 
scripts. Later  still,  these  were  "  edited  "  to  form  the 
material  of  printed  books.  Today  the  early  Sayings 
survive  nowhere  but  in  books. 

Oldenberg  began  his  edition  of  the  text  of  the  Vinaya- 
Pitaka  with  the  section  known  as  the  Mahavagga. 
This,  together  with  the  Culavagga  to  which  he  pro- 
ceeded, constitutes  the  Khandhakas.  He  placed  the 
Suttavibhanga  after  these,  and  ended  with  the  ad- 
mittedly later  Parivara.  But  properly  speaking,  the 
Pali    Vinaya    begins    with    the    Suttavibhanga.     The 


^  Oldenberg,  Vin.  ir  xiii. 

2  For  chronology  of  the  Pali  Canon,  see  B.  C.  Liw,  History  of 
Pali  Literature,  Chapter  I. 


Vlll  TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION 

Vinaya  of  the  Sarvastivadin  school  "  follows  the  same 
general  arrangepient,"^  as  do  apparently  the  Chinese 
Vinaya  of  the  Mahisasaka  school  and  the  Diilva,  or 
Tibetan  Vinaya  of  the  Mahasarvastivadins.^  Be  this 
as  it  may,  the  Pali  Vinaya  is  the  only  one  with  which 
we  can  concern  ourselves  here.  Comparisons  with  the 
Vinaya  of  other  schools  must  be  left  to  one  side,  as 
must  comparisons  with  the  rules  and  discipline  of  pre- 
Sakyan  sects  and  contemporary  sects,  including  the 
Jain  Orders  of  monks  and  nuns.^ 

According  to  Rhys  Davids  and  Oldenberg,  the  oldest 
portion  of  the  Vinaya  is  the  Patimokkha,  or  list  of  227 
rules,*  or  courses  of  training  to  be  observed.  As  this 
seems  to  be  indisputably  the  case,  it  is  only  fitting 
that  the  Suttavibhanga  should  precede  the  Khandhakas. 
For  the  Suttavibhanga  is  that  portion  of  the  Vinaya 
which  contains  the  Patimokkha. 

In  their  Vinaya  Texts,  Rhys  Davids  and  Oldenberg 
open  with  the  Patimokkha.  Buddhaghosa  in  his 
Commentary,  the  Samantapasadika  (denoted  as  VA- 
in  the  footnotes  to  my  translation),^  begins  with  the 
Suttavibhanga  in  extenso.  I  therefore  follow  the  same 
plan,  and  mention  it  chiefly  to  indicate  that  my  Vol.  I. 
does  not  correspond  to  Oldenberg's  Vol.  I.,  but  ap- 
proximately to  the  first  two-thirds  of  his  Vol.  III. 
Considerations  of  length  alone  prevented  me  from 
including  all  his  Vol.  III.  in  my  Vol.  I.  of  The  Book  of 
the  Discipline.  On  the  other  hand,  this  present  volume 
corresponds  to  the  opening  portion  of  Vol.  I.  of  Vinaya 
Texts.  The  chief  difference  between  the  presentation 
of  the  Suttavibhanga  in  Vinaya  Texts  and  The  Boqk 


1  E.  J.  Thomas,  Hist,  of  Buddhist  Thought,  p.  267;  but  see  N.  Dutt, 
Early  History  of  the  Spread  of  Buddhism,  p.  283  f . 

2  Oldenberg,  Vin.  i.  xliv  ff. 

^  See  Jacobi,  Jaina  Sutras,  i.  xix  if.  {S.B.E.  xxii.). 

*  See  S.  Dutt,  Early  Buddhist  Monachism,  p.  92,  and  B.  C.  Law, 
Hist,  of  Pali  Lit.,  i.  20  f.,  for  notes  on  variant  numbers  of  the  rules. 
Also  Winternitz,  Hist,  of  Ind.  Lit.,  ii.  23,  n.  5,  for  numbers  of  rules 
recognised  by  various  schools. 

*  I.e.,  Vinaya-atthakathd,  Commentary  on  the  Vinaya. 


TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION  IX 

of  the  Discipline  is  that,  in  the  former  the  Suttavibhanga 
is  cut  down  to  comprise  nothing  more  than  the  Pati- 
mokkha  rules  themselves,  all  auxiliary  material  being 
omitted,  while  the  latter,  when  finished,  will  contain, 
with  very  few  exceptions,^  an  unabridged  translation  of 
the  entire  Suttavibhanga. 

The  Vinaya,  the  Discipline,  especially  that  portion 
of  it  called  Suttavibhanga,  appoints  and  decrees  a  definite 
standard  of  outward  morality,  comprised  in  courses  of 
training  laid  down  for  the  proper  behaviour  of  monks 
and  nuns.  On  the  surface  the  Suttavibhanga  is  not 
much  more  than  an  attempt  to  restrain  unsuitable 
behaviour;  but  in  reality  it  also  arrives,  though  in  many 
cases  by  a  long  process  of  exclusion,  at  the  kind  of 
positive  conduct  to  be  pursued  by  the  monk  who  wishes 
his  life  to  be  externally  blameless,  so  far  as  his  relations 
with  his  fellow  monks,  with  the  Order  as  a  whole,  and 
with  the  laity  are  concerned. 

This  limitation  of  the  Suttavibhanga  to  an  outward 
and  objective  field  is  amply  indicated  by  the  striking 
absence  from  it,  of  any  passage  stating  that  the  ob- 
servance of  the  courses  of  training  "  made  knOwn  for 
monks  by  the  lord  "  will  conduce  to  the  realisation  of 
desirable  subjective  states.  The  gulf  between  this  and 
the  pre-eminently  subjective  attitude  of  the  Sutta-Pitaka 
is  immense.  Never  once  is  it  said,  in  the  Suttavi- 
bhanga, that  the  courses  of  training  should  be  followed 
so  as  to  lead,  for  example,  to  the  rejection  of  passion, 
of  hatred,  of  confusion,  to  the  destruction  of  the  dsavas 
(cankers),  to  making  the  Way  (one,  fourfold,  eightfold) 
become,  to  the  mastery  of  dhamma,  to  the  attainment 
of  perfection.  Always  the  recurrent  formula  of  the 
Suttavibhanga  declares  that  breaches  of  a  course  of 
training  are  "  not  fitting,  not  suitable,  not  worthy  of 
a  recluse,  not  to  be  done,"  and  so  on,  and  that  such 
lapses  are  not  "  for  the  benefit  of  non-believers  nor 
for  increase  in  the  number  of  believers."  Thus  a 
standard  of  conduct  is  imposed  from  outside,  and  for 

1  See  below,  p.  xxxvii. 


TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION 


external,  impersonal  reasons,  instead  of  insistence 
being  laid,  as  in  the  Nikaya  teaching,  on  the  great 
subjective  states  attainable  through  a  man's  own 
efforts  of  will. 

The  word  Suttavihhanga  means  analysis  or  classifica- 
tion (vibhanga)  of  a  sutta,  a  term  here  applied  to  each 
rule  or  course  of  training  included  in  the  Patimokkha. 
The  literal  meaning  of  sutta  (sutra)  is  of  course  string 
or  thread,  and  as  such  also  appears  in  the  rVinaya.  But 
its  meaning  of  rule  or  clause  or  article  is  apparently 
peculiar  to  this  composition,  and  is,  according  to  Dr. 
E.  J.  Thomas,^  earlier  than  its  meaning  of  separate 
discourse.  That  the  word  sutta,  in  the  Vinaya,  probably 
does  bear  the  meaning  of  rule,  as  was  suggested  in 
Vinaya  Texts,^  is  indicated  by  Various  passages.  For 
example,  at  Vin.  i.  65  =  68,  a  monk  is  not  to  receive 
the  upasampada  ordination  if  he  does  not  know  the 
two  l^atimokkhas^  rule  by  rule  (suttato);  at  Vin.  ii.  68, 
it  is  said:  "'This  thing  is  in  a  rule  (suttdgata)  and  comes 
up  for  recitation  every  half-month."^  The  thing 
(dhamma)  here  referred  to  is  not  in  a  Sutta,  or  Sutta- 
Pitaka  discourse,  but  does  occur,  as  part  of  a  course 
of  training,  in  the  Vinaya.  Further,  the  Vinaya  Com- 
mentary mentions,  calling  it  a  sutta,^  the  statement 
allowing  an  amma  (park)  to  monks.  The  one  reference 
that  I  have  come  across  to  the  compound  suttavihhanga 
in  the  Vinaya  text^  (apart  from  its  use  as  the  title  of 
the'  section  bearing  its  name)  is  in  association  with 
sutta..  Both  these  terms  appear  here  to  refer  as  clearly 
to  Vinaya  and  not  to  Sutta-Pitaka  material,  as  do  the 
others  cited  above. 

As  the  Sutta  vibhanga  has  come  down  to  us,"^  it  is 
divided  into  two  sections:  Parajika  and  Pacittiya. 
Between  them,  these  two  sections  comprise  227  rules 
divided  into  the  eight  groups  of  the  four  Parajikas, 

1  History  of  Buddhist  Thought,  p;  268,  n.  2.  ^  Vol.  i.  xxviii  f. 

'  The  one  for  the  monks  and  the  one  for  the  nuns. 
*  See  below,  p.  xi.  ^  VA.  81.  «  Vin.  ii.  97. 

'  For  date  of  compilation  of  the  Suttavihhanga  see  Vin.  Texts, 
\.  xxi. 


translator's  introduction  xi 


the  thirteen  Sanghadisesas,  the  two  Aniyatas,  the  thirty 
Nissaggiya  Pacittiyas,  the  ninety-two  Pacittiyas,  the 
four  Patidesaniyas,  the  seventy-five  Sekhiyas,  and  the 
Adhikaranasamatha  rules.^  Only  the  first  three  groups 
are  contained  in  Vol.  I.  of  The  Book  of  the  Discipline. 
There  is  a  corresponding  Bhikkhuni-vibhanga,  sometimes 
referred  to  as  the  Bhikkhunl-vinaya,  or  Discipline  for 
nuns,  with  its  set  of  Patimokkha  rules.  This  will 
appear  in  a  later  volume  of  this  translation. 

The  Suttavibhanga  material  is  usually  arranged  in 
a  series  of  four  groups:  (1)  a  story  leading  up  to  a  rule; 
(2)  a  Patimokkha  rule,  which  always  states  the  penalty 
incurred  for  breaking  it;  (3)  the  Old  Commentary,  the 
Padabhajaniya,  on  each  rule,  defining  it  word  by  word; 
(4)  more  stories  telling  of  deviations  from  the  rule, 
and  showing  either  that  they  were  not  so  grave  as  to 
entail  the  maximum  penalty,  or  that  they  were  reason- 
able enough  to  warrant,  in  certain  circumstances,  a 
modification  or  a  relaxation  of  the  existing  rule,  or  that 
they  were  not  such  as  to  be  rendered  permissible  by 
any  extenuating  circumstances.  Items  (3)  and  (4)  are 
sometimes  reversed  in  position,  and  (4)  is  now  and 
again  absent  altogether. 

The  Patimokkha  rules  are  the  core  of  the  Suttavi- 
bhanga. This  list  of  rules,  or  list  of  courses  of  training, 
was  recited  twice  a  month  on  the  uposatha  (observance, 
sabbath,  or  avowal)  days,  held  on  the  niglits  of  the  new 
and  the  full  moon.^  In  Vedic  times,  tlie  upavasatha 
was  a  fast  day  kept  for  the  preparation  of  and  the 
performance  of  the  Soma  sacrifice.  According  to  the 
Pali  tradition,  parihhdjakas,  or  wanderers  belonging  to 
other  sects,  also  held  sacred  two,  if  not  three,  days  in 
each  month  for  the  recitation  of  their  dhamma.^  It 
was  in  imitation  of  this  popular  custom  that  the  Sakyan 
bhikkhus  assembled  on  these  same  three  days.  Later, 
apparently,  these  were  reduced  to  two,*  and  were 
devoted  to  the  recitation  of  the  Patimokkha  rules. 

»  Cf.  B.  C.  Law,  Hist,  of  Pali  Lit.,  i.  46  f.  «  Vin.  i.  104. 

9  Vin.  i.  101.  *  VinA.  104. 


Xll  TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION 

This  recitation  served  the  double  purpose  of  keeping 
the  rules  fresh  in  the  minds  of  the  monks  and  nuns, 
and  of  giving  each  member  of  the  monastic  community 
the  opportunity,  while  the  rules  were  being  repeated 
or  recited,^  to  avow  any  offences  that  he  or  she  had 
committed.  After  the  avowal  came  the  due  punish- 
ment. In  the  Suttavibhanga,  the  monk  is  usually 
shown  as  avowing  his  offence  to  Gotama,  or  to  one  of 
the  monks,  or  to  a  group  of  monks,  directly  he  had 
committed  it,  and  not  as  waiting  to  avow  it  before  the 
full  congregation  (sangha)  of  monks.  He  was  thus 
"  pure  "  for  the  wposatJia  ceremony,  and  could  take  his 
place  at  the  meeting. 

Oldenberg  sees  in  the  term  patifnokkha,  freedom 
^*  from  sins  there  named, "^  that  is,  in  the  list  of  rules 
called  Patimokkha.  This  is  part  of  what  amounted  in 
Oldenberg  to  an  obsession  with  "  the  doctrine  regarding 
release  from  suffering,  which  forms  so  central  an  idea 
in  the  ancient  Buddhist  faith. "^  But  the  monks  were 
not  asked,  as  Oldenberg  states,  whether  they  were 
"  free  from  the  sins  there  named."  The  word  for 
*'  free  "  or  "  freed  "  would  have  been  vimutta.  What 
they  were  asked  was  Avhether  they  were  parisuddha, 
quite  pure,  pure  in  the  matter  of  having  kept  the  rules, 
therefore  outwardly  pure.  I  think  that  if  Oldenberg 
had  looked  upon  the  Patimokkha  as  a  list  of  rules  or 
courses  of  training,  as  I  have  called  them  above,  and 
not  as  a  "  list  of  those  offences  which  deserved  punish- 
ment or  some  kind  of  expiation,"*  he  would  not  have 
been  so  much  dominated  by  the  idea  of  freedom  from 
"  sins."  Moreover,  "  sin "  is  not  even  a  Sakyan 
conception. 

This  is  leading  us  up  to  the  derivation  of  the  word 
pdti-  ipdti-)  mokkha.  Rhys  Davids  and  Oldenberg, 
following  Childers,  refer  it  to  pdti  (Skrt.,  prati)-\-muc, 
and  see  in  it  "  disburdening,  getting  free."^  Buddha- 
ghosa,  too,  at  Vism.  16,  derives  it  from  muc,  in  the 

^  Not  '*  read  out,"  as  Oldenberg  says,  Vin.  i.  xv. 

*  Vin.  i.  XV.  3  Ibid.,  xiv.  *  Ibid.,  xv. 

^  Vin.  Texts,  i.  xxvii  f. 


TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION  Xlll' 


sense  of  being  free  from  the  punishments  of  niraya 
(hell)  and  other  painful  rebirths.  But  it  was  not  the 
getting  free  that  was  of  such  importance  as  the  being 
bound.  This  came  first.  Preceding  the  notion,  if 
indeed  it  ever  existed  at  the  time  when  the  Vinaya 
was  compiled,  that  the  monk  should  be  free  of  sin  or 
of  the  punishment  for  sin,  came  the  assumption  that 
the  rules,  as  binding,  should  be  followed  and  obeyed, 
and  that  a  monk  should  be  "  bound  by  the  restraint  of 
the  Patimokkha  "  (pdtimokkhasarjvarasarjvuta). 

S.  Dutt  is  of  the  opinion  that  pdtifnokkha  means 
"  bond.''  He  regards  it  as  an  external  bond  of  union 
devised  to  convert  the  Sect  of  the  Sakyaputtiya  smnanas 
into  an  Order}  Rhys  Davids  and  Stede  in  the  P.E.D, 
say  that  it  has  the  ''  sense  of  binding,  obligatory, 
obligation,"  and  that  the  Sanskrit  adaptation  of  the 
Pali  should  be  pratimoksya,  "  that  which  should  be 
made  binding,"  and  not  prdtimoksa.  Pratimoksya, 
according  to  these  lexicographers,  is  the  same  as  the 
Pali  patimokkha,  "  binding,  obligatory,"  from  patimun- 
cati,  to  fasten,  to  bind.^ 

Dr.  E.  J.  Thomas,  on  the  other  hand,  says  that 
patimokkha  is  "in  Sanskrit  prdtimoksha.  In  form  it  is 
an  adjective  formed  from  patimokkha,  binding,  from 
pati-muC'  '  to  fasten  or  bind  on  (as  armour),'  and  thus 
should  mean  '  that  which  binds,  obligatory,'  ''^  thus 
agreeing  with  the  definition  given  in  the  P.E.D.,  but 
not  with  the  derivation. 

The  word  is  defined  in  the  Mahavagga  of  the  Vinaya 
as  the  ''  face,  head  of  all  good  states,"*  but  as  Winter- 
nitz  pointed  out  this  derivation  "  is  quite  impossible."^ 
Winternitz  himself  was  inclined  to  explain  pdtimokkha  as 
"  that  which  is  to  be  redeemed,"^  but  unfortunately  he 
did  not  support  this  statement,  except  by  saying  he 
thought  that  the  correct  translation  ofsamgaram  pdtimok- 
kharn  ofJd.  v.  25  should  be  "  a  promise  to  be  redeemed." 

^  Early  Buddhist  Monachism,  p.  89  f. 

^  Cf.  Vin.  iii.  249,  patimuncMi,  to  bind  on  or  tie  on  a  head-pad. 
^  History  of  Buddhist  Thought,  15,  n.  1.  *  Vin.  i.  103. 

^  History  of  Indian  Lit.,  ii.  22,  n.  2.  *  Ibid. 


XIV  TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION 


Nearly  all  these  authorities  agree  that  the  term  is 
borrowed  from  other  sects,  and  dates  from  pre-Buddhist 
days. 

The  question  of  the  composition  of  the  Patimokkha 
rules  is  one  which,  while  being  of  the  greatest  interest, 
is  not  very  likely  to  grow  out  ol  the  speculative  stage. 
This  question  has  two  sides  to  it:  that  of  when  and 
that  of  hmv  the  rules  came  to  be  formulated.  -I_can 
only  point  out  the  existence  of  these  problems,  not 
attempting  to  solve  them.  The"  solution  of  the  one 
would  to  a  large  extent  elucidate  the  other. 

The  rules  were  either  drawn  up  in  their  entirety  in 
Gotama's  lifetime;  or  they  were  drawn  up  in  their 
entirety  after  his  parinibbdna  (utter  waning);  or  some 
were  drawn  up  during  his  lifetime  and  others  afterwards. 
The  last  assumption  is  that  most  generally  favoured 
by  scholars,  who  adduce  "  additions  and  modifications," 
repetitions  and  inconsistencies,  existing  among  the 
collection  of  rules. ^  Again,  if  it  were  held  that  the  rules 
were  codified  into  their  present  shape  after  Gotama's 
parinibbdna,  this  would  not  at  all  necessarily  mean 
that  they  were  not  known  and  enforced  during  his 
ministry.  The  question  of  hotv  they  were  composed 
likewise  suggests  three  alternatives:  either  that  some 
actual  event  led  up  to  the  framing  of  each  rule ;  or  that 
they  were  all  formulated  in  readiness  to  meet  events, 
but  before  these  had  occurred;  or  that  some  had  an 
historical  source,  while  others  owe  their  existence  to 
precautionary  imagination. 

It  is  conceivable  that  not  one  of  the  Patimokkha 
rules  was  framed  until  someone,  lay-followers  or  the 
more  dependable  monks  and  nuns,  had  seen,  heard  or 
suspected  a  mode  of  behaviour  which  seemed  to  them 
unfitting  in  a  member  of  one  of  Gotama's  Orders.  Each 
rule  is  therefore  very  possibly  the  direct  result  of  some 
actual  event,  and  was  not  made  with  merely  hypo- 
thetical cases  of  wrong-doing  in  mind.  On  detecting, 
even  on  suspecting  that  conduct  unfitting  in  a  recluse. 


E.g.,  E.  J.  Thomas,  Hist,  of  Buddhist  Thought,  i).  14. 


TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION  XV 


unworthy  of  a  monk  had  been  perpetrated,  the  action 
was  reported,  as  it  is  almost  invariably  stated,  to 
Gotama,  either  by  the  errant  monk  himself  or  by  those 
vigilant  in  the  interests  of  the  Order.  The  Sutta- 
vibhahga  shows  that  if  the  action  were  found  to  be 
blameworthy,  a  course  of  training  was  set  forth,  a 
penalty  was  attached,  and  it  henceforth  became  mani- 
fest that  a  breach  of  each  rule  of  right  conduct  would 
incur  a  like  penalty. 

Prevention  of  unsuitable  behaviour  in  monks  and 
nuns  seems  to  have  rested  on  two  bases.  In  the  first 
place  the  presumption  that  a  certain  line  of  conduct 
had  been  forbidden  by  Gotama,  apparently  appealed  to 
the  purer-minded  and  more  zealous  monks.  Secondly, 
the  penalty,  fixed  commensurably  with  the  breach  of 
the  rule,  will  doubtless  have  exercised  a  deterrent 
influence  over  the  behaviour  of  some  of  those  monks 
who  were  not  susceptible  to  the  dictates  of  loftier 
motives. 

Although  the  framing  of  each  major  rule  is  without 
exception  attributed  to  Gotama,  it  has  never  been 
suggested  that  at  the  inception  of  the  Orders  he  thought 
over  all  the  possible  cases  of  wrong-doing  and  depravity 
of  which  the  monks  might  be  capable,  and  propounded 
a  n^ady-made  body  of  rules  to  meet  every  conceivable 
contingency.  It  is,  however,  more  likely  that  the 
majority  of  the  rules  grew  up  gradually,  as  need  arose, 
and  are  the  outcome  of  historical  developments  that  went 
on  within  the  Order.  At  the  same  time  it  would  not 
have  been  impossible  for  the  Sakyans  to  have  borrowed 
at  all  events  the  outline  of  a  compendium  of  rules 
from  other  sects.  We  cannot  tell  with  any  degree  of 
accuracy  the  historical  Order  in  which  the  rules  were 
formulated.  All  that  can  be  said  is,  that  there  is  no 
need  to  imagine  that  offences  were  perpetrated  and  rules 
promulgated  in  the  order  in  which  they  now  appear  in 
the  Suttavibhanga. 

Again,  it  is  to  my  mind  questionable  whether  all  the 
offences,  grave  and  petty,  all  the  adroit  evasions  and 
twistings,  all  the  cases  of  illness  which  prevented  a 


XVI  TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION 


rule  from  being  carried  out  to  the  letter,  all  the  multi- 
farious detail  of  communal  life,  were  reported  to  Gotama, 
who  then  pronounced  his  verdict,  and  either  framed 
a  new  rule  or  altered  an  existing  one. 

The  rules  are  doubtless  ascribed  to  him  so  as  to  give 
them  weight,  but  of  what  proportion  he  was  in 'fact 
the  author  we  can  never  know.  We  can  merely  judge 
that,  as  some  of  his  disciples  were  competent  to  preach 
dhamma,  so  some  would  also  have  been  competent  to 
meet  a  case  of  wrong-doing  by  admonishment  and 
rebuke,  and  by  decreeing  an  appropriate  penalty  as  a 
safeguard  for  the  future.  Indeed,  in  the  Suttavibhahga, 
although  by  far  the  greater  number  of  rules  is  said  to 
have  been  enunciated  by  Gotama,  many  a  sub-rule  at 
least  (as  in  Sangh.  ix.,  x.,  xi.)  is  laid  down  without 
reference  to  the  Founder.  Although  he  remains  the 
central  figure  in  the  Vinaya,  any  absence  of  reference 
to  him  is  an  indication  either  that  some  transgressions 
occurred  and  were  legislated  for  after  his  parinibbdna 
(utter  waning),  or  that,  even  while  he  was  still  alive, 
it  was  not  thought  necessary  to  trouble  him  with  the 
entire  mass  of  items,  some  of  them  very  trivial,  that  was 
bound  to  arise  in  the  organisation  of  ^'  unenclosed  " 
Orders  of  monks  and  nuns.  This  was  the  more  compli- 
cated both  because  the  members  of  the  Orders  were, 
and  were  recognised  to  be,  at  varying  stages  of  spiritual 
development,  and  because  their  behaviour  was  not 
viewed  solely  as  it  affected  internal  policy,  but  also  as  it 
affected  the  laity. 

For  the  believing  laity,  though  naturally  not  to  the 
forefront  in  the  Vinaya,  are  in  a  remarkable  way  never 
absent,  never  far  distant.  They  perpetually  enter  into 
the  life  of  the  Order  as  supporters,  critics,  donors, 
intensely  interested;  and  themselves  affected  by  Sakya, 
it  seems  that  they  were  deeply  anxious  for  its  success. 
Thus  the  Vinaya  does  not  merely  lay  down  sets  of 
rules  whose  province  was  confined  to  an  internal  con- 
ventual life.  For  this  was  led  in  such  a  way  as  to 
allow  and  even  to  encourage  a  certain  degree  of  inter- 
communication with  the  lay  supporters  and  followers, 


translator's  introduction  xvii 

no  less  than  with  those  lay-people  who  were  not  ad- 
herents of  the  faith.  What  was  important,  was  that 
the  monks  should  neither  abuse  their  dependence  on 
the  former,  nor  alienate  the  latter,  but  should  so 
regulate  their  lives  as  to  give  no  cause  for  complaint. 
With  these  aims  in  view,  conduct  that  was  not  thought 
seemly  for  them  to  indulge  in  had  to  be  carefully 
defined;  and  it  became  drafted  in  rule  and  precept. 

Indian  monasticism  differs  from  Western  in  the 
important  respect  that  the  former  stood  in  no  need  of 
fighting  battles  against  temporal  powers.  The  world 
in  which  Gotama's  Orders  grew  up  was  fully  in  favour 
of  experiments  in  religious  devotion.  Such  struggles 
as  there  were,  were  not  between  monks  and  the  'armies 
of  hostile  kings,  not  between  monks  and  the  active 
scorn  of  the  world,  but  struggles,  no  less  heroic  in  in- 
tention perhaps,  to  strengthen  the  monks  against  them- 
selves and  their  human  weaknesses,  to  endow  them 
with  goodness  and  virtue  as  the  living  witnesses  to 
man's  desire  for  perfection,  to  fortify  them  for  victory 
in  the  contest  between  the  spirit  and  the  flesh,  between 
right  and  wrong — undying  ideals  to  which  many  an 
ordinary  layman  ardently  clung,  but  to  which  he  could 
not  himself  aspire. 

In  the  Vinaya  literature  that  has  come  down  to  us, 
Gotama  is  nowhere  shown  as  legislating  for  his  lay- 
followers,  as  Mahavira  did  for  his.  Yet,  even  in  the 
absence  of  a  Vinaya  for  laymen,  it  is  apparent  that  an 
attitude  of  toleration  and  common-sense  admitted  much 
that  was  permissible  to  the  worldly  section  of  the  com- 
munity that  was  not  considered  to  be  fitting  in  monks. 
Had  no  difference  been  insisted  upon,  one  of  the  most 
potent  reasons  for  the  existence  and  for  the  popularity 
of  monks  would  have  been  rendered  invalid.  For  one 
of  the  points  of  entering  Gotama's  Order  was  to  learn 
control  of  body,  mind  and  speech.  This,  it  was  thought, 
was  essential  to  spiritual  progress,  and  was  extremely 
hard  to  attain,  unless  the  shackles  of  the  household  life 
had  been  laid  aside.  Then  man,  as  monk,  could  more 
readily  attain  perfection  and  its  fruit  (arahattaphala), 

b 


XVlll  TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION 

the  goal  of  hrahynacariya,  the  good,  divine,  holy  or 
Brahma-life.  Arahatta,  as  the  goal,  was  at  some  time 
in  the  early  history  of  the  Order  substituted  for  that 
other  goal :  an  approach  to  Brahma,  that  Highest,  an 
approach  which  India,  in  the  sixth  century  B.C.,  held 
that  each  and  every  man  was  potentially  capable  of 
making.  Because  religion  was  understood  in  those 
days,  men  who,  according  to  popular  estimate,  showed 
that  they  were  on  the  Way  to  the  Highest,  were  this 
regarded  as  Brahma  or  arahatta,  were  revered  and  not 
despised. 

Yet,  as  in  any  others,  the  Vinaya  shows  that  there 
were  in  Gotama's  Orders  indolent,  lax,  greedy  monks 
and  nuns,  those  who  were  lovers  of  luxury,  seekers 
•after  pleasure,  makers  of  discord.  We  should,  how- 
ever, be  greatly  mistaken  if  we  insisted  upon  regarding 
the  Order  as  riddled  by  scandal,  by  abuses  and  by 
minor  forms  of  wrong-doing.  There  is  no  doubt  that 
these  existed;  but  there  is  no  justification,  simply 
because  they  happen  to  be  recorded,  for  exaggerating 
their  frequency,  or  for  minimising  the  probity  and 
spiritual  devotion  of  many  men  who,  in  Gotama's 
days,  were  monks.  Records  of  these  are  to  be  found 
in  the  Nikayas,  in  the  Thera-theri-gatha ;  and,  too 
much  overlooked,  there  are  in  the  Vinaya,  the  virtuous, 
moderate  monks  who,  vexed  and  ashamed,  complain 
of  the  misdemeanours  of  their  fellows. 

As  historians,  we  must  be  grateful  to  these  inevitable 
backsliders,  for  theirs  is  this  legacy  of  the  Patimokkha 
rules.  Had  the  Order  contained  merely  upright, 
scrupulous  monks  and  nuns — those  who  were  stead- 
fastly set  on  the  goal  of  the  Brahma-life,  and  those  who 
had,  in  the  circumstances,  to  voice  their  annoyance 
with  the  wrong-doers — in  all  likelihood  the  Vinaya,  the 
Discipline,  the  Patimokkha  rules  would  not  have  come 
into  being,  and  much  of  the  early  history  of  the  Order 
woukf  now  be  known  to  us  solely  through  the  indirect 
and  fragmentary  way  of  the  Sutta-Pitaka. 

If  monks  behaved  in  a  way  that  was  censurable  in 
monks,  this  does  not  necessarily  mean  that  their  con- 


translator's  introduction  xix 

duct  was  wrong  in  itself.  Various  activities  were  not 
only  permissible  for  lay-people,  but  were  fully  accepted 
to  be  such  as  could  be  unquestionably  pursued  by  them. 
Marriage,  negotiating  for  parties  to  a  marriage,  trading, 
the  owning  of  possessions,  are  cases  in  point.  Nor 
could  we  maintain  that,  before  a  particular  course  of 
training  had  been  made  known,  the  conduct  of  a  monk 
was  necessarily  reprehensible  if  it  resembled  that  which 
was  legitimate  for  the  laity.  For  all  monks  came  into 
the  Order  from  the  laity.  Therefore  if  it  did  not  at 
once  strike  them  that  in  certain  respects  their  behaviour 
should  change  when  their  vocation  changed,  it  is  only 
natural  that  in  the  meantime  they  should  have  indulged 
in  pursuits  for  which,  as  laity,  they  had  attracted  no 
adverse  criticism. 

I  think  it  very  likely  that  some  of  the  courses  of  train- 
ing for  monks  that  are  included  in  this  volume  were 
formulated  as  a  result  of  this  bringing  over  of  lay-life 
into  the  religious  life;  for  a  difference  between  the  two 
had  to  be  made,  and  then  maintained.  Others  most 
certainly  were  formulated  as  the  result  of  behaviour 
which,  whether  evinced  by  a  layman  or  a  monk,  would 
have  been  regarded  as  equally  blameworthy;  others, 
again,  to  prevent  the  monks  from  being  an  intolerable 
burden  on  the  laity;  while  still  others  were  formulated 
so  as  to  preserve  the  harmony  and  well-being  of  the 
Order. 

Now  and  again,  monks,  contemplating  a  certain 
action  which  they  knew  to  be  forbidden  or  which  they 
knew  to  be  wrong,  are  recorded  to  think:  "  There  will 
be  no  blame  for  me."  Was  this  because  they  had 
done  similar  things  while  still  "  in  the  world  "  without 
incurring  censure,  and  so  thought  that  they  would  be 
immune  from  blame  after  they  had  gone  forth  ?  Or 
did  they  think  that  there  was  some  reason  why  they 
personally  would  incur  no  offence  for  their  deed  ?  If 
so,  spiritual  pride  had  still  to  be  humbled  in  them. 

The  Patimokkha  rules  of  the  Pali  Vinaya  fall  into 
eight  sections,   classified  according  to  the  gravity  of 


XX  TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION 

the  offence  committed.  Of  these  eight  sections,  only 
three  are  covered  by  the  present  volume.  These  are, 
first,  the  four  Parajika  rules,  framed  to  govern  those 
offences,  the  most  serious  of  all,  which  involve  "  defeat," 
and  whose  penalty  is  expulsion  from  the  Order;  and 
secondly,  the  thirteen  Sahghadisesa  rules,  framed  for 
the  type  of  offence  which  is  so  grave  as  to  necessitate 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Sahgha,  or  whole  community 
of  monks  present  in  the  district  or  in  the  vihara  where 
the  offence  was  committed.  The  penalties  incurred  for 
a  Sanghadisesa  offence  are  chiefly  that  of  being  sent 
back  by  the  monks  to  the  beginning  of  the  probationary 
period,  together  with  that  of  undergoing  the  manatta 
discipline.  The  terms  parajika,  sanghddisesa  and  manatta 
are  shortly  discussed  on  pp.  xxvi  f.,  xxix  ff.,  38,  195 
f .  below. 

I  Thirdly,  included  in  this  volume,  are  the  two  Aniyata 
rules,  designed  to  meet  offences  whose  nature  is  so 
"  undetermined "  that  only  individual  circumstances 
can  decide  whether  it  is  such  as  to  involve  defeat,  or 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order,  thereby  being  linked 
with  the  two  preceding  sections  of  rules;  or  whether 
it  is  such  as  to  require  expiation  (pdcittiya).  Because 
of  this  further  possibility,  the  Aniyata  rules  are  linked 
with  the  next  group  but  one,  the  Pacittiya  rules. 

The  first  three  Parajika  rules  are  levelled  against  the 
breach  of  a  code  of  morality  generally  recognised  and 
active  among  all  civilised  communities:  against  un- 
chastity,  against  the  taking  of  what  was  not  given, 
and  against  the  depriving  of  life. 

Evidently  the  aim  of  the  strictures  on  unchastity, 
with  which  Parajika  I.  is  concerned,  was  partly  to 
bring  the  monks  into  line  with  members  of  other  pre- 
ceding and  contemporary  sects  whose  members,  having 
renounced  the  household  state,  had  to  be  celibate. 
This  notion  already  had  history  behind  it  by  the  time 
the  Sakyan  Order  of  monks  came  into  being.  It  was 
a  notion  based  as  much  on  common-sense,  as  on  the 
conviction  that  restraint  and  self-taming  were  indis- 


TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION  XXI 

pensable  factors  in  the  winning  of  the  fruit  of  a  monk*s 
life. 

It  is  perhaps  not  necessary  to  believe  that  each  or 
any  of  the  many  and  curious  forms  of  unchastity, 
mentioned  in  Parajika  I.,  ever  ^as  actually  perpetrated 
by  a  monk.  Such  comprehensive  treatment  as  is  found 
is  not  needed  either  to  support  or  to  elucidate  the  mean- 
ing of  the  general  rule.  This  was  clear  enough.  It  is 
possible,  of  course,  that  some  of  the  delinquencies  did 
occur,  while  others  did  not,  but  we  do  not  know.  In 
any  case,  it  is  also  possible  that  at  the  time  of  the  final 
recension,  each  rule  was  minutely  scrutinised  and 
analysed,  and  all  the  deviations  from  it,  of  which  the 
recensionists  had  heard  or  which  they  could  imagine, 
were  formulated  and  added  in  some  kind  of  order. 
For  then  there  would  be  in  the  future  no  doubt  of  the 
class  of  offence  {e.g.,  Parajika,  thullaccaya  or  dukkata) 
to  which  any  wrong  behaviour  that  had  been  or  should 
be  committed,  belonged,  or  of  what  was  the  statutory 
penalty  for  that  offence.  The  smooth  and  detailed 
handling  of  some  parts  of  the  other  Parajika  rules  and 
of  some  of  the  Sanghadisesa  rules,  likewise  suggests 
that  these  are  the  outcome,  not  of  events,  so  much  as 
of  lengthy  and  anxious  deliberations.  The  recension- 
ists had  a  responsible  task.  They  were  legislating  for 
the  future,  and  they  would,  I  think,  have  been  deter- 
mined to  define  in  as  minute  a  way  as  possible  the 
offence  already  stated  in  a  general  way  in  each  major 
rule. 

Stealing  is  ranked  as  a  Parajika  (Par.  II.),  or  the 
gravest  kind  of  offence,  not  merely  because  civilisation 
agrees  that,  for  various  reasons,  it  is  wrong  to  take 
something  not  given.  It  was  particularly  reprehensible 
for  a  Sakyan  monk  to  steal,  since  at  the  time  of  his 
entry  into  the  Order  he  morally  renounced  his  claim 
to  all  personal  and  private  possessions,  and  should 
henceforth  have  regarded  anything  he  used  as  com- 
munal property,  lent  to  him  for  his  needs.  In  addition, 
it  may  be  urged  that  if  monks  were  restrained  from 
stealing,  any  tendencies  they  may  have  had  towards 


xxii  translator's  introduction 

greed  and  gluttony,  towards  finery  and  luxury,  towards 
carelessness  in  the  use  of  their  requisites,  would  have 
been  reduced  and  perhaps  eradicated,  thus  allowing 
a  greater  margin  for  the  exercise  of  unfettered  spiritual 
endeavour. 

There  is  a  point  in  Parajika  II.  to  which  I  should  like 
to  draw  attention.  The  rules  concerned  with  taking 
what  was  not  given  show  that  stealing  something  of 
or  above  a  definite,  though  small,  value,  namely,  five 
mdsakas,^  is  a  more  blameworthy  offence  than  stealing 
something  worth  less  than  five  mdsakas.  Five  mdsakas 
apparently  constitute  the  lowest  commercial  value  that 
an  object  can  have,  and  anything  less  is  presumably 
commercially  valueless  and  therefore  negligible.  But 
all  tendency  towards  acquisition  had  to  be  suppressed 
in  the  monks,  all  inclination  to  regard  objects  in  the 
light  of  possible  possessions  to  be  checked.  And 
further,  it  had  to  be  remembered  that  monks  might  not 
know  the  exact  value  of  some  particular  object.^ 

In  Parajika  II.,  the  value  in  mdsakas  of  the  object 
stolen  becomes  the  standard  of  moral  transgression,  and 
hence  the  criterion  of  the  gravity  of  the  offence  com- 
mitted: to  steal  something  of  more  than  five  mdsakas 
entails  defeat;  to  steal  something  of  the  value  of  from 
one  to  four  mdsakas  is  said  to  be  a  grave  offence  f  while 
to  steal  something  worth  less  than  one  mdsaka  is  called 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing.^  Thus  the  gravity  of  the 
offence  of  stealing  is  shown  to  be  to  some  extent  de- 
pendent upon  the  value  of  the  object  stolen.  At 
Vin.  i.  96,  on  the  other  hand,  it  is  said  to  be  an  offence 
entailing  defeat  to  steal  even  a  blade  of  grass.  These 
inconsistencies  doubtless  suggest  that  these  rules  were 
drawn  up  at  different  times.^ 

No  doubt  the  depriving  of  life  ranked  as  a  Parajika 

1  Below,  p.  85.  2  Below,  p.  lU. 

^  Thullaccaya,  a  technical  term. 

4  Dukkaia,  another  technical  term. 

^  See  Vin.  Texts,  i.  xxv,  for  plausible  argument  for  the  intro- 
duction of  the  new  terms  thullaccaya  and  dukkata  into  the  final 
recension  of  the  Vinaya. 


TRANSLATOR  S    INTRODUCTION  XXIU 

offence  (Par.  III.)  partly  because  it  is  the  very  opposite 
of  ahirjsd,  non-violence,  non-injury,  which  was  an  idea 
prevalent  in  India  before  the  advent  of  Sakya.  Again, 
the  teaching  on  rebirth  and  the  allied  teaching  on 
karma,  both  pre-Sakyan  notions,  would  hold  that  the 
murderer,  in  consequence  of  his  deed,  obstructs  his 
progress  through  the  worlds,  until  he  has  worked  off 
the  fruit  of  his  action.  The  problems  of  Freewill  and 
Predetermination  find  no  place  in  Indian  philosophy. 
Man's  will  is  assumed  to  be  free.  Hence  the  murderer 
might  have  chosen  otherwise:  the  deed  of  murdering 
was  not  pre-ordained.  To  incite  a  person  to  death 
was  considered  as  bad  as  murdering  him.  For  if  praise 
of  "  the  beauty  of  death  "  inspired  him  to  die  at  will, 
if  he  cut  himself  off  before  he  had  done  his  time  here, 
the  fruits  of  past  deeds,  both  good  and  ill,  would  still 
remain  to  be  worked  off  by  him. 

It  may  seem  strange  to  a  European  living  in  the 
twentieth  century  that  the  offences  of  unchastity,  steal- 
ing and  murder  receive  the  same  legal  punishment. 
But  different  ages  have  different  values.  In  England, 
hanging  was  the  penalty  for  sheep-stealing  up  to  modern 
times.  And  the  Patimokkha  rules  relate  to  more  than 
two  thousand  years  ago,  some  of  them  being  rooted 
in  an  even  more  remote  antiquity.  Besides,  we  must 
remember  that  they  were  for  monks,  and  not  only  for 
Sakyan  monks.  The  Jains  had  precepts  corresponding 
to  these  first  three  Parajika  rules,  as  did  the  common 
precursors  of  Jain  and  Sakyan,  the  sanydsins  or  brahmin 
ascetics  and  recluses.^ 

Those  who  had  gone  forth  into  homelessness  were  to 
withstand  all  temptation  and  ambition  offered  by  life 
"  in  the  world,"  they  were  to  be  beyond  the  reach  of 
its  quarrels,  loves  and  hatreds.  For,  if  they  continued 
to  behave  as  those  who  had  not  gone  forth,  their  sup- 
porters would  fall  away,  the  non-believers  would  think 
but  little  of  them,  and  the  behevers  would  not  increase 
in  number. 

^  See  Jacobi,  Jaina  Sutras,  i.  xxiii  (S.B.E.  xxii.). 


XXIV  TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION 

Tlie  injunctions  against  unchastity,  the  taking  of 
what  was  not  given,  and  against  the  depriving  of  life, 
besides  corresponding  to  the  brahmin  and  Jain  pre- 
cepts, also  correspond  to  the  first  three  Buddhist  sllaSy 
moral  "  habits,"  or  precepts  of  ethical  behaviour. 
These,  however,  run  in  reverse  order  from  the  Parajikas, 
and  begin  with  the  precept  of  refraining  from  onslaught 
on  creatures.  Next  comes  refraining  from  taking  what 
was  not  given,  and  thirdly  the  precept  of  refraining 
from  unchastity  (here  called  abrahmacariya,  as  it  is  in 
the  Jain  sutras).  The  fourth  Parajika,  alone  of  the 
Parajikas,  does  not  find  any  corresponding  matter 
among  the  silas.  If  the  relation  of  the  Parajikas  to 
the  sllas  were  worked  out,  some  cogent  reason  for  these 
discrepancies  might  emerge. 

At  present  I  can  only  suggest  that  the  fourth  Para- 
jika, of  which  I  have  shortly  spoken  elsewhere,^  is  con- 
cerned more  with  a  monk's  spiritual  state  than  with 
his  outward  behaviour.^  In  this  it  differs  from  the 
Silas,  and  more  interesting  still,  from  the  other  Pati- 
mokkha  rules.  These  are,  with  the  striking  exception 
of  the  fourth  Parajika,  concerned  with  the  here  and  now, 
with  the  regulation  of  certain  aspects  of  community 
life,  with  matters  affecting  the  Order,  with  the  arrange- 
ment of  various  mundane  affairs,  with  questions  of 
conduct  concerning  the  opposite  sex  and  the  lay  followers, 
with  questions  of  property. 

The  curious  fourth  Parajika,  concerned  with  the 
offence  of  "  claiming  a  state  or  quality  of  further- 
men  "  (uttarimanussadhamma),  seems  to  have  been 
fashioned  in  some  different  mould,  and  to  belong  to 
some  contrasting  realm  of  values.  It  is  by  no  means 
a  mere  condemnation  of  boasting  or  lying  in  general, 
for  it  is  the  particular  nature  of  the  boast  or  the  lie 
which  makes  the  offence  one  of  the  gravest  that  a  monk 
can  commit:  the  boast  of  having  reached  some  stage  in 

1  Early  Buddhist  Theory  of  Man  Perfected,  p.  Ill  ff. 

2  The  fifth  Jain  precept,  to  renounce  all  interest  in  worldly  things, 
calling  nothing  one's  own  (aparigraha),  seems  to  be  on  a  rather 
different  basis  from  the  other  Jain  precepts. 


TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION  XXV 

spiritual  development,  only  attainable  after  a  long 
training  in  the  fixed  and  stable  resolve  to  become  more 
perfect,  and  to  make  the  potential  in  him  assume 
actuality.  The  seriousness  of  the  offence  of  unfoundedly 
claiming  a  state  of  further-men  is  further  emphasised 
by  the  statement  at  Parajika  iv.  4  that,  if  a  deliberate 
lie  is  uttered  in  connection  with  such  a  claim,  then 
that  lie  constitutes  an  offence  entailing  defeat.  Yet,  in 
the  Suttavibhanga,  it  is  far  more  common  to  find  that 
deliberate  lying  ranks  as  an  offence  requiring  expiation 
(pdcittiya),  which  is  not  nearly  so  grave  as  one  "  in- 
volving defeat." 

I  have  suggested  elsewhere  that  the  claiming  of  a 
state,  or  states,  of  further-men,  to  which  the  claimant 
was  not  entitled,  could  have  only  appeared  as  a  most 
heinous  offence  to  people  by  whom  a  teaching  on  be- 
coming, on  becoming  more  perfect,  of  going  further, 
was  held  in  much  esteem.  Perhaps  the  greatest  of 
Mrs.  Rhys  Davids'  many  contributions  to  the  inter- 
pretation of  Early  Buddhism,  is  that  this  idea  of  be- 
coming was  of  living  power  and  force  to  Gotama's 
early  followers.  If  so,  one  may  conclude,  tentatively, 
that  the  fourth  Parajika  belongs  to  an  ancient  Sakyan 
stratum,  and  that  in  this,  other-worldly  (lokuUara) 
matters  were  held  to  be  as  important  as,  if  not  more 
so  than,  worldly  (loka)  matters.  For  I  think  it  possible 
that  the  Parajikas  are  arranged  in  an  ascending  scale 
of  gravity,  in  which  the  offence  held  to  be  the  worst 
morally,  though  not  legally,  is  placed  last.  Be  this  as 
it  may,  if  spiritual  progress  and  development  had  not 
been  valued  by  the  Sakyans,  to  whom  this  precept 
appears  to  be  peculiar,  the  offence  of  untruly  claiming 
the  attainment  of  this  or  that  advanced  spiritual  state 
could  not  have  ranked  as  a  Parajilca  offence. 

It  should  be  remarked  that  talk  on  conditions  of 
further-men,  though  not  absent  from  the  Sutta-Pitaka, 
is  at  no  place  accentuated  in  it.  There  is,  for  example, 
a  Saijyutta  passage,  which  is  the  exact  parallel  of  a 
long  Vinaya  passage,  with  the  noteworthy  exception 
that  in  the  former  there  is  no  reference  to  Moggallana 


XXVI  TRANSLATOR  S    INTRODUCTION 

as  one  held  by  other  monks  to  be  claiming  a  state  of 
further-men,  an  imputed  claim  which  seems  to  be  the 
pivot  of  the  Vinaya  passage.^ 

I  have  chosen  to  translate  pdrdjika  by  "  defeat  " 
chiefly,  I  admit,  because  Rhys  Davids  and  Oldenberg 
rendered  it  in  this  way.  They  follow  Buddhaghosa, 
who,  to  quote  E.  J.  Thomas,^  "  interprets  pdrdjika  as 
'  suffering  defeat,'  and  the  Mulasarvastivadins  appear 
.to  do  the  same  (Mvyut.  278,  9)."  The  editors  of  Vinaya 
Texts  refer  ''the  word  to  the  passive  of  ji  (to  defeat) 
with  pard  prefixed."*  B.  C.  Law  also  considers  these 
four  rules  are  concerned  with  "  acts  which  bring  about 
defeat."*  Although  it  may  be  grammatically  incorrect 
to  refer  pdrdjika  to  pard-ji,^  to  my  mind  no  more 
convincing  derivation  has  so  far  been  put  forward. 
Burnouf's  idea®  (adopted  by  Childers'  and  others)  is 
that  pdrdjika  is  derived  from  pard-{-aj,  meaning  a 
crime  which  involves  the  expulsion  or  exclusion  of  the 
guilty  party.  Pard-\-aj  may  be  a  better  source,  gram- 
matically speaking,  for  pdrdjika  than  is  pard-\-ji.  Yet, 
that  the  sense  intended  is  "  defeat,"  seems  to  me  rather 
less  doubtful  than  that  it  is  expulsion,  and  aj,  though  a 
Vedic  root,  meaning  "  to  drive  away,"  is  unknown  as 
a  root  in  Pali. 

It  might  be  argued  that  because  in  each  promulga- 
tion of  the  Parajika  rules  the  words  pdrdjiko  hoti  is 
followed  by  the  word  asarnvdso,  "not  in  communion," 
tiiis  is  because  the  two  are  complementary,  asamvdsa 
filling  out  the  sense  intended  by  pdrdjika.  Such  an 
argument  would  naturally  increase  the  tendency  to 
regard  pdrdjika  as  a  word  standing  for  expulsion  or 
exclusion,  probably  of  a  permanent  nature.^  But  may 
it  not  be  that  pdrdjika  and  asamvdsa  represent  not 

1  S.  ii.  254-262:=  Fm.  iii.  104  ff.     See  below,  p.  180  ff. 

2  Hist,  of  Bud.  Thought,  16,  n.  2. 

8  Vin.  Texts,  i.  3  n.  *  Hist,  of  Pali  Lit.,  i.  47,  50. 

6  E.g.,  Kern,  Manual  of  Indian  Buddhism,  85, 
«  Intr.  it,  VHist.  du  Buddhisme  indien,  2nd  edn.,  268.  '  Diet. 

8  E.  J.  Thomas,  Hist,  of  Buddhist  Thought,  16;  Kern,  Manual  of 
Indian  Buddhism,  85. 


TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION  XXVll 

complementary,  but  disparate  ideas,  the  not  being  in 
communion  introducing  a  new  notion,  and  one  con- 
nected with  and  dependent  upon  not  expulsion,  but 
defeat  ? 

If  a  monk  were  found  to  be  unworthy  to  be  in  com- 
munion, unfitted  to  take  his  part  in  the  communal 
acts  and  jurisdiction,  then  he  would  have  to  be  expelled. 
But  equally,  he  would  have  to  cease  to  be  in  communion 
(which  would  entail  expulsion,  either  temporary  or 
permanent),  if  he  found  that  he  was  defeated  in  his 
endeavour  "  to  achieve  the  end  for  which  he  entered 
the  Order."! 

It  is  beyond  all  doubt  that  the  punishment  for  breach 
of  the  Parajika  rules  indeed  involves  expulsion.  But 
it  seems  unnecessary  to  take  the  etymologically  obscure 
parajika  itself  to  mean  expulsion,  when  this  notion  is 
covered  by  the  word  asamvdsa,  with  which,  as  I  have 
said,  parajika  is  always  coupled  in  the  formulation  of 
the  Parajika  rules.  In  addition,  it  may  be  remarked 
that  the  Suttavibhanga  has  the  verb  ndseti  (causative 
of  nassati),  meaning  "  to  be  expelled.  "^ 

In  such  a  very  controversial  case,  I  have  preferred 
to  follow  the  commentator.  It  appears  very  probable 
that  many  of  these  words:  Patimokkha,  Parajika  itself, 
Sanghadisesa,  were  adopted  from  pre-Buddhist  sects, 
and  thus  had  some  tradition  behind  them.  Now,  it 
may  well  be  that  the  commentator  explained  the  word 
parajika  according  to  a  meaning  that  for  it  and  for  him 
had  become  traditional.  In  which  case,  such  an  ex- 
planation will  as  truly  enshrine  something  of  the  history 
of  that  word  as  later  and  inconclusive  attempts  at 
grammatical  analysis.  Moreover,  the  reference,  in  the 
third  formulation  of  Parajika  I.,  to  not  disavowing 
the  training  and  not  declaring  weakness,  together  with 
the  subsequent  detailed  analysis  of  these  phrases 
(below,  p.  42  if.),  to  my  mind  lends  weight  to  the  sug- 
gestion that   a   monk   becomes   one   who   is   defeated 

1  B.  C.  Law,  Hist,  of  Pali  Lit.,  i.  47,  n.  1 ;  also  cf.  p.  50. 
a  E.g.,  Vin.  iii.  33,  40=pp.  50,  62  below. 


XXVlll  TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION 

{pdrdjiko  hotiy  through  his  own  inability  or  ''  weak- 
ness "  to  lead  the  Brahma-life. 

Like  the  Parajika  rules,  the  Sanghadisesas  begin  (in 
Sanghadisesa  II. — Saiighadisesa  I.  is  in  a  category  apart) 
with  four  rules  connected  with  a  monk's  conduct  towards 
women.  Then  come  two  rules  (Sanghadisesa  VI.,  VII.) 
in  which  injunctions  for  building  a  hut  and  a  vihara 
on  sites  approved  by  other  monks,  are  set  forth.  The 
point  of  these  rules  appears  to  be  to  prevent  monks 
from  begging  building  materials  too  greedily  from  the 
laity,  and  to  prevent  them  from  building  anywhere 
where  animal  life  would  be  endangered  or  destroyed. 
The  force  of  the  injunction  that  the  hut  or  the  vihara 
must  have  an  open  space  round  it,  is  difficult  to  interpret, 
and  the  Old  Commentary  gives  no  practical  help.  It 
probably  means  that  no  monk  should  live  in  a  secret 
place.  The  laity,  who  had  contributed  to  the  building 
of  the  hut  or  vihara,  would  very  likely  wish  to  have 
seen  that  the  monk  was  behaving  in  a  way  worthy  of 
their  gift,  and  hence  his  conduct  and  habits  must  be 
open  to  unhindered  inspection. 

Sanghadisesa  VIII.  and  IX.  comprise  rules  against 
the  defamation  of  one  monk  by  another.  Then  come 
two  against  the  making  of  a  schism  in  the  Order,  while 
Sanghadisesa  XII.  is  concerned  with  the  offence  that 
a  monk  incurs  if  he  is  difficult  to  speak  to.  All  such 
transgressions,  leading  to  disharmony  in  the  Order, 
would  have  made  it  hard  for  the  Order  to  maintain  itself 
and  to  progress.  And  if  there  had  been  repeated 
quarrels,  discord  and  stubbornness,  the  Order  would 
have  become  discredited  among  its  lay  supporters. 

The  twelfth  Saiighadisesa  should  be  compared  with 
the  Anumana  Sutta.^  The  Old  Commentary's  defini- 
tion of  dubbacajdtika,   "difficult  to  speak  to"   (Vin. 

1  On  hoti—bhavati,  to  become,  see  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids,  To  Become 
or  Not  to  Become,  p.  18  if. 

2  M.  Sta.  15.  Bu.  at  VA.  742,  says  that  this  Sutta  is  one  of  the 
five  spoken  for  the  disciples  of  the  four  groups  (i.e.,  monks  and 
nuns,  male  and  female  lay -followers). 


TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION  XXIX 

iii.  178= p.  311  below),  is  word  for  word  the  same  as  the 
Anumana's  description  of  the  monk  whom  his  fellows 
consider  unfit  to  be  taught  or  instructed.^  Buddha- 
ghosa  states^  that  the  Ancients  (pordnd)  called  this 
Sutta  the  Bhikkhu-patimokkha.  This  leads  us  to 
wonder  if  the  twelfth  Sanghadisesa  indeed  represents 
some  specially  ancient  fragment  of  the  Patimokkha, 
and  whether,  while  the  rules  were  being  shaped,  refusal 
to  take  the  training  with  deference  and  respect  appeared 
amongst  the  earliest  offences  that  a  monk  could  commit. 

The  last  and  thirteenth  Sanghadisesa  rule  is  against 
bringing  families  into  disrepute.  This,  again,  would 
make  the  Order  unpopular  among  the  lay  followers. 
It  must  be  remembered  that  it  was  considered  highly 
important  to  propitiate  these,  to  court  their  admiration, 
to  keep  their  allegiance,  to  do  nothing  to  annoy  them. 
For  without  their  active  interest  and  support  the  Order 
could  not  have  endured.  It  is  true  that,  had  it  been 
disbanded,  the  Sakyaputtiyas,  as  individuals,  would 
not  have  come  to  starvation.  For  the  "  holy  man," 
be  he  samana,  sddhu,  sanydsin  or  fakir,  in  India  always 
has  had  his  physical  needs  fulfilled.  And  some  Sakya- 
puttiyas doubtless. could  have  reverted  to  a  household 
life ;  while  others  might  have  gone  to  dwell  in  the  forests, 
there  to  subsist  on  fruits  and  roots  (phalamula),  and  to 
dress  in  bark  and  antelopes'  hides,  as  did  some  of  their 
brahmin  precursors  and  contemporaries.  But,  in  fact, 
the  Order  became  a  powerful  magnet,  attracting  men 
and  women  from  many  and  various  families,  classes, 
trades  and  occupations,  from  the  ranks  of  the  Jains  and 
Wanderers  (paribbdjaka).  Historically,  the  success  of 
the  Early  Buddhist  experiment  in  monasticism  must  be 
in  great  part  attributed  to  the  wisdom  of  constantly 
considering  the  susceptibilities  and  criticisms  of  the 
laity. 

Like  the  meaning  of  pdrdjika,  the  meaning  of  sangha- 
disesa is  controversial.     Again  B.  C.  Law^  and  I  follow 

1  M.  I  95, 1  12  ff.  '  MA.  ii.  67. 

3  Hist,  of  Pali  Lit.,  i.  47,  50. 


XXX  translator's  introduction 


Vinaya  Texts  in  r^nd^rmg  sanghadisesa  as  offences  (or 
rules  or  matters)  which  require  a  formal  meeting  of 
the  Order. 

Now,  one  part  of  the  penalty  imposed  for  a  breach 
of  any  one  of  the  thirteen  Sahghadisesa  rules,  namely,  a 
return  to  the  beginning  of  the  probationary  period, 
has  apparently  led  Kern,  for  example,  to  describe  the 
Sarighadisesas  as  offences  ''  involving  suspension  and  a 
temporary  exclusion  "^ — from  the  Order  or  from  taking 
part  in  its  legal  procedure  is  not  made  clear,  though 
the  latter  must  be  meant.  The  other  part  of  the  penalty, 
namely,  the  necessity  of  undergoing  the  m3»natta 
discipline,  has  apparently  led  E.  J.  Thomas,^ .  for 
example,  to  describe  these  offences  as  those  which 
involve  "  a  period  of  penance  and  reinstatement  by  the 
Assembly."  Burnouf  suggests'  that  sanghddisesa  means 
*'  that  which  should  be  declared  to  the  Sangha  from  the 
beginning  to  the  end."  He  further  states  that  the 
Chinese  syllables,  pho  chi  cha,  the  equivalents  of  ddisesa, 
are  ''  probably  altered."  This  may  be  because  the  Pali 
had  already  been  altered  from  some  more  definite 
phrase  containing  less  ambiguity  and  obscurity.  Childers 
suggests^  that  this  class  of  offence  is  so  called  because 
as  much  in  the  beginning  (ddi)  as  in  the  end  (sesa)  a 
Sarigha  is  required  to  administer  the  stages  of  penalty 
and  ultimately  rehabilitation. 

Neither  of  the  descriptions — suspension  or  penance — 
is  contained  etymologically  in  the  word  sanghddisesa. 
That  both  were  penalties  incurred  by  this  type  of  offence 
is  indubitable.  But  by  derivation,  the  compound 
sanghddisesa  could  not  possibly  mean  either  suspension, 
manatta  discipline  or  reinstatement.  Comparison  with 
the  Sanskrit  brings  us  no  nearer  to  an  elucidation.  For 
as  Kern  remarks,^  "  Neither  a  Sanskrit  Sangha vasesa 
nor  Sanghatisesa,  i.e.  remnant  of  the  Sangha,  renders 
a  satisfactory  meaning." 

^  Manual  of  Indian  Buddhism,  p.  85. 

2  History  of  Buddhist  Thought,  p.  17. 

^  Intr.  a  I  Hist,  du  Buddhisme  indien,  2nd  edn.,  p.  269. 

*  Diet.  5  Manual  of  Indian  Buddhism,    p.  85,  n.  9. 


TRANSLATOR  S    INTRODUCTION  XXXI 


In  the  circumstances  it  is  best  to  allow  that  we  are 
in  the  realm  of  ancient  technicalities,  whose  exact 
significance  the  passage  of  time  has  dimmed.  In  a 
translation,  we  can,  however,  pay  due  regard  to  the 
only  member  of  the  compound  sanghddisesa  which  is 
neither  grammatically  obscure  nor  controversial.  This 
is  sangha,  meaning  for  Sakya  the  Order,  or  any  part  of 
the  whole  Order  resident  within  a  certain  boundary, 
district  or  vihara.  That  the  oifence  could  not  be 
settled  without  the  intervention  of  the  Order  is  a  point 
for  which  there  is  the  support  of  the  Old  Commentary. 
This  states  clearly  that  *'  it  is  the  Order  which  places 
(the  wrong-doer)  on  probation,  it  sends  (him)  back  to 
the  beginning,  it  inflicts  the  manatta,  it  rehabilitates."^ 
Moreoyer,  as  noted  by  Childers,  Rhys  Davids  and 
Oldenberg,  this  type  of  punishment  had  to  be  enforced, 
could  only  be  enforced,  by  formal  resolutions  (sangha- 
kamma)  carried  at  meetings  of  the  Order. 

It  is  just  possible  that  kamma,  most  usually  work, 
which  the  Old  Commentary  states  is  a  synonym  for 
this  class  of  offence,  has  also  a  specialised  sense  of 
"  proceedings,  ceremony  performed  by  a  lawfully  con- 
stituted Sangha  of  monks."  Such  proceedings  were 
formal  in  character,  with  motions  and  resolutions,  and 
rules  for  their  validity.  Thus,  if  kammxi  were  indeed 
a  synonym  for  this  class  of  offence,  and  if  it  means  acts 
of  a  formal  nature,  then  what  sanghddisesa  means  is  a 
type  of  offence  whose  punishment  must  be  meted  out 
by  some  formal  administration  on  the  part  of  the 
Order. 

It  may  well  be  that  the  penalty  for  every  class  of 
offence  could  be  imposed,  or  came  at  some  time  to  be 
regarded  as  effective,  only  as  the  result  of  the  juris- 
diction of  the  Order  met  together  in  solemn  conclave. 
This,  however,  would  not  prove  that  the  word  sanghd- 
disesa does  not  contain  some  special  reference  to  the 
Order  as  that  instrument  which,  in  this  type  of  offence, 
administers  the  penalty.     It  is  more  than  possible  that 


Sec  below,  p.  196. 


XXXll  TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION 

some  of  the  other  rules  were  known  and  named  before 
the  codification  of  the  Patimokkha,  but  that  the  penalty 
for  breaking  them  could  be  imposed  by  one  or  more 
individuals.  Otherwise  it  could  hardly  have  been 
necessary  for  the  Old  Commentary  expressly  to  state 
that  it  is  the  Ordel,  and  not  one  man  or  many  persons, 
which  imposes  the  Sanghadisesa  penalties.^ 

As  S.  Dutt  shrewdly  observes,^  "  It  is  significant  that 
only  one  of  the  group  of  offences  (Sanghadisesa)  is 
mentioned  as  coming  within  the  disciplinary  jurisdiction 
of  the  Saiigha,  and  it  is  in  the  case  of  this  group  only 
that  certain  penalties  to  be  imposed  upon  the  Bhikkhu, 
even  against  his  will  ...  viz.  Parivdsa  and  Mdnatta,  are 
laid  down.  In  the  case  of  the  other  offences  it  is  no- 
where stated  or  suggested  in  the  Patimokkha  itself 
that  the  Sahgha  should  have  jurisdiction  over  them,  and 
no  mode  of  exercising  such  jurisdiction  is  defined,  as  in 
the  case  of  the  Sanghddisesas.'^ 

It  is  not  impossible  that  originally  the  various  Sanghas, 
which  were  really  sub-divisions  of  the  whole  Sahgha, 
exercised  their  jurisdiction  over  each  individual  member 
only  in  the  case  of  the  Sanghadisesa  offences,  only 
coming  later  to  exercise  such  jurisdiction  in  the  case 
of  all  classes  of  offence.  If  this  is  so,  we  do  well,  I 
think,  to  underline  the  formalities  which  the  Sangha- 
disesa offences  entailed,  and  were  very  likely  alone  in 
so  doing  at  first.  For  by  this  means  some  early  feature 
of  the  Order's  history  may  be  kept  in  mind. 

The  two  Aniyatas,  or  undetermined  matters,  evince 
a  remarkable  amount  of  trust  put  in  a  woman  lay- 
follower.  Doubtless  Visakha  was  one  of  the  most 
generous  patrons  of  the  Order,  a  great  supporter  of  the 
faith,  to  whom  the  Order  had  full  reason  to  be  grateful. 
Here  she  is  shown  expostulating  with  Udayin  for  what 
seemed  to  her  unsuitable  behaviour  in  a  monk.  The 
interesting  thing  is  that  both  the  Aniyata  rules,  general- 
ised as  are  all  the  Patimokkha  courses  of  training  from 

^  See  below,  p.  196.  «  ^-^rZy  Buddhist  Monachism,  p.  105. 


TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION  XXXlll 

a  particular  case,  allow  a  monk  '*  to  be  dealt  with  " 
according  to  what  a  trustworthy  woman  lay-follower 
should  say.  Thus  Visakha,  herself  eminently  trust- 
worthy and  single-minded  in  her  efforts  to  improve 
conditions  in  the  Order,  is  instrumental  in  bringing  to 
all  reliable  women  lay-followers  the  responsibility  of 
procuring  investigation  into  a  monk's  conduct,  if  she 
has  seen  him  sitting  secluded  with  a  woman.  These 
two  Aniyata  rules  indicate  the  respect  and  deference 
that  was,  at  that  time,  paid  to  women.  They  were  not 
scornfully  brushed  aside  as  idle  gossips  and  frivolous 
chatter-boxes,  but  their  words  were  taken  seriously. 

It  may  be  pointed  out  here  that  the  Vinaya  shows, 
that  if  monks  went  astray,  this  was  not  always  due  to 
the  baneful  influence  of  women.  For  now  and  again 
monks  took  the  initiative,  and  begged  and  cajoled  lay- 
women  and  even  nuns.  Sometimes  they  got  what  they 
wanted,  at  others  the  women  stood  firm.  When  they 
asked  lewd  questions,  women  are  shown  as  being 
innocent  of  their  meaning.^  It  is  also  apparent  from 
the  two  Aniyatas  that  women  of  the  world  might  do 
certain  things  with  impunity,  but  that  those  same  things, 
if  done  by  Sakyan  recluses,  were  blameworthy.  Their 
life  was  to  be  organised  on  a  different  basis,  as  Parajika  L 
shows,  from  that  of  the  laity,  and  a  recognition  of  this, 
and  attempts  to  preserve  the  difference,  are  visible  in 
many  parts  of  Vinaya  III. 

The  Old  Commentary,  or  Padabhajamya,  is  now 
incorporated  in  the  Suttavibhanga,  and  forms  an 
integral  part  of  it.  Since  it  explains  each  Patimokkha 
rule  word  by  word,  so  that  we  get  from  it  the  meaning 
which  the  wordg  possessed  at  all  events  at  the  time  when 
the  Old  Commentary  was  compiled,  this  ancient  exegesis, 
often  of  very  great  interest,  is  a  most  valuable  critical 
apparatus.  The  purpose  of  the  Old  Commentary  was 
evidently  to  make  each  rule  absolutely  clear,  so  that  no 
misconception  could  arise  through  lack  of  lucid  defini- 


1  P.  219  below. 


XXXIV  TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION 


tion.     Words  not  contained  in  the  rule,  but  appearing 
in  the  stories,  are  not  commented  upon. 

Rhys  Davids  and  Oldenberg  think  that  when  the 
rules  had  been  formulated  and  each  word  interpreted, 
some  explanation  was  wanted  as  to  how  the  rules  origin- 
ated. Thus,  they  hold,  stories  were  invented  to  intro- 
duce each  rule.  Personally  I  do  not  think  it  necessary 
to  take  quite  such  a  hard-and-fast  view.  For  it  seems 
to  me  possible  that  in  some  cases  the  story  may  be  true, 
or  may  have  had  some  historical  foundation,  so  that 
the  rule  came  to  be  made  on  account  of  the  self-same 
events  which,  later,  were  recorded.  In  other  cases,  the 
story  may  quite  possibly  be  an  invention,  the  original 
reason  for  framing  the  rule  and  the  name  of  the  first 
wrong-doer  involved  having  long  been  forgotten.  It 
would  now  be  very  difficult  to  judge  which  stories  may 
be  more  or  less  true  and  which  may  be  purely  fictitious. 

The  point  of  the  series  of  short  stories  or  incidents, 
which  usually  follow  the  Old  Commentary's  exegesis, 
is  to  show  what  exceptions  could  be  made  to  a  rule, 
what  exemptions  were  permissible,  what  lesser  and 
sometimes  what  graver  ojffences  were  incurred,  and 
what  was  an  offence  from  which  there  could  be  no 
exemption  since  it  tallied  in  all  its  main  respects  with 
that  which  had  led  to  the  framing  of  the  rule.  These 
stories  are  not  invariably  ascribed  to  any  particular 
person,  as  are  those  introducing  the  rule.  They  not 
seldom  attach  th^  behaviour  which  needs  consideration 
to  "  a  certain  monk." 

These  stories  reveal  the  existence  of  different  grades 
of  penalty  for  different  types  of  offence  against  the 
main  rules.  Not  merely  are  there  five  great  classes  of 
offences — Parajika,  Sanghadisesa,  Nissaggiya  Pacittiya, 
Pacittiya  and  Patidesaniya — there  are  also  thnlhccaya 
(grave)  offences,  and  dukkata  offences  (those  of  wrong- 
doing). These  are  of  constant  recurrence  in  the  stories, 
or  "Notes  giving  the  exceptions  to,  and  extensions  of, 
the  Rule  in  the  Patimokkha.''^     Of  rarer  appearance 

»  Yin.  Texts,  i.  xix. 


TRANSLATORS   INTRODUCTION  XXXV 

are  offences  of  wrong  speech.  One  or  other  of  these 
offences  is  said  to  be  incurred  if  behaviour  has  approxi- 
mated to  that  which  a  particular  Patimokkha  rule 
has  been  designed  to  restrain,  but  which  is,  so  far  as 
can  be  judged,  not  so  grave  in  nature  as  a  breach  of 
the  rule  itself,  because  of  certain  differences  in  its  execu- 
tion, or  because  of  certain  extenuating  circumstances. 

Sometimes  the  stories  are  grouped  together  to  form 
a  set.  Although,  where  this  occurs,  each  story  may  show 
no  more  than  a  minute  variation  from  the  others,  they 
are  all  set  out  at  length.  Putting  the  gist  of  the  stories 
into  general  terms,  each  one  would  then  read  something 
as  follows :  If  this  is  done,  but  not  that,  though  the  other 
thing  is  done,  such  and  such  an  offence  is  incurred. 
If  this  is  done  and  that,  but  not  the  other  thing,  such 
and  such  an  offence  is  incurred.  If  this  is  not  done, 
but  that  is  done,  and  the  other  thing  is  (is  not)  done, 
such  and  such  an  offence  is  incurred.  And  so  on  through 
permutation  and  combination  of  deeds  done  or  not 
done,  until  the  final  case  is  achieved  where  no  offence 
is  incurred. 

These  groups  of  stories  are  apt  to  be  tedious  to 
Western  readers.  I  have  therefore  put  them,  when 
they  occur,  into  a  smaller  type,  as  also  other  passages 
concerned  with  small  shades  of  differences.  Doubtless 
such  meticulous  detail  was  useful  in  defining  exactly 
what  was  lawful  and  what  was  not  lawful  for  monks  to 
do,  and  in  preventing  the  evasions  which  from  time 
to  time  they  seemed  ready  to  attempt.  As  history, 
these  stories  are  as  interesting  in  evincing  an  Oriental 
love  and  management  of  detail  as  in  revealing  items 
of  topical  value  in  regard  to  manners  and  customs. 
The  manner  and  time  of  their  formulation  are  as 
problematical  as  those  of  the  major  rules. 

At  the  end  of  each  Parajika,  Sanghadisesa  and  Aniyata 
Rule,  general  circumstances  are  stated  where  the  breach 
of  the  rule  is  riot  to  be  counted  as  an  offence.  The 
most  comprehensive  of  these  is  when  a  monk  is  mad, 
in  pain  or  a  beginner.  Others  have  a  more  specialised 
import.     Thus,  for  example,  there  is   said  to  be  no 


XXXVl  TRANSLATOR  S    INTRODUCTION 

offence  if  a  monk  had  some  course  of  behaviour  forced 
upon  him,  but  did  not  consent  to  it  (as  in  Parajika  I.); 
if  he  did  something  accidentally,  not  intending  to  do  it 
(as  in  Parajika  III.);  if  he  did  something  unsuitable, 
being  under  a  misapprehension  (as  in  Parajika  11. ). 

The  occasions  when  it  is  stated  that  no  oifence  is 
incurred  are  all  remarkable  for  their  humane  and  lenient 
tone,  for  their  reasonableness  and  common-sense.  Thus 
there  is  no  offence  if  something  not  given  is  taken  for 
the  sake  of  food  (Parajika  II.  7.  38),  or  is  only  taken 
for  the  time  being  (Parajika  11.  7.  40),  it  being  assumed, 
apparently,  that  there  was  the  intention  of  returning 
it.  Again,  two  occasions  are  recorded^  where  a  monk 
died,  in  the  one  case  through  being  tickled,^  and  in  the 
other  through  being  trod  upon.^  Yet  no  murderous 
act  was  done,  or  the  verdict  would  have  been  different, 
and  not  that  "  there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat." 
It  seems  probable  that  the  monks  who  died  were  nervy, 
delicate  or  infirm,  and  received  a  shock  or  heart-attack 
resulting  in  their  death,  but  had  they  been  in  normal 
health  they  would  have  come  to  no  harm. 

It  must  be  admitted  that  several  early  literatures 
have  a  coarse  side.  That  the  translations  of  Pali 
canonical  works  have  so  far  been  not  in  the  least  offen- 
sive, is  mainly,  or  it  may  be  said  only,  because  the 
Sutta-Pitaka  and  the  Abhidhamma-Pitaka  deal  chiefly 
with  spiritual  matters.  The  Vinaya,  on  the  other  hand, 
being  concerned  with  behaviour,  is  forced  occasionally 
to  go  into  some  aspects  of  life  irrelevant  to  the 
subject-matter  of  the  other  two  Pitakas.  Such  exposi- 
tions are,  however,  almost  entirely  confined  to  Parajika  I. 
and  Sanghadisesa  I. 

^  Vin.  iii.  84  (=pp.  145,  146  below). 

2  angulipatodaka.  P.E.D.  has  "  nudging  with  the  fingers," 
C.P.D.  "  tickling  with  the  fingers."  Dial.  i.  113  has  in  the  text 
"  nudging  one  another  with  the  fingers,"  but  loc.  cit.,  n.  3,  in  referring 
to  the  above  Vin.  passage  {=Vin.  iv.  110)  says:  "  It  must  there  mean 
*  tickling.'  "  G.S.  iv.  225  (A.  iv.  343)  has  "  poking  one  another  with 
the  fingers." 

^  Or  oUharati  may  mean  to  spread  out,  to  stretch  out. 


TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION  XXXVll 

With  regard  to  this  preservation  of  crude  passages  in 
the  Vinaya,  three  points  must  be  insisted  upon.  In 
the  first  place  they  were  neither  spoken  nor  written 
down  for  a  general  public,  but  were  intended  only  for 
the  devotees  of  celibacy.  *  Secondly,  the  motive  which 
led  to  their  being  uttered  or  written  down  was  not  a 
desire  to  shock,  but  the  need  to  prevent  unchastity. 
Thirdly,  the  pattern  on  which  the  compilers  of  the 
Suttavibhanga  worked  was  one  of  almost  unbelievable 
detail,  for  in  their  efforts  to  be  lucid,  case  after  case 
of  possible  or  actual  deviation  from  the  general  rule 
was  investigated,  penalised  and  perpetuated.  Hence  it 
cannot  justly  be  said  that  the  tendency  to  be  detailed 
is  greater  or  more  insistent  in  one  Parajika,  or  in  one 
Sanghadisesa,  than  in  others.  Such  lack  of  restraint 
as  is  found  may  be  embarrassing  to  us,  but  it  must  be 
remembered  that  early  peoples  are  not  so  much  afraid 
of  plain  speech  as  we  are.  No  stigma  of  indecency  or 
obsQenity  should  therefore  be  attached  to  such  Vinaya 
passages  as  seem  unnecessarily  outspoken  to  us.  For 
they  were  neither  deliberately  indecent  nor  deliberately 
obscene.  The  matters  to  which  they  refer  had  to  be 
legislated  for  as  much  as  had  matters  of  theft  and  murder, 
of  choosing  sites  for  huts  and  viharas. 

Nevertheless  the  differences  in  the  outlook  of  an 
early  society  and  a  modern  one  may  easily  be  forgotten 
or  disregarded.  I  have  therefore  omitted  some  of  the 
cruder  Suttavibhanga  passages,  and  have  given  abbrevi- 
ated versions  of  others,  while  incorporating  them  in 
their  unabridged  state  in  Pali  in  an  Appendix,  and 
marking  them  by  an  asterisk  in  the  text.  Even  in 
omitting  or  expurgating  such  passages,  I  yet  think 
that  they  are  interesting  historically,  scientifically  and 
psychologically,  even  psycho-analytically,  and  that 
they  might  be  of  value  to  anyone  making  a  detailed 
comparison  of  Eastern  and  Western  Monachism. 

Of  the  various  forms  of  address  recorded  in  Vin. 
iii.,  pp.  1-194  (to  which  this  volume  of  translation 
corresponds),  the  most  frequent  are  hhagavd,  bhanie, 


xxxviii        translator's  introduction 

hho,  dyasmd,  dvuso,  ayya,  bhagini.  I  will  do  no  more 
now  than  briefly  indicate  them,  leaving  a  fuller  in- 
vestigation to  the  Introduction  to  the  final  volume, 
when  all  the  Vinaya  data  for  modes  of  address  will  be 
before  us. 

Only  Gotama  is  recorded  to  be  addressed  as  bhagavd. 
This,  therefore,  is-  a  very  honourable  term,  which  I 
have  rendered  by  "  lord." 

Bhante,  one  of  several  vocative  forms  of  bhavant,  is 
of  very  frequent  occurrence.  When  Gotama  is  addressed 
as  bhante,  I  have  used  the  rendering  ''  lord."  In  order 
to  preserve  this  appellation  for  him  alone,  when  the 
named  and  unnamed  monks  who  are  his  disciples 
are  addressed  as  bhante,  I  have  used  the  rendering 
"  honoured  sir." 

Bho  (plural  bhonto),  another  vocative  form  of  bhavant, 
appears  to  be  a  more  familiar  form  of  address  than  is 
bhante,  and  is  used  as  between  equals,  or  from  a  superior 
to  an  inferior.  It  is  of  fairly  frequent  occurrence,  some- 
times being  followed  by  another  vocative,  such  as  a 
proper  name.     I  have  translated  bho  as  "  good  sir." 

Ayasmd  is  not  a  form  of  address.  It  is  an  honorific 
designation,  and  is  the  most  usual  way  in  which  monks 
and  theras  are  referred  to  in  the  narrative,  followed 
by  their  proper  name.  I  have  translated  it  as  "the 
venerable."  Nuns  are  never  designated  by  this  term, 
nor^are  lay-people.  ; 

Avuso  may  be  said  to  be  the  habitual  mode  of  address 
used  between  monks.  The  only  other  word  that  they 
appear  to  use  in  speaking  to  one  another  is  bhante.^ 
They  are  also  recorded  to  address  laymen  as  dvuso, 
and  this  practice  is  sometimes  reversed,  although  the 
laity  seem  more  usually  to  have  said  bhante  in  speaking 

1  Franke  in  J.P.T.S.,  1908,  holds  that  the  CuUavagga  Council 
reports  were  invented  exercises  to  show  ways  of  address.  His 
argument  is  based  on  the  decree  of  D.  ii.  154,  ascribed  to  the  dying 
Gotama,  after  which  seniors  were  to  address  juniors  as  dvuso,  while 
juniors  were  to  address  seniors  as  bhante. 

_  The  terms  duso  and  bhamte  were  also  in  use  among  the  Jains,  cf. 
Ayaramgasutta  (P,T.S.  edn.),  e.g.  p.  106. 


TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION  XXXIX 

to  the  monks,  sometimes  combined  with  ayya.  I  have 
translated  dvuso  as  "  your  reverence  "  and  "  reverend 
sir."  Since  dvuso  is  masculine  in  form,  it  was  never 
used  in  addressing  nuns. 

Ayya  and  ayyo  (nom.  plural  used  as  a  voc.)  are 
frequently  used  in  speaking  of  a  person  and  in  address- 
ing him,  both  directly  and  obliquely.  It  appears  to 
be  more  flexible  than  the  other  terms  noted  above, 
both  with  regard  to  those  who  use  it  and  with  regard 
to  those  to  whom  it  is  applied.  I  have  translated  it 
as  "  master  "  if  followed  by  a  proper  name,  and  as 
**  the  master  "  if  this  is  not  the  case.  It  is  not  in- 
frequently combined  with  bhante.  Ayya  was  an  epithet 
in  use  among  the  laity,  as  well  as  between  the  laity  and 
the  monks.  But  in  the  part  of  the  Vinaya  translated 
in  this  volume  it  does  not  happen  that  a  lay-person  is 
addressed  as  ayya  by  a  monk,  or  that  any  monk  is  so 
addressed  by  a  fellow-monk. 

Although  monks  did  not  address  their  fellows  in  the 
Brahma-life  as  ayya,  nuns  use  ayye  (fem.,  "  lady, 
noble  lady  ")  in  speaking  to  one  another.  Lay  women 
also  use  this  form  of  address  in  speaking  to  nuns  and 
to  other  laywomen.  Monks,  however,  never  appear  to 
address  either  nuns  or  laywomen  a6  ayye. 

Bhagini,  "  sister,"  is  the  most  usual  way  in  which 
monks  are  recorded  to  address  both  laywomen  and 
nuns.  Yet  nuns  do  not,  as  far  as  is  recorded,  address 
one  another  as  bhagini.  Unluckily,  in  this  portion  of 
the  Vinaya  there  are  no  records  of  intercommunication 
between  nuns  and  laywomen,  so  we  get  here  no  indica- 
tion of  how  they  addressed  one  another. 

From  these  short  notes  it  will  have  emerged  that  the 
words  bhikkhu  and  bhikkhuni  do  not  occur  as  forms 
of  address  used  between  the  two  sections  of  the  religious 
community,  any  more  than  that  lay-people  address 
monks  and  nuns  with  these  terms.  On  the  other  hand, 
Gotama  is  sometimes  recorded  to  address  a  monk  as 
bhikkhu,  and  also  to  refer  to  individual  monks  in  this 
fashion.  And  there  is  a  certain  story  {Vin.  iii.  131  = 
p.  220  below)  in  which  a  female  wanderer  addresses  a 


xl  translator's  introduction 


monk  as  hhikkhu.  In  the  narrative,  monks  are  ordinarily 
spoken  of  as  bhikkhu,  unless  the  personal  name  of  the 
monk  concerned  has  been  recorded.  If  it  has,  it  is 
usually  preceded  by  dyasmd,  and  never,  I  think,  by 
bhikkhu.  On  the  other  hand,  the  narrative,  if  referring 
to  a  nun,  consistently  calls  her  bhikkhum,  and  this 
description  precedes  her  proper  name,  if  this  has  been 
recorded.  In  this  part  of  the  Suttavibhanga  there  are 
no  records  showing  Gotama  speaking  with  nuns,  so  we 
have  no  means  of  knowing  how  he  usually  addressed 
them.  When  speaking  of  them,  he  is,  however,  recorded 
to  have  used  the  word  bhikkhum. 

The  translation  of  the  term  bhikkhu  presents  many 
difficulties.  I  have  selected  the  term  "  monk,"  and 
have  rejected  "  mendicant,  almsman,  brother,  friar," 
not  necessarily  because  "  monk  "  is  the  most  literal, 
but,  for  reasons  which  I  will  state  shortly,  it  appears 
to  me  the  best  and  most  suitable  rendering. 

Although  neither  *'  monk,"  nor  the  terms  rejected, 
are  precise  equivalents  for  bhikkhu,  I  could  not  find 
sufficient  grounds  for  leaving  bhikkhu  untranslated,  as 
though  it  were  untranslatable.  Further,  I  became  more 
and  more  convinced  that  where  an  English  word  is 
possible,  where  it  coincides  to  some  extent  with  the 
significance  of  the  Pali,  although  the  known  facts  of 
history  preclude  full  identity  of  meaning,  it  is  more 
desirable  to  use  it  than  to  leave  the  word  untranslated. 
Untranslated  words  are  balking  to  the  English  reader, 
and  it  is  for  the  English  reader  that  this  series  is  primarily 
designed.  But  before  giving  the  reasons  which  deter- 
mined my  choice  of  "  monk  "  as  the  nearest  equivalent 
for  bhikkhu,  a  few  words  must  be  said  about  each  of 
the  terms  that  has  not  been  selected. 

■'Mendicant,"  literally  "  a  beggar  for  alms,"  from 
mendicare,  to  beg,  mendicus,  "  a  beggar,"  is  also  doubt- 
less etymologically  correct^  as  a  translation  of  bhikkhu. 

^  Cf.  Burnouf,  Infr.  a  VHist.  du  Buddhisme  indien,  2nd  edn., 
p.  245,  where  he  says  that  the  sense  of  the  word  bhikkhu  means 
exactly  "  one  who  lives  by  alms." 


translator's  introduction  xli 

Yet,  I  think,  it  lays  too  much  emphasis  on  one  aspect 
only  of  the  bhikkhu's  life,  and  ignores  the  other  con- 
notations of  bhikkhu  adduced  by  the  Old  Commentary,^ 
as  well  as  his  functions  of  meditation  and  preaching. 
Moreover,  in  English  it  has  no  feminine,  unless  one 
falls  back  on  the  cumbersome  "  woman  (or  female) 
mendicant,"  as  one  is  forced  to  say  "  woman  (or  female) 
slave  "  (ddst)  and  "  woman  (or  female)  recluse  "  (samam)y 
a  practice  to  be  avoided  as  far  as  possible. 

Professor  B.  M.  Barua  speaks  of  the  bhiksus  as 
"  Buddhist  mendicants,  monks  or  recluses,  "^  a  sentence 
which  well  shows  the  hesitation  which  all  translators 
must  feel  in  trying  to  translate  the  term  bhikkhu.  An 
objection  here  would  be,  though  it  is  a  fault  into  which 
we  all  fall,  that  "  Buddhist  "  is  an  anachronism,  since 
'*  Buddhist  "  and  "  Buddhism  "  are  terms  of  a  much 
later  invention.  "  Sakyan  mendicant"  would  be  pos- 
sible; and  it  is  true  that  here,  as  in  all  the  other  transla- 
tions for  bhikkhu  that  are  being  considered,  the  word 
"  Sakyan  "  is  wanted  in  all  cases  where  it  is  necessary 
to  distinguish  the  monastic  followers  of  Gotama  from 
those  adherents  of  other  sects  who  were  also  known 
as  bhiksu.  But  I  doubt  if  the  Pali  Canon  demands 
the  drawing  of  such  a  distinction,  for  in  it,  I  believe,  the 
term  bhikkhu  denotes  exclusively  the  Sakyan  bhikkhu. 
Moreover,  if  it  came  to  the  feminine,  the  phrase  "  Sakyan 
female  mendicant  "  would  be  unwieldy,  and  it  seems 
a  pity  to  use  three  words  where  two  should  suffice. 

''  Almsman  "  has  "  almswoman  "  for  its  feminine, 
and  is  further  doubtless  etymologically  correct.  For 
bhiksa  and  bhiksuh  (Skrt.)  are  the  noun  and  participle 
derived  from  the  desiderative  base  of  bhaj,  to  beg,  to 
beg  for  alms.  But  again,  like  "  mendicant,"  it  lays  too 
strong  a  stress  on  one  aspect  only  of  what  the  words 
bhikkhu  and  bhikkhunl  came  to  stand  for.  For  the 
Sakyan  bhikkhu  came  to  be  much  more  than  one  de- 
pendent on  others  for  the  necessities  of  life.     This  is 


1  Vin.  iii.  24. 

*  Maskari  as  an  Epithet  ofGosala,  Ind.  Hist.  Quart.,  iii.  2,  p.  253. 


xlii  translator's  introduction 

one  of  the  reasons  why  I  have  not  adopted  Lord 
Chalmers'  rendering  of  "  almsman  "^  here,  as  I  have 
elsewhere.^  Again,  ''  almsman "  may  not  inevitably 
mean  one  who  asks  for  or  who  lives  on  alms,  for  it 
may  also  be  used  to  mean  a  giver  of  alms.  In  addition, 
''  almsman "  would  have  a  cumbrous  translation  in 
German  and  some  other  European  languages.  Hence 
I  think  that,  as  a  possible  rendering,  it  should  be  rejected. 

"  Brother  "  is,  as  a  translation  of  hhikkhu,  historically 
incnrrect.  It  is  the  term  by  which  bhikkhu  is  rendered 
in  the  Cambridge  translation  of  the  Jatakas,  and  the 
English  title  of  the  P.T.S.'s  translation  of  the  Thera- 
gatha  reads  "  Psalms  of  the  Brethren."  Thera  is  merely 
a  bhikkhu  of  long  standing.  In  spite  of  the  recom- 
mendation for  "  brother  "  derived  from  its  use  in  these 
works,  the  advance  in  Pali  studies  since  the  date  of 
their  publication  shows  that  bhikkhu  does  not  mean 
what  "  brother  "  means.  It  might  be  argued  that  the 
term  "  brother "  draws  attention  to  the  bhikkhu' s 
relation  to  his  fellow-members  of  the  religious  com- 
munity, and  that  such  a  relation  was  explicitly  recog- 
nised, in  so  far  as  bhikkhus  addressed  the  bhikkhunls 
not  as  bhikkhuni  but  as  bhagini,  "  sister." 

Yet  against  this  argument  we  must  set  the  fact  that 
neither  Order  looked  to  anyone  or  to  any  kind  of  being 
as  their  "  father  "  or  their  "  mother."  Nor  were  the 
viharas  ruled  over  by  anyone  corresponding  to  an  abbot, 
father  or  bishop.  Power  of  authority  was  not  vested  in 
an  individual,  but  in  the  Patimokkha  courses  of  training 
and  the  Order  (Sangha)  of  monks.  All  that  can  be 
said  is,  that  the  bhikkhus  were  "  brethren "  to  the 
extent  that,  apart  from  the  three  grades  of  theras 
(Elders),  those  of  middle  standing,  and  novices,  no 
hierarchy  existed  among  them,  but  terms  of  more  or 
less  equality. 

There  is,  besides, "  another  argument,  to  my  mind 
so  insuperable  as  to  extinguish  the  claims  of  '*  brother  " 
as  in  any  way  a  suitable  term  by  which  to  render  bhikkhu. 

^  Fur.  Dial.  *  Women  under  Primitive  Buddhism. 


translator's  introduction  xliii 


For  bhdtar,  the  accepted  word  for  "  brother,"  and  one  in 
current  terminology,  was  never  apparently  regarded  as 
synonymous  with  bhikkhu,  and  indeed  never  seems  to 
have  been  connected  with  members  of  the  Order. 
These  are  never  recorded  to  address  one  another  or 
laymen  as  bhdta.  Nor  do  the  lay-people  so  address 
them.  Had  *'  brother "  been  wanted,  had  it  been 
able  to  fulfil  some  purpose  in  the  monastic  life,  surely 
bhdtar  would  have  been  used,  for  it  was  to  hand.  As  it 
is,  the  word  seems  to  have  been  restricted  in  its  use  to 
the  relationship  of  blood-brothers,^  and  even  among  the 
laity  bhdta  was  not  used  in  address,  but  tdta  (dear). 

With  this  absence  of  bhdtar  as  a  term  used  in  the 
religious  life,  it  is  curious  that  monks  used  its  opposite, 
bhaginl.  But  it  should  be  noted  that  they  addressed 
laywomen  as  well  as  nuns  as  bhagini.  Hence  the  word 
bhaginl  is  clearly  precluded  from  containing  any  unique 
reference  to  bhikkhunls.  Thus  the  two  terms,  bhaginl 
and  bhikkhunl  cannot  be  said  to  be  precisely  equivalent 
in  meaning.  The  latter  is  applicable  to  women  to  whom 
the  former  is  not  applicable.  Yet  the  implication 
remains,  if  words  mean  anything,  that  monks  regarded 
women  as  "  sisters,"  while  they  did  not  regard  men  as 
"  brothers."  There  must  be  some  historical  reason  for 
this.  I  venture  to  suggest  that  the  celibacy  to  which 
the  monk  was  consecrated  was  answerable  for  his  look- 
ing upon  women  as  bhaginl.  But  I  am  not  prepared 
to  say  that  this  is  the  whole  story,  although  I  believe 
that  it  may  be  the  root  of  the  matter.^ 

"Friar,"  although  it  has  the  English  feminine 
"  friaress,"  does  not  appear  to  me  such  an  acceptable 
rendering  for  bhikkhu  as  is  *'  monk."  It  is  true  that 
friars  are  much  more  than  mendicants  or  almsmen,  as 
a  bhikkhu  is,  or  came  to  be,'  much  more  than  one  who 
merely  begs  for  alms.  When,  in  the  West,  mendicancy 
became  symbolic  under  St.  Francis,  the  friars  were  to 


1  E.g.,  at  Thig.  408;  J  a.  i.  308. 

2  Cf.  S.  iv.  110,  where,  however,  there  is  also  mention  of  the 
mother-mind  "  and  "  daughter-mind." 


xliv  translator's  introduction 

beg,  as  other  poor  men.  The  Sakyan  bhikkhu,  too, 
had  to  beg.  Yet  the  growing  belief  that  merit  was  to 
be  acquired  by  giving  in  many  cases  inspired  the  laity 
to  give  before  they  had  been  begged.  Hence  begging 
did  not  take  such  a  high  place  in  the  duties  of  Gotama's 
Order  as  it  did  in  the  West  after  St.  Francis'  death; 
and  I  doubt  if,  in  India,  it  was  ever  symbolic. 

On  the  other  hand,  "  friar,"  being  derived  from 
f rater,  is  open  to  the  same  general  objections  as  is 
•"  brother."  Moreover,  the  Western  friar,  a  later  de- 
velopment than  the  monk,  and  with  the  monastic 
tradition  behind  him,  never  aimed  at  saving  himself. 
He  was  a  brother  to  the  whole  world,  and  went  about 
talking  to  people  at  the  wayside,  to  birds  and  animals; 
while  the  prime  concern  of  bhikkhus,  however  much 
they  may  have  preached,  was  with  the  attainment  of 
their  own  perfection. 

Having  now  considered  various  arguments  for  and 
against  mendicant,  almsman,  brother,  friar  as  transla- 
tions of  bJtikkhu,  I  will  put  forward  the  reasons  which 
led  me  to  choose  "  monk  "  for  this  term,  and  "  nun  " 
for  bhikkhuni.  It  may  be  that  only  a  profound  study 
of  Western  Monachism  could  fully  justify  or  condemn 
this  choice,  but  from  a  superficial  study  it  would  appear 
that  the  similarities  between  a  "  monk  "  and  a  bhikkhu 
outweigh  their  differences.  These  similarities  and  differ- 
ences must  be  judged  by  the  historical  associations  of 
the  two  words.  Etymological ly  they  are  not  con- 
nected. Yet  in  the  East  and  in  the  West  there  were 
these  movements,  comparable  in  a  general  way,  though 
varying  in  detail,  towards  ordering  and  organising 
religious  life  in  a  fashion  that  necessitated  its  devotees 
renouncing  their  former  modes  of  life  and  their  former 
worldly  pre-occupations. 

The  two  words,  monk  and  bhikkhu,  are  the  outcome 
of  certain  and  definite  historical  tendencies.  Because 
these  did  not  follow  the  same  course  of  development 
in  East  and  West,  the  two  words,  although  comparable 
in  meaning,  are  not  synonymous.  For  each  is  the 
expression  of  a  particular  phase  of  that  development. 


translator's  introduction  xlv 

If  this  is  borne  in  mind,  if  we  remember  that  we  are 
dealing  with  historical  variations  of  a  common  tendency, 
it  will  seem  to  us  less  remarkable  that  Western  termin- 
ology offers  no  equivalent  with  which  the  term  bhikkhu 
can  be  made  exactly  to  fit,  and  more  remarkable  that 
a  study  in  comparisons  is  as  possible  as  it  is. 

The  Western  monk,  coming  into  Europe  from  the 
East,  has,  like  the  Buddhist  bhikkhu,  a  long  and  compli- 
cated history,  and  monks  of  one  century  and  Order 
differ  considerably  from  monks  of  another  century  and 
Order.  The  word  monk  (monachus)  is  derived  frgm 
inonos,  meaning  "  alone."  For  originally  monks  aban- 
doned the  worldly  life  for  the  sake  of  that  solitude  in 
which,  by  meditation  and  contemplation,  they  could 
attempt  to  save  their  souls.  Communion  with  God 
would  enable  their  souls  to  be  entered  by  God.  Later 
the  outward  forms  of  monkdom  changed,  and  monks 
came  to  live  a  communal  life  in  convents,  observing 
the  Rule  of  the  Order  which  they  had  entered,  and  taking 
the  vows  of  poverty,  chastity  and  obedience.  It  was 
the  monk's  great  work  to  go  out  into  the  world  so  as  to 
save  men  and  to  bring  men  to  God.  A  separate  develop- 
ment, a  still  further  change  displaced  the  monk's  earlier 
ideal  of  finding  his  own  salvation  while  leading  the  life 
of  a  hermit  or  anchorite  in  the  desert.  Moreover,  as 
monasticism  developed,  century  by  century,  the  early 
communal  poverty  gave  way  to  communal  plenty. 
Monasteries  became  land-owners,  monks  became  culti- 
vators of  the  soil,  makers  of  various  kinds  of  produce, 
copyists  of  manuscripts,  storehouses  of  learning,  although 
by  none  of  these  activities  was  individual  property  or 
gain  supposed  to  result. 

Now  the  Buddhist  bhikkhu  did  not  live  alone,  but 
in  communities;  and  there  is  nothing  in  the  derivation 
of  bhikkhu  comparable  to  monos.  Bhikkhu,  bhiksu  is 
from  the  desiderative  base  of  bhaj,  to  beg,  to  beg  alms. 
On  the  other  hand,  he  did  go  into  seclusion  for  medita- 
tion during  the  "  day-sojourn  "  {divdvihdra,  cf.  siesta), 
and  sometimes  for  longer  periods  he  retreated  to  lonely 
spots  far  from  the  haunts  of  men.     And  possibly  in 


xlvi  translator's  introduction 

his  earlier  history,  as  bhiksu,  he  was  one  who  lived 
alone,  only  gradually  coming  to  live  in  a  community, 
as  the  monk  came  later  to  lead  a  cenobitic  life.  Part 
of  the  moral  duty  of  the  Buddhist  bhikkhu  was,  if  he 
had  talent  that  way,  to  go  forth  and  give  dhamma  for 
the  sake  of  devas  and  mankind.  In  this  he  resembles 
certain  Orders  of  Western  Monachism  which  had  as 
their  mission  the  salvation  of  the  world.  The  early 
Friars,  too,  did  wayside  teaching  and  preaching,  but 
later  this  was  regulated  by  authority  and  made  orthodox. 
Monks,  in  Gotama's  Order,  were  certainly  not  segre- 
gated, and  the  Vinaya  reveals  all  manner  of  inter- 
communication between  the  religious  and  the  lay 
sections  of  society. 

In  order  to  give  dhamma,  the  bhikkhu  had  to  tour  the 
countryside  for  nine  months  in  each  year.  This  would 
also  prevent  him  from  being  a  constant  drain  on  the 
resources  of  the  laity  at  any  one  place.  But  he  was 
forbidden  to  travel  during  the  three  months  of  the  rains. 
In  this  there  was  nothing  similar  to  the  Benedictine 
**  vow  of  stability,"  by  which  a  monk  undertook  to 
remain  permanently  at  one  house.  This  vow  was  im- 
posed because  wandering  ascetics  had  become  a  nuisance, 
whereas  Buddhist  monks  had  to  stay  in  one  fixed  abode 
for  the  rains,  lest  in  journeying  during  this  season  they 
should  harm  the  young  crops  or  destroy  animal  life.  A 
motive  such  as  the  latter  was  far  from  the  thoughts  of 
Western  monks,  one  of  whose  many  activities  was  to  tend 
the  crops  and  dig  the  soil.  Their  view  of  life  did  not  in- 
clude a  close  kinship  existing  between  men  and  animals, 
and  even  the  Friars,  who  spoke  to  the  animals  as  their 
"  brothers,"  did  not  suggest  that  a  man  might  be 
undergoing  rebirth  as  an  animal  {tiracchdna-gata). 

It  may  also  be  supposed  that  the  nine  months  of 
touring  was  made  obligatory  on  a  Buddhist  monk  in 
order  to  keep  him  healthy.  The  heaviest  manual  work 
he  did  was  the  washing,  bleaching  and  beating  of  his 
robes,  and  now  and  again  repairs  to  buildings.  This 
was  not  because  the  entrants  into  the  Order  were  weak, 
decrepit  or  sick.     It  was  because  the  nature  of  the 


translator's  introduction  xlvii 

beliefs  which  they  held  made  work  on  the  land  im- 
possible for  them.  In  the  West,  agriculture  and  all 
forms  of  manual  labour  were  regarded  as  essentials  in 
the  main  work.  They  served  the  further  purpose  of 
helping  the  conquest  of  the  spirit  in  its  perpetual  battle 
with  the  flesh,  and  of  sharpening  and  toughening  the 
monks  against  the  vice  of  accedia.  The  Eastern  bhikkhu 
who,  on  account  of  the  climate,  might  have  been  more 
prone  to  this  was,  I  think  it  reasonable  to  hold, 
fortified  against  sloth  and  indolence  by  the  discom- 
forts of  journeying  on  foot  (for  the  use  of  vehicles  was 
not  allowed),  no  less  than  by  preaching  and  by  spiritual 
exercises. 

The  Buddhist  bhikkhu  has  to  renounce  his  worldly 
possessions  before  he  is  ordained,  and  after  his  ordina- 
tion he  should  own  no  private  property,  but  should  regard 
his  bowl  and  robe  and  other  requisites  as  being  the 
communal  property  of  the  Order,  lent  to  him  for  his 
use.  He  should  lead  a  life  of  chastity.  He  should  be 
obedient  to  the  Patimokkha  courses  of  training.  In 
these  particulars  his  case  closely  resembles  that  of  an 
European  monk.  But,  and  here  is  a  great  difference 
between  the  Western  monk  and  the  bhikkhu,  as  under- 
stood in  the  sixth  century  B.C.  in  India:  there  were  no 
vows  for  a  Sakyan  bhikkhu  to  take.  He  did  not  make 
any  vows,  did  not  bind  himself  by  vows.  If  he  attempted 
right  behaviour,  this  was  because  his  spiritual  training 
had  led  to  the  taming  of  the  self.  But  where  this  was 
of  no  avail,  penalties  were  inflicted  and  the  discipline 
was  tightened,  sometimes  in  ways  which  left  no  loop- 
holes for  laxity. 

If  there  were  no  initial  vows,  far  less  were  there  any 
*'  final  vows,"  making  a  return  to  life  *'  in  the  world  " 
extremely  difficult,  if  not  impossible.  For  even  after 
the  second  ordination  ceremony,  the  upasampada,  a 
bhikkhu  was  able,  if  he  wished,  to  "  leave  the  Order," 
vibbhamati,  as  is  the  Vinaya  word,  and  to  "  turn  back 
to  the  low  life  of  the  layman,"  hmdyavattati,  as  is  the 
Pitakan  expression.  What  was  binding  on  the  bhikkhu 
was  the  one  rule,  the  Patimokkha,  under  which  he 


xlviii  translator's  introduction 


lived,  the  one  training  and  the  one  work,  as  the  defini- 
tion of  "  in  communion  "  at  the  end  of  each  Parajika 
rule  shows,  If  he  was  not  at  one  with  these,  he  was 
defeated  and  expelled  from  the  Order. 

A  bhikkhu  goes  for  alms,  he  begs,  sikntly,  for  alms; 
he  is  entirely  dependent  on  the  laity  for  food,  robes^ 
lodgings  and  medicine.  In  the  great  centuries  of 
Western  Monachism  monks,  far  from  being  beggars  for 
alms,  were  the  donors  of  abundant  charity.  Bhikkhus 
received  alms,  they  did  not  give  them.  If  a  bhikkhu 
received  no  kathina  cloth  at  the  time  of  its  distribution, 
he  wore  rags  taken  from  the  dust-heap.  Moreover,  a 
mark  of  the  bhikkhu  is  that  he  is  one  who  Wears  the 
patchwork  cloth  (bhinnapatadhara).  For  even  gifts  of 
robe-material  had  to  be  made  up,  not  whole,  but  in 
pieces,  symbolical  of  a  beggar's  rags.  The  "  yellow 
robes  "  of  a  bhikkhu  are  comparable  to  the  Western 
"  habit,"  the  frock  and  cowl. 

In  looking  for  points  of  contact  between  "  monks  '' 
and  bhikkhus,  their  relation  to  the  lay-followers  might 
be  adduced.  In,  for  instance,  a  Cistercian  abbey  the 
brethren  were  divided  into  the  monks  (monachi)  and 
the  lay-brothers  (conversi).  The  Buddhist  Order  had 
its  lay-followers.  But  there,  I  think,  the  similarity 
between  the  Buddhists  and  the  Cistercians  ends.  For 
the  Buddhist  lay-followers  of  the  faith,  in  supporting 
the  religious  exponents  and  answering  their  call  of 
poverty,  did  not  regard  them  as  the  means  of  transmit- 
ting their  gifts  of  charity  to  other  needy  laity.  These 
gifts  were  made  to  and  for  the  bhikkhus,  and  there  the 
matter  ended.  Nor  were  the  lay-followers  organised  as 
were  the  conversi.  They  did  not  live  in  the  viharas 
and  they  had  no  cloistral  duties  to  perform.  These 
were  executed  by  those  bhikkhus  who  had  been  duly 
appointed  to  various  offices,  such  as  that  of  food- 
distributor,  assignor  of  lodgings,  robe-distributor,  silver- 
remover,  and  so  forth,  offices  comparable  to  those  of 
almoner,  kitchener,  cellarer  of  the  Western  convent, 
and  which  in  Cistercian  abbeys  were  performed  by  the 
conversi.     The  viharas  did  not  receive  laity  as  guests; 


translator's  introduction  xlix 

they  only  received  monks  from  other  districts.  In 
Western  monasteries  the  entertainment  of  lay- visitors 
was  a  very  important  matter. 

The  wide  scope  of  meaning  compressed"  into  the  word 
bhikkhu  is  doubtless  an  indication  that  the  word  was  of 
gradual  growth,  its  significance  increasing  as  the  object 
which  it  connoted  acquired  more  and  more  aspects  and 
characteristics.  I  think  the  plain  historic  fact  is  that 
originally  bhikkhiis  were  no  more  than  "  men  of  the 
scrap-bowl."  To  this  was  added,  for  their  greater 
merit,  the  meaning  of  men  who,  besides  living  on 
begged  meats,  had  broken  away  from  this  or  that  un- 
desirable state,  and  had  assumed  various  distinguishing 
marks. 

In  spite  of  the  differences  between  bhikkhu  and  monk, 
the  affinities  between  them  seem  to  me  marked  enough 
to  warrant  translating  bhikkhu  as  "  monk."  I  have 
also  chosen  "  monk  "  for  various  other  reasons.  In 
the  first  place,  in  the  translations  of  Pali  literature 
which  have  already  appeared,  no  less  than  in  several 
books  on  Early  Buddhism,  monk  is  a  rendering  that 
has  been  commonly  adopted  for  bhikkhu.  This  word, 
therefore,  has  some  tradition  behind  it,  and  hence  will 
not  arrest  the  reader's  attention  with  a  sense  of  un- 
familiarity.  Secondly,  in  deciding  upon  the  nearest 
English  equivalent  for  bhikkhu,  I  had  to  take  into 
account  the  fact  that  an  easy  feminine  form  would 
be  required.  "  Nun  "  is  a  very  convenient  translation 
for  bhikkhum,  and  has,  moreover,  equivalents  in  other 
European  languages.  This  is  not  a  negligible  point 
when  comparing  translations.  Another  reason  for  the 
choice  of  "  monk  "  was  that,  in  the  period  of  Indian 
history  under  review,  this  word  necessitates,  in  the  last 
resort,  the  drawing  of  a  distinction  merely  between  the 
Sakyan  monk  and  the  Jain  monk.  Each  of  the  other 
possible  terms — almsman,  mendicant,  friar^ — might  be 
applicable  to  the  disciples  of  other  sects;  but  these 
could  hardly  be  termed  "  monks." 

^  "  Brother  "  is  hardly  possible,  as  I  have  tried  to  show  above. 

d 


1  translator's  introduction 

The  tremendous  growth  in  the  meanings  and  associa- 
tions of  both  "  monk  "  and  bhikkhu  clearly  shows  that 
in  some  cases  it  is  impossible  for  the  history  of  words 
to  be  contained  in  their  etymology.  I  mention  this 
tendency  for  words  to  grow  and  change,  a  tendency 
not  of  course  peculiar  to  these  two  terms,  simply  to 
remind  the  reader  that  etymology  is  not  an  infallible 
guide  to  the  developed  meaning  of  terms.  By  the  time 
the  objects  that  such  terms  denote  have  passed  through 
several  phases,  their  historical  meaning,  their  signifi- 
cance in  and  for  history,  may  have  come  to  be  more 
than  their  etymological  meaning  indicates,  diiferent 
from  it,  even  the  very  reverse  of  it.  The  most  that 
etymology  can  do  in  such  cases  is  to  point  to  the  mean- 
ings that  the  words  once,  very  likely  originally,  possessed. 
This  is  of  undoubted  importance.  But  to  translate 
them  according  to  that  meaning,  and  without  a  due 
regard  for  the  known  facts  of  their  evolution,  would 
be  grossly  to  neglect  the  significance  that  they  came  to 
acquire  as  a  result  of  their  historical  development. 

In  rendering  samana  by  *'  recluse  "  I  am  adopting 
what  has  come  to  be  a  fairly  usual  translation.  I  am 
aware  that  it  is  a  far  from  happy  one.  It  has  no 
feminine  form  in  English;  its  connotation  of  being 
segregated  and  living  in  isolation  is  misleading.  For 
the  Sakyan  samanas  were  not  segregated,  in  the  sense 
of  being  confined  within  the  vihara  precincts  and 
forbidden  to  mix  with  the  laity.  They  were  restricted 
from  following  worldly  occupations,  for  it  was  held 
that  these  should  be  given  up  when  a  man  or  woman 
went  forth  from  the  household  state.  But  the  Sakyan 
samanas  were  in  no  way  anchorites  or  hermits.  Nor 
do  I  think  "  ascetic  "^  a  particularly  suitable  rendering. 
For  nowhere  is  asceticism,  as  understood  in  the  West, 
made  of  importance  in  Pali  literature.  The  chief 
asceticism  which  it  recognises  is  a  taming,  a  training 
(damatha,  from  the  root  dam),  the  restraint  of  evil  deeds, 


1  E.g.,  E.  J.  Thomas,  Histonj  of  Buddhist  Thought,  72,  82,  89. 


translator's  introduction  li 

thoughts  and  words.  Thus,  although  "  ascetic  "  may, 
etymologically,  be  more  correct  than  "  recluse,"  unless 
the  Sakyan  meaning  of  asceticism  be  thoroughly  under- 
stood, and  its  Western  connotations  of  bodily  mortifica- 
tions and  austerities  be  dispelled,  "  recluse "  comes 
nearer  to  the  Pali  than  does  *'  ascetic."  For  there 
were  times  when  the  samanas  went  into  seclusion  for 
meditation.  There  are,  besides,  other  words  in  Pali, 
such  as  tdpasa,  literally  burning,  which  more  definitely 
connote  an  ascetic. 

Mrs.  Rhys  Davids  says  that  "  monk  "  is  our  nearest 
word^  to  samana,  although  she  also  puts  forward  another 
word,  namely  "  retreater,"^  which  perhaps  is  the  best 
in  the  sense  of  preserving  the  history  buried  in  the  word 
samana,  sramana.  Doubtless  "  monk  "  could  have  been 
used  for  samana,  had  this  word  not  been  selected  as 
the  most  appropriate  for  bhikkhu.  For  from  internal 
evidence,  not  only  of  the  Suttavibhanga  but  of  other 
parts  of  the  Canon  and  the  Commentaries,^  it  would 
appear  that  the  Sakyan  satnana  was  to  all  intents  and 
purposes  regarded  as  much  the  same  as  the  Sakyan 
bhikkhu.  The  difference  came  to  be  more  in  the  name 
than  in  the  object,  and  may  even  have  depended  more 
on  the  person  who  used  the  term  than  on  the  person 
of  whom  it  was  used.  This,  in  its  turn,  may  depend 
on  some  earlier  aspects  of  the  history  of  the  two  terms. 

The  word  samana  is  not  used  as  a  direct  form  of 
address  in  the  portion  of  the  Suttavibhanga  here  trans- 
lated. The  brahmin  of  Veraiija,  before  he  became  a 
lay-follower,  does  not  address  Gotama  as  samana, 
although  in  speaking  to  him  he  uses  this  word  of  him 
(Vin.  iii.  2=p.  2  below);  and  Gotama,  in  this  same 
conversation,  is  recorded  to  apply  the  term  to  himself. 

*  Birth  of  Indian  Psychology,  p.  185;  and  c/".  her  Outlines  of  Bud- 
dhism, pp.  62,  65. 

2  Buddhism,  Home  Univ.  Lib,,  new  edn.,  p.  198. 

*  Canonical  references  very  frequent.  Comys,  see,  e.g.,  A  A.  iii. 
156  (Siamese  edn.),  hhikkhu  kanhddhimuttikd  ti  samana  nam'  eie; 
and  MA.  ii.  4,  where  samanas  are  explained  as  those  on  the  four 
ways  to  arahantshij),  thus  being  identified  with  hhikkhus. 


lii 


TRANSLATOR  S   INTRODUCTION 


The  schismatics  also  refer  to  Gotama  in  this  way 
(Vin.  iii.  171,  172=pp.  296  ff.  below),  but  not  in  his 
presence.  Monks  are  not  recorded  to  address  one  another 
in  this  way,  nor  do  the  nuns  employ  the  feminine  samani 
(voc.)  when  speaking  to  one  another,  nor  the  nomina- 
tive samani  in  speaking  of  one  another.  The  laity,  on 
the  other  hand,  are  sometimes  recorded  to  speak  of  a 
particular  monk  by  his  personal  name,  coupled  with  the 
appellation  samana,  such  as  samana  Uddyi  (Vin. 
iii.  120= p.  200  below).  They  also  refer,  so  it  is  said, 
to  monks  as  samana,  whether  they  admired  them  {Vin. 
iii.  11 9  =  p.  200  below)  or  were  vexed  with  them  (Vin.  iii. 
120= p.  200  below).  ^ 

The  curious  thing  is  that  the  negative  forms,  asamdno, 
asamam,  occur  quite  often  as  terms  of  reproach,  and 
meaning  "  not  a  true  recluse."  On  different  occasions 
lay-people  and  monks  are  recorded  to  have  reprimanded 
a  monk  for  his  bad  behaviour  by  saying  asamxino  'si 
tvam,  ''  you  are  not  a  (true)  recluse."  A  nun  is  re- 
corded to  have  rebuked  another  nun  in  the  single  phrase 
asamam  'si  tvam.  This  was  evidently  such  a  serious 
reproach  as  to  send  the  person  rebuked  to  Gotama  to 
receive  his  verdict  on  the  oifence  committed  or  imputed, 
as  the  case  may  have  been.  If  the  action  performed 
by  the  monk  or  nun  in  question  is  found  by  him  to  be 
blameworthy,  one  of  the  words  of  censure  put  into  his 
mouth  is  always  assdmanaka,  "  not  worthy  of  a  recluse, 
not  belonging  to  a  recluse  "  (e.g.,  Vin.  iii.  24= p.  43 
below). 

A  common  designation  of  the  monastic  followers  of 
Gotama  was  samana  Sakyaputtiyd,  recluses  (lit.  sons  of 
the)  Sakyans,  or  Sakyan  recluses.  This  was  also  used 
of  them  by  the  laity  (e.g.,  Vin.  iii.  43,  136,  172=pp.  67, 
234,  299  below),  including  those  occasions  where  the 
monks  had  given  them  cause  for  complaint  (Vin. 
iii.  44,  73,  119=pp.  70,  125,  200  below).  In  each 
definition  that  it  gives  of  pdrdjika,  the  Old  Commentary 
invariably  states  that  the  errant  bhikkhu  is  become  one 
who  is  not  a  samana,  not  a  Sakyajmttiya.  These  two 
words,    asamana    and    asakyaputtiya,    are    sometimes 


translator's  introduction  liii 

used  together  in  other  passages  as  terms  of  abuse 
(Vin.  iii.  164  f. =283  below).  It  may  also  be  noted 
that,  as  the  monastic  disciples  of  Gotama  were  called 
saynand  Sakyaputtiyd,  so  *  the  followers  of  Mahavira 
were  called,  even  in  the  Pali  canon,^  samand  Niganthd, 
or  to  be  exact,  niganthd  ndma  samanajdtikd,  a  kind  of 
recluse  called  niganthas  (Jains). 

If  the  Sakyan  samana  came  to  correspond  with  the 
Sakyan  bhiJckhu  on  the  one  side,  on  the  other  he  came 
to  correspond  with  brdhmana,  brahmin,  in  the  meaning 
of  this  term  as  it  grew  into  Sakya,  and  also  into  Jain- 
ism. ^  For  the  fact  that  samana  often  appears  in 
combination  with  brdhmana  ih  Pali  canonical  litera- 
ture does  not  there,  I  think,  necessarily  imply  any 
opposition  between  the  two,  any  more  than  it  does  in 
Jaina  literature.^  According  to  Professor  B.  M.^Barua,* 
there  were  various  sects  or  groups  or  schools  of  Sramana 
who  broke  away  from  the  ''  later  form  of  Brahmanic 
religion,  superstition  and  mysticism."  So  far  there 
was  opposition.  But  by  the  time  that  the  Sakya- 
puttiyas  were  known  as  samanas,  the  term  brdhmana 
was  also  being  incorporated  into  Sakyan  usage,  and  was 
there  receiving  a  new  meaning. 

While  brahmins  as  a  class  remained,  brahmins  by 
birth  and  occupation,  brahmins  forming  sects  of 
ascetics,  living  by  various  rules,  the  word  brdhmana 
was  developing  for  Sakya  the  meaning  of  the  best,  the 
highest  person,  not  because  of  birth  and  lineage,  but 
because  of  spiritual  endeavour  and  attainment.  To  this, 
samana  in  public  opinion  was  evidently  equivalent. 
Had  not  the  two  words  come  to  have  some  identity  of 
meaning,  not  exactly  the  same  things  would  have  been 


1  A.  i.  206. 

2  Jaina  Sutras,  ii.  p.  138  (ed.  Jacobi,  S.B.E.  xlv.):  "  He  who  has 
no  worldly  attachment  after  entering  the  Order,  who  does  not  repent 
of  having  become  a  monk  .  .  .  him  we  call  a  Brahmana."  Again 
at  p.  422:  "  The  sama^jias  or  brahmanas  who  say  thus  ...  do  not 
speak  as  samanas  or  Nigranthas." 

^  Cf.  Jaina  Sutras,  ii.  p.  140,  and  last  note. 

*  Pre-Buddhisiic  Indian  Philosophy,  p.  242.     See  also  p.  237  ff. 


liv  translator's  introduction 


said  of  them  both,  as  is  the  case  in  a  formula  occurring 
now  and  again  in  this  part  of  the  Suttavibhahga 
(e.g.,  Vin.  iii.  44,  120=pp.  70,  200  below).  On  the 
other  hand,  the  words  samana  and  brdhmana  occur  in 
two  other  sentences  at  Vin.  iii.  44,  once  separated  by 
the  disjunctive  vd  (or),  once  forming  a  compound.  It 
is  possible  that  some  divergence  between  the  two  is 
intended  here,  as  perhaps  referring  to  members  of  diff- 
erent sects;  in  which  case  the  two  words  would  not  be 
substitutes  or  synonyms  for  one  another.^ 

I  have  left  brdhmana  in  its  anglicised  form  of  brahmin. 
The  time  is  perhaps  not  yet  ripe  to  draw  an  infallible 
distinction  between  brahmins  as  members  of  a  sect  op- 
posed to  Sakya,  and  brahmins  as  men,  as  monks,  who 
had  attained,  or  who  had  failed  to  attain,  some  of  the 
ethical  attributes  and  mental  development  inculcated 
by  Sakya.  A  verse  in  the  Dhammapada  clearly  identi- 
fies the  three,  for  it  ends:  so  brdhmano  so  samano  sa 
bhikkhu  (ver.  142).  To  differentiate  between  the  Sakyan 
and  non-Sakyan  uses  of  brdhmana,  as  this  word  occurs 
in  the  Pali  canon,  would  be  to  emphasise  the  new  mean- 
ing which,  under  Sakya,  accrued  to  brdhmana,  as  a 
word  adopted  from  earlier  times. 

For  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  three  terms — bhikkhu, 
brdhmana  and  samana — were,  in  their  Sanskrit  forms  of 
bhiksu,  brdhmana,  sramana,  already  in  the  terminology 
of  pre-Sakyan  days.^  Each  word  will  therefore  have 
some  pre-Sakyan  history,  even  though  this  is,  in  many 
respects,  still  obscure.  Brdhmana  is  of  course  a  term 
of  enormously  long  and  complicated  history,  of  in- 
disputable antiquity.  Professor  B.  M.  Barua  says^  that 
"  sramanas  became  known,  perhaps  from  the  practice 
of  begging,  as  bhiksus  (mendicants)."  And  referring 
to  a  passage  in  the  Anguttara  Commentary,  he  further 
points  out  that  '*  by  the  bhiksus  must  have  been  meant 

^  On  Samanas  see  B.  M.  Barua,  loc.  cit.,  and  Ratilal  Mehta,  Asceti- 
cism in  Pre-Bvddhist  Days,  Ind.  Culture,  iii.  4. 

2  Cf.  interesting  Jaina  tradition  tliat  Mahavira's  parents  were 
followers  of  the  sramanas,  S.B.E.  xxii.,  p.  194. 

*  History  of  Pre-Buddhist  Philosophy,  p.  240. 


translator's  introduction  Iv 


the  members  of  the  fourth  Brahmanic  order,  that  is, 
the  Brahmanist  ascetics  in  the  fourth  stage  of  efforts 
and  fruitions  who  are  designated  Bhiksu,  Yati  or  Pari- 
vrajaka  in  the  Dharma-Stitras  and  the  Dharma-Sastras."^ 
It  is  worth  while  to  mention  that,  according  to  Jacob's 
Concordance,  in  the  early  Up^nisads,  §ramana  appears 
but  once,2  hrdhmana  many  times,  and  bhiksu  not  at  all. 
Sramana  occurs,  however,  in  the  Satapatha  Brahmana. 

If  bhikkhu  were  equivalent  in  fact  to  samana,  and  if 
this  were,  on  some  occasions  at  least,  equivalent  to  the 
Sakyan  usage  of  hrdhmana,  it  is  not  difficult  to  see 
why  the  life  of  monks  continued  to  be  called  brahma- 
cariya  under  Sakya.'  But  as  the  most  suitable  transla- 
tion of  brahma  has  still  to  be  decided  upon,  when  it 
occurs  in  the  compounds  brahmacariya  and  brahmacdrin, 
I  have  left  it  untranslated. 

All  the  same  I  think  there  is  little  doubt  that  in  the 
words  in  which  Grotama  first  sent  monks  out  on  tour 
to  preach  to  devas  and  men,  brahmacariya  meant  the 
perfect,  the  best,  the  highest  life.  At  some  later  time 
it  was  defined  as  "  refraining  from  unchastity,"*  while 
in  another  Suttavibhanga  passage  it  is  defined  as 
**  monkdom,  dhamma  of  recluses,  the  aggregates  of 
morality,  the  quality  of  austerity."*  The  difficulty  is 
to  determine  what  was  meant  by  the  "  best  life." 
Whether  at  one  time  brahma,  as  part  of  the  compound 
brahmacariya,  may  not  have  possessed  the  deep  and 
essential  meaning  of  the  All,  the  All-Real,  the  Highest 
that  it  possessed  in  the  Upanisadic  teaching  is  as  yet 
a  matter  of  controversy.  I  find  it  hard  to  believe  that 
Sakya  arose  either  in  ignorance  of  this  teaching  or  un- 
influenced by  it.  And  even  if,  as  seems  highly  probable, 
brahmxicariya  and  brahmacdrin  are  words  taken  over  by 
Sakya  (and  Jainism)  from  pre-Sakyan  sects,  it  has  still 

^  Maskarl  as  an  Epithet  of  Gosdla,  Ind,  Hist.  Quart.,  iii.  2,  p.  254. 

2  Bihad.  4,  3,  22. 

^  See  Dial.  i.  212-215.     The  word  brahmacdrin  occurs  once  in  the 
Rg-Veda  in  the  (later)  Mandala,  x.,  ver.  109. 
'  *  E.g.,  Vin.  iii.  133=p.  225  below.     Cf.  S.  i.  38. 

5  Vin.  iii.  164=p.  282  below. 


Ivi  translator's  introduction 


to  be  established  that  for  these  brahma  did  not  contain 
some  profound  philosophical  or  religious  significance. 

Besides  hrahmacariya  and  brahmacdrin,  I  have  left 
untranslated  two  other  words  of  great  importance. 
These  are  dhamma  and  tathdgata. 

Dhamma  is  a  word  whose  meaning  appears  to  vary- 
in  varying  contexts.  It  may  mean  something  like  what 
we  should  call  "  conscience,"  that  which  should  be  done, 
in  one  passage;  the  externalised  body  of  doctrine,  in 
another;  fashion,  act  {etena  dhammena,  Vin.  iii.  133  = 
p.  225  below),  in  a  third.  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids  has  written 
at  some  length  on  the  meaning  of  dhamma  in  her  later 
works,  to  which  I  now  refer  the  reader. 

Anesaki,  in  his  essay  on  Tathdgata,^  closely  connects 
the  notion  of  tathdgata  with  that  of  dhamma,  but  he 
comes  no  nearer  to  a  conclusive  translation  of  tathdgata 
than  do  others.  For  the  very  ambiguity  of  its  derivation' 
precludes  any  definitive  meaning.  This  being  the  case, 
and  because  Anesaki  has  virtually  shown  that  no 
empirical  investigations  of  the  uses  of  the  term  can 
bring  us  near  to  a  meaning  fixed  once  and  for  all,  we 
must  regard  tathdgata  as  a  term  best  left  untranslated. 
I  give  here  four  ways  in  which  it  might  be  rendered: 

(1)  the  one  thus-gone,  or  thus-going  (tathd-gata),  since 
gata  may  be  taken  as  a  present  as  well  as  a  past  participle ; 

(2)  the   one  thus-come,  -or  thus-coming   (tathd-dgata); 

(3)  the  truth-finder,  used  by  Lord  Chalmers  in  Further 
Dialogues,   as  the  result   of  empirical  considerations; 

(4)  the  Way-farer,  a  rendering  suggested  by  Mrs.  Rhys 
Davids,^  and  used  by  F.  L.  Woodward  in  Gradual 
Sayings,  V.^  In  Pali  literature  the  term  is  not  applied 
exclusively  to  Gotama  himself. 

If  the  meaning  of  words  is  liable  to  vary  in  different 
contexts,  it  is  wiser  and  less  misleading  not  to  translate 
those  words  until  there  has  been  some  further  advance 
in  Pali  criticism  and  interpretation. 

1  Katam  Karamyam,  Tokyo,  1934,  p.  240  if. 

2  Sahja,  pp.  67-68,  381;  Manual  of  Buddhism,  p.  116. 

8  See  G.  S,  v.  xiii;  Verses  of  Uplift,  S.B.B.  viii.,  p.  81,  n.  2. 


translator's  introduction  Ivii 

Deva,  devatd  smd  yakkha  are  other  words  that  I  have 
not  translated.  This  is  partly  because  the  nature  of 
these  beings  has  not  yet  been  fully  investigated  or 
established;  and  partly  because  the  little  we  do  know 
of  them  leads  us  to  suppose  that  they  represent  kinds  of 
beings  for  whom  in  English  there  are  no  acceptable 
equivalents.  For  example,  in  canonical  Pali,  devas  are 
no  longer  "  gods,"  as  they  were  in  the  Vedic  age;  nor 
are  they  ''  angels."^  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids  has  suggested 
that  they  were  "  brave  and  pious  gentlemen  who  have 
passed  as  '  devas  '  to  the  next  world  only  to  come 
back  one  day  as  men."^  There  is  no  doubt  that 
these  three  classes  of  being  are  regarded  as  having  a 
close  contact  with  the  world  of  men.  The  word  deva 
is  often  coupled  with  manussa,  men,  people  (e.g.,  Vin. 
iii.  1).  The  earth-devas  are  recorded  to  have  heard 
of  Sudinna's  lapse,  and  to  have  communicated  it  to 
the  other  groups  of  devas  (Vin.  iii.  18 =p.  33  below).  It 
is  told  how  a  devatd  (fem.)  belonging  to  Mara's  retinue 
came  and  encouraged  Migalandika  for  having  deprived 
the  monks  of  life  (Vin.  iii.  69=p.  118  below). 

Neither  do  yakkhas  seem  far  removed  from  the  human 
sphere.  Words  like  "  fairies,  sprites  or  goblins  "  do 
not  accord  at  all  well  with  the  Indian  way  of  thinking. 
There  are  the  predatory  yakkhas  (or  yakkhas  in  the  form 
of  beasts  of  prey)  who  killed  some  monks,  and  there  is 
the  story  of  the  exorcist  monk  who  deprived  a  yakkha 
of  life  (Vin.  iii.  84= p.  146  below).  A  monk  is  recorded 
to  have  had  sexual  intercourse  with  a  yakkhinl  (Vin. 
iii.  37= p.  56  below),  although  the  Old  Commentary 
does  not  include  this  type  of  being  among  mdtugdma, 
women-kind  (e.g.,  Vin.  iii.  121  =p.  202  below).  It 
defines  mdtugdma  as  manussitthi,  human  women,  and 
carefully  and  deliberately  excludes  yakkhls,  petis  and 
female  animals. 

Where  the  word  peta,  and  the  feminine  peti,  occur 
I  have  used  the  translation  suggested  by  Mrs.  Rhys 

1  A.  Coomaraswamy,  A  New  Approach  to  the  Vedas,  p.  60  ff. 
^  Manual  of  Buddhism^  p.  92. 


Iviii  translator's  introduction 


Davids^  of  "  departed  one."  It  appears  that  jpetas, 
departed  ones,  those  who  have  gone  on,  gone  before, 
were  regarded  as  still  endowed  with  life,  and  able  to 
speak  to  men.  There  is  the  story  of  the  body,  inhabited 
by  the  joe^a  (Fm.  iii.  58=p.  97  below),  which  rose  up 
in  the  cemetery,  by  what  the  Commentary  calls  "  the 
feta's  own  power,"  and  pursued  a  monk,  asking  him 
not  to  remove  his  outer  cloak  from  him.  It  is  also 
curious  that  it  was  thought  possible  for  a  monk  to 
commit  an  offence  with  petls,  and  that  although  an 
offence  committed  with  petis,  yakkhinls  and  ndgis 
(female  serpents  ?)  is  as  grave  in  nature  as  one  committed 
with  a  human  woman,  these  beings  are  excluded  from 
the  Old  Commentary's  definition  of  "  woman-kind." 
It  almost  looks  as  if  a  peta  means  one  who  is  quite 
recently  dead,  and  whose  mind  and  spirit  still  have 
power  over  the  body,  being  not  yet  entirely  dissociated 
from  it. 

I  think  that  what  emerges  most  clearly  from  the 
Vinaya  references  to  devas,  devatds,  yakkhas  and  petaSy 
is  that  there  is  a  non-human  world  (cf.  amanussagdma 
at  iii.  46= p.  74  below)  whose  various  denizens  penetrate 
the  human  world  and  participate  in  the  aifairs  of  men, 
as  their  counterparts  are  thought  to  do  in  India,  Burma 
and  Ceylon  at  the  present  day. 

Where  names  of  weights,  measures  and  mediums  of 
exchange  occur,  I  have  left  them  untranslated,  and  have 
given  notes.  All  attempts  to  correlate  English  words 
to  these  would  be  wholly  misleading,  and  would  conjure 
up  a  set  of  wrong  ideas. 

Amongst  the  store  of  incidental  knowledge  that  this 
part  of  the  Vinaya  brings  to  light,  it  should  be  noted 
that  the  word  nibbdna  occurs  only  twice,  each  time 
in  the  same  stereotyped  formula  (iii.  20,  lll=pp.  35, 
1 94  below) .  I  have  translated  it  as  "  waning. ' '  Nothing 
more  can  be  safely  deduced  from  its  virtual  absence 


Indian  Religion  and  Survival,  p.  35 ;  and  cf.  p.  59. 


translator's  introduction  lix 


than  the  concentration  of  this  portion  of  the  Sutta- 
vibhanga  on  outward  morality,  on  forms  of  behaviour 
to  be  regulated  and  guided  by  an  external  standard 
rather  than  by  an  appeal  to  the  inner  conscience,  the 
inner  morality  which,  in  the  India  of  the  sixth  century 
B.C.,  was  held  to  be  immanent  in  man. 

Besides  this  piece  of  negative  information,  a  good 
many  positive  details,  mostly  concerning  contemporary 
manners  and  customs,  are  brought  to  light  in  this  part 
of  the  Suttavibhariga.  There  is,  for  example,  mention 
of  .the  punishments  that  a  king  could  mete  out  to  a 
thief,  while  there  emerges  the  very  fact  that  a  king 
meted  them  out  (Tin.  iii.  46  =  72,  73  below);  mention 
of  some  of  the  kinds  of  ornaments  used  (Vin.  iii.  48, 
180=pp.  75  f.,  314  below);  some  of  the  kinds  of  games 
played  {Vin.  iii.  180=p.  316  below);  the  sort  of  food- 
stuffs in  common  consumption ;  various  kinds  of  animals, 
birds,  insects,  plants  and  flowers  {Vin.  iii.  48,  49,  52, 
58=ppi  79,  80,  87,  98  below);  there  is  mention  of  the 
existence  of  customs'  frontiers  and  customs'  houses 
{Vin.  iii.  52,  62=:pp,  86,  104  below);  smuggling,  kid- 
napping of  children,  the  kind  of  treatment  given  by 
monks  to  their  ill  comrades;  there  is  evidence  for  the 
belief  that  trees  may  be  inhabited  by  conscious  beings ; 
and  there  is  the  indication  that  Indians,  then  as  now, 
appear  to  have  no  difficulty  in  dying  at  will.  I  have 
nothing  to  add  to  Rhys  Davids'  and  Oldenberg's 
remarks  on  the  knowledge  and  use  of  writing^  at  the 
time  of  the  compilation  of  t^e  Vinaya. 

The  following  authorities,  including  the  late  Professor 
E.  J.  Rapson,  kindly  helped  me  on  the  difficult  point 
of  finding  a  translation  for  the  term  bhikkhu;  their 
letters  were  most  interesting,  while  showing  a  consider- 
able diversity  of  opinion.  I  have  much  pleasure  in 
tendering  my  thanks  to  all  their  writers:  to  Professor 
J.  Przyluski,  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids,  Professor  Otto  Schrader, 
Professor  Helmer  Smith  and  Professor  F.  W.  Thomas. 
Above  all,  I  should  like  to  express  my  gratitude  to  my 

1  Vin.  Texts,  i.  xxii  if. 


Ix  translator's  introduction 

friend,  Miss  A.  M.  Cooke,  for  her  illuminating  conversa- 
tions on  the  Western  monk.  It  remains  for  me  to 
thank,  especially  and  most  sincerely,  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids 
for  entrusting  the  translation  of  the  Vinaya  to  me,  for 
her  many  rewarding  suggestions,  and  for  the  help  that 
she  has  generously  bestowed  upon  the  preparation  of 
this  volume. 

An  asterisk  in  the  text  denotes  that  the  word  or 
passage  beside  which  it  appears  is  given  in  full  in  Pali 
in  the  Appendix. 

The  page  numbers,  given  in  square  brackets  in  the 
text,  and  corresponding  to  Oldenberg's  page  numbers 
of  his  edition  of  the  Vinayapitaka^ane  placed,  not  at 
the  beginning  of  the  pages  to  which  the  translation 
corresponds,  but  at  the  end.  This  has  been  done  in 
order  to  introduce  a  certain  consistency,  for  all  Vinaya 
numbering — of  section,  sub-section  and  paragraph — is 
placed  at  th'e  end. 

I.  B.  HORNER. 
Manchester,  1938. 


EDITORIAL   NOTE 

At  the  translator's  request  I  say  here  a  few  words. 
Words  of  valediction  for  a  work  which  is  a  genuine 
labour  of  love.  Result  though  it  be  of  strenuous, 
unfaltering  research,  the  translation  of  an  ancient 
thesaurus  of  monastic  legality,  as  is  the  Pali  Vinaya 
Pitaka,  is  not  of  the  class  we  call  "  best  seller."  Labour 
and  printing  costs  have  been  alike  undertaken  by  my 
friend  and  colleague,  the  translator.  And  I  am  not 
a  little  proud  to  think  that  a  book  which  my  husband 
helped,  in  his  early  efforts,  to  bring  in  part  before 
European  readers,  should  now  receive  my  blessing  in 
its  first  complete  form  after  this  interval  of  over  half 
a  century. 

It  may  interest  some  to  learn,  as  to  that  translation 
in  part,  how  the  two  translators  divided  the  work. 
For  living  in  different  countries,  each  translating  in 
his  leisure  moments,  there  seems  to  have  been  (more's 
the  pity  !)  very  little  if  any  collaboration.  No  corre- 
spondence survives  revealing  that  any  took  place. 
On  the  fly-leaf  of  Vol.  I.  of  Vinaya  Texts,  Sacred  Books 
of  the  East,  XIII.,  there  stands  in  Rhys  Davids' 
handwriting  the  following:  "  Of  the  work  I  have 
translated  the 

Patimokkha  i.  1-90. 

Mahavagga  v.  and  vi.  22;  ii,  1-81.     80  pp. 

vi.  32--vii.  3.    43  pp. 

viii.  12-32.     49  pp. 
Cullavagga  i.-iii.     120  pp. 

iv.  1-12  (the  whole  vohime).      440  pp. 

Total:  800  pp.  out  of  1230  pp. 

The  rest,  as  is  well  known,  was  the  work  of  that  fastidi- 
ously careful  scholar,  Hermann  Oldenberg." 

As  she  has  stated  in  her  Introduction,  Isaline  Horner 
begins  her  translation  at  the  beginning,  as  Oldenberg  did 

Ixi 


Ixii  EDITORIAL   NOTE 


laot,  in  his  edition  of  the  Pali  text,  published  shortly 
before  the  birth  of  the  Pali  Text  Society.  The  S.B.E. 
translation  was  a  large  selection,  not  the  complete  work. 

In  the  Vinaya,  taking  it  by  and  large,  we  have 
the  records  of  a  great  effort,  put  forth  by  the  culture 
of  North  India  during  the  sixth  to  the  third  century 
B.C.,  to  "get  rich  quickly"  in  things,  not  of  worldly 
experience,  but  of  man's  spiritual  fortune.  The  idea, 
in  monasticism,  was  that  the  man,  in  striving  to  become 
a  More  than  his  worldly  fellows,  could  best  do  so  by 
making  his  life  here  a  Less.  By  cutting  out  a  great 
part  of  what  our  poets  have  called  "  life  in  the  whole,'' 
it  was  judged  he  would,  by  living  a  simplified  remainder, 
progress  much  faster.  Progress,  that  is,  towards  that 
waning  out  of  repeated  spans  of  life  as  he  knew  it  here, 
or  heard  of  it  in  the  next  world  or  worlds. 

This  is  surely  to  misunderstand  life  as  we  find  it. 
An  enemy  army  is  not  conquered  by  its  being  attacked 
in  one  section  only.  The  monk  admitted  that  he  bore 
his  enemy  about  with  him  in  body  and  mind.  And  to 
shelter  body  and  mind  from  opportunities  of  efforts 
towards  a  Better,  such  as  life  in  its  fulness  alone  could 
afford,  was  no  sound  method  of  seeking  to  grow.  Man 
is  but  a  less  if  he  shirk  much  of  life.  Not  along  such 
lines  does  the  Hand  draw  him  which 

aufond  de  V ideal  fait  signe. 

It  is  doubtless  true  that  the  withdrawn  life  is  not  only 
good  at  times,  but  may,  there  or  then,  be  necessary  for 
the  student.  But  I  do  not  find  this  need  expressing 
itself  in  Buddhist  monastic  literature  as  a  motive  for 
leaving  the  world.  I  may  be  wrong,  and  shall  welcome 
correction.  For  the  history  of  monasticism,  especially 
of  monasticism  in  what  was  perhaps  its  cradle,  has  yet 
to  be  written.  And  a  complete  translation  of  the 
Vinaya  Pitaka  will  bring  such  a  work  nearer  the  day 
when  it  can  be  written. 

C.  A.  F.  RHYS  DAVIDS. 


CONTENTS 


PAGE 


Translator's  Introduction  -            -  -  -  v 

Editorial  Note         -            -            -  -  -  Ixi 

Defeat  (Parajika)  I.             -            -  -  -  1 

Defeat  (Parajika)  II.           -             -  -  -  64 

Defeat  (Parajika)  III.         -            -  -  -  116 

Defeat  (Parajika)  IV.          -            -  -  -  151 

Formal  Meeting  (Sarighadisesa)  I.  -  -  -  192 

Formal  Meeting  (Sahghadisesa)  II.  -  -  199 

Formal  Meeting  (Sanghadisesa)  III.  -  -  214 

Formal  Meeting  (Sarighadisesa)  IV.  -  -  222 

Formal  Meeting  (Sarighadisesa)  V.  -  -  229 

Formal  Meeting  (Sarighadisesa)  VI.  -  -  246 

Formal  Meeting  (Sarighadisesa)  VII.  -  -  266 

Formal  Meeting  (Sarighadisesa)  VIII.  -  -  271 

Formal  Meeting  (Sarighadisesa)  IX.  -  -  288 

Formal  Meeting  (Sarighadisesa)  X.  -  -  296 

Formal  Meeting  (Sarighadisesa)  XL  -  -  301 

Formal  Meeting  (Sarighadisesa)  XII.  -  -  309 

Formal  Meeting  (Sarighadisesa)  XIII.  -  -  314 

Undetermined  (Aniyata)  I.             -  -  -  330 

Undetermined  (Aniyata)  II.           -  -  -  336 

Appendix  of  Untranslated  Passages  -  -  341 

Indexes : 

1.  Words  and  Subjects   -            -  -  -  348 

2.  Names             -            -            -  -  -  355 

3.  Some  Pali  Words  discussed  in  the  Notes  -  357 

4.  Titles  of  Works  abbreviated  in  the  Footnotes  358 

Ixiii 


Vinayapitaka 

SUTTAVIBHANGA   (PARAJIKA) 

PEAISE  TO  THE  LORD,  THE  PERFECTED  ONE, 
THE  FULLY  ENLIGHTENED 

DEFEAT  (PARAJIKA)  I 

At  one  time^  the  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  was  staying 
at  Veranja^  near  Naleru's  Nimba  tree^  with  a  great 
company  of  five  hundred  monks.  A  brahmin*  of 
Veranja  heard:  Verily,  good  sir,^  the  recluse*  Gotama, 
son  of  the  Sakyans,^  having  gone  forth  from  the  Sakyan 
clan,  is  staying  at  Veraiija  near  Naleru's  Nimba  tree 
with  a  great  company  of  five  hundred  monks.  The 
highest  praise^  has  gone  forth  concerning  the  lord 
Gotama :  he  is  indeed  lord,  perfected  one,^  f iiHy  enlight- 
ened, endowed  with  knowledge  and  conduct,  well-farer, 
knower  of  the  worlds,  unrivalled  trainer  of  men  to  be 
tamed,  teacher  of  devas  and  mankind,  the  enlightened 

1  From  here,  to  end  of  ||  1  j|  cf.  A.  iv.  173-179. 

2  Quoted  at  DA.  i.  12.  VA.  108  merely  says  that  Veranja  was 
the  name  of  a  town.  It  is  mentioned  again  at  A.  iv.  172,  197. 
At  A.  ii.  57  it  is  said  that  Gotama  was  "  journeying  along  the 
highroad  between  Madhura  and  Veranja."  For  Madhura  on  the 
Jumna  see  Buddhist  India,  p.  36;  C.H.I,  i.  316.  M.  Sta.  42  says 
that  Gotama  addressed  some  brahmins  and  householders  from 
Veranja  at  Savatthl. 

^  VA.  108  says  that  here  the  yakkha  is  called  Naleru,,  that 
piicimanda  is  the  nimba-tree  (Azadirachta  Indica),  and  that  mularj 
is  sarmpay.     Cf.  PucimandajdtaJca,  J  a.  iii.,  p.  33. 

*  VA.  Ill,  nidtdpituhi  katandmavasena  pandyam  Udayo  ti  vuccati. 

^  See  Intr.,  p.  xxxviii.  *  See  Intr.,  p.  \  f. 

'  Sakyaputta,  lit.  son  of  the  Sakyan  (s),  but  a  Pali  idiom  meaning 
simply  "  a  Sakyan." 

«  Cf.  D.  i.  87.  »  Arakan. 

I.  1 


2  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.   1-2 

one,  the  lord.  Having  brought  to  fulfilment  his  own 
powers  of  realisation,  he  makes  known  this  world, 
together  with  devas  including  the  Maras,  and  the 
Brahmas ;  creatures,  together  with  recluses  and  brahmins, 
together  with  devas  and  men.  He  teaches  dhamma, 
lovely  at  the  beginning,  lovely  at  the  middle  and  lovely 
at  the  ending.  He  explains  with  the  spirit  and  the  letter 
the  Brahma-life  completely  fulfilled  and  wholly  pure. 
Good  indeed  it  were  to  see  perfected  men  like  that.^  ||  1 1| 

Then  the  brahmin  of  Veranja  came  up  to  the  lord, 
and  having  come  up  he  exchanged  friendly  greetings 
with  the  lord,  and  having  exchanged  friendly  greetings 
he  sat  down  [1]  to  one  side.  As  he  was  sitting  to 
one  side,  the  brahmin  of  Veranja  spoke  thus  to  the 
lord: 

"  I  have  heard,  good^  Gotama,  that  the  recluse 
Gotama  does  not  greet  brahmins  who  are  worn,  old, 
stricken  in  years,  who  have  lived  their  span  and  are  at 
the  close  of  their  life'*^;  nor  does  he  stand  up  or  ask  them 
to  sit  down.  Likewise,  good  Gotama,  that  the  revered* 
Gotama  does  not  greet  brahmins  who  are  worn,  old, 
stricken  in  years,  who  have  lived  their  span  and  are  at 
the  close  of  their  life;  nor  does  he  greet  them  or  stand 
up  or  ask  them  to  sit  down.  Now  this,  good  Gotama, 
this  is  not  respectful."^ 

"  Brahmin,  I  do  not  see  him  in  the  world  of  devas 
including  the  Maras,  including  the  Brahmas,  including 
recluses  and  brahmins,  of  creatures  including  devas  and 
mankind,  whom  I  should  greet  or  rise  up  for  or  to  whom 
I  should  offer  a  seat.     For,  brahmin,  whom  a  tathagata 

^  All  this  is  stock. 

2  Bho.  This  is  the  vocative,  sing,  and  plur.,  of  bhavant.  See 
Intr.,  p.  xxxviii. 

3  Also  stock;  cf.,  e.g.,  M.  i.  82,  ^n.  50,  92;  Vin.  ii.  188. 
^  Bhavam. 

^  Na  samjiannam  eva.  VA.  130  (am  ahhivddanudinam  akaranam 
ayuitam  eva.  Similar  passages  are  at  A.'i.  67  {AA.  na  yuttam  eva, 
na  anucchavikam  eva).  Translator  at  G.S.  i.  63  says  "  the  idea  here 
is  '  not  the  peri'ect  gentleman  '  or  '  bad  form.'  "  See  also  A.  iii. 
223;  iv.  173. 


I.  1,  2-3]  DEFEAT 


should  greet  or  rise  up  for  or  offer  a  seat  to,  his  head 
would  split  asunder."^  ||  2  || 

"The  revered^  Gotama  is  without  the  quality  of 
taste, "^  he  said. 

"  There  is  indeed,  brahmin,  a  way  in  which  one 
speaking  truly  of  me  could  say:  The  recluse  Gotama  is 
without  the  quality  of  taste.  For,  brahmin,  tastes  for 
forms,  tastes  for  sounds,  tastes  for  scents,  tastes  for 
savours,  tastes  for  tangible  objects — these  have  been 
destroyed  by  the  tathagata,  cut  off  at  the  root  like 
a  palm-tree,  they  are  so  utterly  done  away  with  that 
they  are  not  able  to  come  into  future  existence.  This, 
brahmin,  is  a  way  in  which  one  speaking  truly  of 
me  could  say:  The  recluse  Gotama  is  without  the 
quality  of  taste.  But  surely  you  did  not  mean  that-," 
he  said. 

"  The  revered  Gotama  is  without  enjoyment,"*  he 
said. 

"  There  is  indeed,  brahmin,  a  way  in  which  one  speak- 
ing truly  of  me  could  say:  The  recluse  Gotama  is  without 
enjoyment.  For,  brahmin,  enjoyments  of  forms,  en- 
joyments of  sounds,  enjoyments  of  scents,  enjoyments 
of  savours,  enjoyments  of  tangible  objects — these  have 
been  destroyed  by  the  tathagata,  cut  off  at  the  root  like 
a  palm-tree,  they  are  so  utterly  done  away  with  that 
they  are  not  able  to  comd  into  future  existence.     This, 

1  7mMhdpi  tassa  vipateyya.  Bu.  explains  at  VA.  131:  "the 
head  of  that  man  {tassa  2>uggalassa)  having  been  cut  off  from  the 
neck,  may  it  fall  to  the  ground."  Same  phrase  occurs  at  D.  i. 
143;  iii.  19;  Dhp.  72. 

Cf.  J  a.  V.  33,  muddhdpi  tassa  vipphaleyya  sattadhd,  with  v.  11: 
vipa-,  vipha-  and  phaleyyuy.  Cf.  Jd.  v.  493,  mitddkd  me  sattadhd 
phaleyya  ('  perhaps  the  best  reading  ' — P.E.D.)^  and  ibid..,  muddhdpi 
tassa  vipateyya  sattadhd. 

2  Bhavam. 

3  Arasarupa:-  VA.  131  takes  this  to  mean  lack  of  good 
manners.  Gotama  is  said  not  to  show  complete  taste,  which 
consists  in  paying  reverence,  making  salutation,  getting  up  from 
the  seat  and  making  a  respectful  greeting.     Cf.  Tait.  Up.  ii.  7. 

*  Nibbhoga,  or  "  property,"  as  at  G.S.  iv.  118.  VA.  134  says 
that  greeting  the  aged  is  sdmxiggiparibhoga. 


BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  2-3 


brahmin,  is  a  way  in  which  one  speaking  truly  of  me 
could  say:  The  recluse  Gotama  is  without  enjoyment. 
But  surely  you  did  not  mean  that." 

*'  The  revered  Gotama  professes  the  doctrine  of  non- 
action,"^ he  said. 

"  There  is  indeed,  brahmin,  a  way  in  which  one 
speaking  truly  of  me  could  say:  The  recluse  Gotama 
professes  the  doctrine  of  non-action.  For  I,  brahmin, 
teach  the  non-doing  of  offences  of  body,  speech  and 
thought.  I  teach  the  non-doing  of  manifold  evil  and 
wrong  states.  This  indeed,  brahmin,  is  a  way  in  which 
one  speaking  truly  of  me  could  say :  The  recluse  Gotama 
professes  the  doctrine  of  non-action.  But  surely  you 
did  not  mean  that." 

"  The  revered  Gotama  professes  the  doctrine  of 
annihilation,"^  he  said. 

"  There  is  indeed,  brahmin,  a  way  in  which  one  speak- 
ing truly  of  me  could  say :  The  recluse  Gotama  professes 
the  doctrine  of  annihilation.  For  I,  brahmin,  speak  of 
the  annihilation  of  passion,  of  hatred  and  of  confusion^ ; 
I  speak  of  the  annihilation  of  manifold  evil  and  wrong 
states.  This  indeed,  brahmin,  is  a  way  in  which  one 
speaking  truly  of  me  could  say:  The  recluse  Gotama 
professes  the  doctrine  of  annihilation.  [2]  But  surely  you 
did  not  mean  that." 

'*  The  revered  Gotama  is  one  who  detests,"*  he  said. 

'*  There  is  indeed,  brahmin,  a  way  in  which  one 
speaking  truly  of  me  could  say:  The  recluse  Gotama 
is  one  who  detests.     For  I,  brahmin,  detest  offences  of 


1  For  this  passage  to  end  of  |1  3  ||,  cf.  Vin.  i.  234-236  and  A.  iv. 
180  ff.,  in  both  of  which  Gotama  is  represented  as  speaking  with 
the  General  Siha.  The  theory  of  non-action  is  usually  attributed 
to  Piirana  Ka?sapa,  as  at  D.  i.  52  f.  The  theory  of  kiriyavddin 
and  akiriyavddin  is  also  stated  at  ^.  i.  62. 

2  Ucchedavdda,  or  cutting  oif.  Cf.  D.  i.  34.  Rhys  Davids  refers 
to  Katha  Up.  i-  20,  where  the  doubt  as  to  whether,  after  a  man 
is  dead,  he  exists  or  not,  is  also  voiced  by  Naciketas.  Cf.  also 
M.  ii.  228. 

^  Cf.  S.  iv.  252,  definition  of  nibhdna. 

'  Jeyucchiy  one  who  loathes,  or  feels  abhorrence.  See  Dial.  i.  237, 
11.  2,  and  cf.  M.  i.  77,  78. 


I.  1,  3]  DEFEAT  5 

body,  speech  and  thought,  and  the  coming  into^  manifold 
evil  and  wrong  states.  This  indeed,  brahmin,  is  a  way 
in  which  one  speaking  truly  of  me  could  say:  The  recluse 
Gotama  is  one  who  detests.  But  surely  you  did  not 
mean  that." 

"  The  revered  Gotama  is  restrained,"^  he  said. 

"  There  is  indeed,  brahmin,  a  way  in  which  one 
speaking  truly  of  me  could  say:  The  recluse  Gotama 
is  restrained.  For  I,  brahmin,  teach  dhamma  for 
the  restraint  of  passion,  of  hatred  and  of  confusion; 
I  teach  dhamma  for  the  restraint  of  manifold  evil 
and  wrong  states.  This  indeed,  brahmin,  is  a  way  in 
which  one  speaking  truly  of  me  could  say:  The  recluse 
Gotama  is  restrained.  But  surely  you  did  not  mean 
that." 

"  The  revered  Gotama  is  one  who  practises  austeri- 
ties,"**^ he  said. 

"  There  is  indeed,  brahmin,  a  way  in  which  one  speak- 
ing truly  of  me  could  say:  The  recluse  Gotama  is  one 
who  practises  austerities.  For  I,  brahmin,  speak  of 
evil,  wrong  states  which  are  searing,*  of  offences  of  body, 
speech  and  thought.  He  who,  brahmin,  has  destroyed 
the  searing,  evil,  wrong  states,  having  cut  them  off  at 
the  root  like  a  palm-tree,  who  has  done  away  with  them 
so  utterly  that  they  can  come  to  no  future  existence — 
him  I  call  one  who  practises  austerities.  The  tathagata, 
brahmin,  has  destroyed  the  searing,  evil,  wrong  states, 

1  Samdpatti. 

2  Venayika.  VA.  135  says  that  the  brahmin  did  not  see  the 
lord  paying  reverence  and  so  forth,  and  said  that  he  restrained 
these  acts  with  regard  to  the  "  highest  in  the  world,"  therefore  he 
thought  him  one  to  be  restrained,  one  to  be  suppressed.  At  M.  i. 
140  Gotama  is  represented  as  telling  the  monks  that  he  is  charged 
with  being  venayika.  It  here  seems  to  mean  annihilationist,  for 
it  is  combined  with:  "  he  preaches  the  disintegration,  the  destruc- 
tion and  annihilation  of  existing  creatures."  But  as  translator 
{G.S.  iv.  119,  n.  4)  remarks,  we  have  natthika  and  ucchedavdda  for 
nihilist  and  annihilationist.  See  loc.  cit.  for  valuable  remarks,  and 
A.  v.  190. 

*  Tapassi,  connected  with  tapas,  lit.  burnt  up.  It  can  also 
mean  "  one  who  has  his  senses  under  control." 

*  tapanlyd  ;  cf.  A.  i.  49  and  "  should  be  mortified  "  at  G.S.  iv.  120. 


300K   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  8-4 


has  cut  them  off  at  the  root  like  a  palm-tree,  has  done 
away  with  them  so  utterly  that  they  can  come  to  no 
future  existence.  This  indeed,  brahmin,  is  a  way  in 
which  one  speaking  truly  of  me  could  say:  The  recluse 
Gotama  is  one  who  practises  austerities.  But  surely 
you  did  not  mean  that." 

"  The  revered  Gotama  is  not  destined  to  another 
(kind  of)  becoming,"^  he  said. 

"  There  is  indeed,  brahmin,  a  way  in  which  one 
speaking  truly  of  me  could  say:  The  recluse  Gotama  is 
one  who  is  not  destined  to  another  (kind  of)  becoming. 
Indeed,  brahmin,  he  whose  future  conception  in  a  womb, 
whose  rebirth  in  a  future  becoming  are  destroyed  and 
cut  off  like  a  palm-tree  at  the  root,  are  so  utterly  done 
away  with  that  they  can  come  to  no  future  existence— 
him  I  call  one  not  destined  to  another  becoming.  The 
tathagata's  future  conception  in  a  womb,  his  rebirth  in 
a  new  becoming,  are  destroyed  and  cut  off  at  the  root 
like  a  palm-tree,  are  so  utterly  done  away  with  that  he 
can  come  to  no  future  existence.  This  indeed,  brahmin, 
is  a  way  in  which  one  speaking  truly  of  me  could  say: 
The  recluse  Gotama  is  one  not  destined  to  another 
becoming.     But  surely  you  did  not  mean  that."  ||  3  || 

"  Brahmin,  it  is  like  a  hen^  with  eight  or  ten  or  twelve 
eggs  on  which  she  has  sat  properly,  properly  warmed 
and  properly  hatched  j  is  that  chick  which  should  win 
forth  safely,  having  first  of  all  pierced  through  the 
egg-shell  with  the  point  of  the  claw  on  its  foot,  or  with 
its  beak,  to  be  called  the  eldest  or  the  youngest  ?"  he 
said. 

"  He  is  to  be  called  the  eldest,  good  Gotama,  for  he  is 
the  eldest  of  these,"  he  said. 

"  Even  so  I,  brahmin,  having  pierced  through  the 
shell  of  ignorance  for  the  sake  of  creatures  going 
in    ignorance,    born    of   eggs,    [3]    covered    over,    am 

1  apagabbha.  VA.  136,  the  brahmin  says  that  Gotama  is  either 
destined  to  be  rebofn  again  in  a  mother's  womb  or  not  to  arise  in 
a  deva-world. 

2  Cf.  M.  i.  104. 


I.  1,  4-6]  DEFEAT 


unique^  in  the  world,  utterly  enlightened  with  unsur- 
passed enlightenment. 2  I  myself,  brahmin,  am  the 
world's  eldest^  and  highest.*  ||4|| 

Brahmin,^  I  had  steadily  put  forth  energy,  clear 
mindfulness  had  arisen,  my  body  was  quieted  and  calm, 
my  mind  was  composed  and  x)ne-pointed.  I,  brahmin, 
aloof  from  pleasures  of  the  senses,  aloof  from  wrong 
states  of  mind,  having  attained  the  first  musing  with 
its  reflection  and  investigation  that  is  born  of  solitude, 
zestful  and  easeful,  abided  therein.  By  the  mastery  of 
reflection  and  investigation,  having  inner  faith,  the  mind 
become  concentrated,®  without  reflection,  without  in- 
vestigation, having  attained  the  second  musing  that  is 
born  of  contemplation,  zestful  and  easeful,  I  abided 
therein.  By  the  fading  out  of  .zest,  I  dwelt  poised, 
mindful  and  attentive,  and  I  experienced  welfare  as  to 
the  body,  attaining  the  third  musing  which  the  noble 
ones  describe  in  these  terms :  "  he  who  is  poised  and  mind- 
ful dwells  happily,"  I  abided  therein.  By  the  rejection 
of  ease'  and  by  the  rejection  of  discomfort,'  by  the 
annihilation  of  the  rejoicing  and  the  sorrowing  I  had 
before,  having  attained  to  that  state  which  is  neither 
pleasant  nor  painful,  that  utter  purity  of  mindfulness 
which  is  poised,  which  is  the  fourth  musing,  I  abided 
therein.8  ||5|i 

Then  with  the  mind  collected,  clarified,  purified, 
flawless,  void  of  taints,  grown  soft  and  pliable,  fixed  and 


1  eko=eko  adutiyo,  VA.  139. 

2  VA.  139=MJi.  i.  54,  bodhi  ti  maggo  ,  .  .  bodht  ti  vuccati 
catusu  maggesu  ndnafj. 

3  VA.  140,  on  account  of  being  the  first-born  among  ariyas.  In 
VA.  165  ariyas  are  defined  as  Buddhas,  paccekabuddhas,  and  the 
disciples  of  Buddhas. 

*  Cf.  D.ii.  15,  aggo,jettho,  settho. 

5  This  passage  to  end  of  HSJl  below=ilf.  i.  21-23,  but  M.  omits 
the  simile  of  the  chick. 

*  ekodibhdva. 

'  Expl.  by  Corny,  to  mean  bodily  ease  and  bodily  discomfort. 
«  C/.  ^.i.  53;^.  V.  318. 


8  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  4 

come  to  utter  peace,^  I  directed  the  mind^  towards  the 
knowledge  of  the  memory  of  former  becomings;  thus  I 
remember  divers  former  becomings;  that  is  to  say,  one 
birth,^  two  births,  three  births,  four  births,  five  births, 
ten  births,  twenty  births,  thirty  births,  forty  births, 
fifty  births,  a  hundred  births,  a  thousand  births,  a 
hundred  thousand  births,  and  many  an  seon  of  disintegra- 
tion of  the  world,  and  many  an  aeon  of  its  redintegration* 
and  many  seons  of  both  its  disintegration  and  redin- 
tegration: such  a  one  was  I  by  name,  having  such  and 
such  a  clan,  having  such  and  such  a  colour,*  so  was  I 
nourished,  such  and  such  easeful  and  painful  experiences 
were  mine,  so  did  the  span  of  life  end.  Passing  from 
this,  I  came  to  be  in  another  state  where  such  a  one  was 
I  by  name,  having  such  and  such  a  clan,  having  such 
and  such  a  colour,  so  was  I  nourished,  such  easeful  and 
painful  experiences  were  mine,  so  did  the  span  of  life  end. 
Passing  from  this,  I  came  to  be  here,  thus  I  remember 
divers  former  becomings  in  all  their  modes  and  in  detail. 
This,  brahmin,  was  the  first  knowledge  attained  by 
me  in  the  first  watch  of  that  night®;  ignorance  was 
dispelled,  knowledge  arose,  darkness  was  dispelled, 
light  arose,  even  as  I  abided  zealous,  ardent,  with  a 
self  that  has  striven.'     This  was,  brahmin,  my  first 


1  Vin.  iii.  4;  M.  i.  22,  read  dnanjappatte  with  v.  11;  A.  ii.  211; 
D.  i.  76;  M.  i.  182  all  read  dnejjappatte.  This  passage  to  end  of 
II 8  II  below=ilf .  i.  22-23=i.  182-183,  except  that  these  omit  the 
simile  of  the  chick. 

2  Cf.  A.  ii.  211 ;  Q.  i.  76  i^  a  cf.  S.  ii.  122.      < 

*  I  follow  Lord  Chalmers'  trans,  at  Fur,  Dial.  i.  15,  for,  although 
it  is  not  perfect,  it  gives  the  idea  that  the  process  is  eternally  re- 
peated. K.S.  ii.  86  reads  "  aeon  of  involution  ...  of  evolution  "; 
G.S.  iv.  121,  "  rolling  on  and  rolling  back  ";  G.S.  ii.  145,  "  rolling  up 
and  rolling  back."  The  brahmanic  idea  is  that  as  Visnu  sleeps 
on  the  giant  cobra,  he  dreams  the  world;  this  is  its  out-rolling,  its 
coming  to  be.  When  he  awakes  the  world  falls  into  nothingness, 
it  is  withdrawn,  until  the  god  sleeps  and  dreams  again. 

s  VA.  160,  evayvanno  ti  oddto  vd  sdmo  vd. 

•  See  Fur.  Dial.  i.  15,  n.  1  for  this  night  being  occupied  with  the 
"  chain  of  causation,"  as  at  Vin.  i.  1. 

'  pahitatta ;  see  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids,  The  Birth  of  Indian  Psychology y 
etc.,  p.  295. 


I.  1,  6-8]  DEFEAT  9 

successful  breaking  forth,  like  a  chick's  from  the  egg- 
shell. II  6  II 

Then  with  the  mind  collected,  clarified,  purified, 
flawless,  void  of  taints,  grown  soft  and  pliable,  fixed 
and  come  to  utter  peace,  I  directed  the  mind  towards  the 
knowledge  of  the  arising  and  passing  hence  of  beings ;  [4] 
so  that  with  the  purified  deva-vision  surpassing  that  of 
men,  I  behold  beings,  I  know  beings  as  they  pass  away 
or  come  to  be — mean,  excellent,  fair,  foul,  in  a  good  bourn,^ 
in  a  bad  bourn^  according  to  their  actions,  and  I  think: 
Indeed,  those  worthies^  whose  deeds  were  evil,  whose 
speech  was  evil,  whose  thoughts  were  evil,  abusers  of 
the  noble  ones,  holders  of  wrong  views,  incurring^  the 
actions^  of  wrong  views — ^these  at  the  breaking  up  of 
the  body  after  death,  have  arisen  in  the  waste,  the  bad 
bourn,  the  abyss,  hell.  Indeed,  those  good  sirs^  whose 
deeds  were  good,  whose  speech  was  good,  whose  thoughts 
were  good,  who  did  not  abuse  the  noble  ones,  holding 
right  views,  incurring  the  actions  of  right  views — ^these 
at  the  breaking  up  of  the  body  after  death,  have  arisen 
in  the  good  bourn,  the  heaven-world.  Tlius  with 
purified  deva-vision  surpassing  that  of  men,  do  I  behold 
beings,  I  know  beings  as  they  pass  away  and  come  to 
be — mean,  excellent,  fair,  foul,  in  a  good  bourn,  in  a 
bad  bourn  according  to  their  actions.*  This,  brahmin, 
was  the  second  knowledge  attained  by  me  in  the  middle 
watch  of  that  night.  Ignorance  was  dispelled,  knowledge 
arose,  darkness  was  dispelled,  light  arose,  even  as  I 
abided  zealous,  ardent,  with  a  self  that  has  striven. 
This  was,  brahmin,  my  second  successful  breaking  forth, 
like  a  chick's  from  the  egg-shell.  ||  7  || 

Then^   with   the  mind   collected,   clarified,   purified. 


1  VA.  164,  sugate  ti  sugatigate  .  .  .  duggate  ti  duggatigate,  lit.  gone 
to  a  good  bourn,  etc. ;  or,  in  a  good  bourn,  etc.  ^  Bhonto. 

3  kammasamdddna,  trans,  at  G.S.  iii.  295,  "  action's  mould- 
ing," and  at  G.S.  iv.  122,  "  men  who  have  acquired  this  karma." 

*  This  passage=>S.  ii.  122  f. 

«  For  this  passage  cf.  A.  ii.  211;  M,  i.  23;  M,  iii.  36. 


10  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  6-6 


flawless,  void  of  taints,  grown  soft  and  pliable,  fixed 
and  come  to  utter  peace,  I  directed  the  mind  towards 
the  knowledge  of  the  destruction  of  the  cankers.  I 
knew  as  it  really  is:  This  is  ill,  this  is  the  arising  of  ill, 
this  is  the  stopping  of  ill,  this  is  the  course  leading  to 
the  stopping  of  ill.  I  knew  as  it  really  is:  These  are 
the  cankers,  this  is  the  arising  of  the  cankers,  this  is  the 
stopping  of  the  cankers,  this  is  the  course  leading  to  the 
stopping  of  the  cankers.  In  me,  thus  knowing,  thus 
seeing,  my  mind  was  freed  from  the  canker  of  sensual 
pleasures,  my  mind  was  freed  from  the  canker  of  be- 
coming, my  mind  was  freed  from  the  canker  of  false 
views,  my  mind  was  freed  from  the  canker  of  ignorance.^ 
(To  me)  freed,  came  knowledge^  through  the  freedom: 
I  knew :  Destroyed  is  rebirth,  lived  is  the  Brahma-life, 
done  is  what  was  to  be  done,  there  is  no  beyond  for 
this  state  of  things.^  This  was,  brahmin,  the  third 
knowledge  attained  by  me  in  the  third  watch  of  that 
night.  Ignorance  was  dispelled,  knowledge  arose,  dark- 
ness was  dispelled,  light  arose,  even  as  I  abided  zealous, 
ardent,*  with  a  self  that  has  striven.*  This  was,  brahmin 
[6]  my  third  'successful  breaking  forth,  like  a  chick's 
from  the  egg-shell."  il  8  II 

When  he  had  spoken  thus,  the  brahmin  of  Veranja 
said  to  the  lord: 

'*  The  revered  Gotama  is  the  first-born,  the  revered 
Gotama  is  the  best.  Wonderful,  good  Gotama,  wonder- 
ful, good  Gotama.  As  a  man,  good  Gotama,  might  set 
upright  what  had  been  overturned,  or  reveal  what  had 
been  hidden,  or  tell  a  man  who  had  gone  astray  which 
was  his  way,  or  bring  a  lamp  into  the  darkness  so  that 
those  with  eyes  to  see  might  see  the  things  about  them 
— even  so,  good  Gotama,  in  many  a  figure  has  the  good 

1  These  are  the  four  dsavd.    At  M.  i.  23  and  A.  ii.  211,  iv.  179 
only  three  dsaxms  are  mentioned. 

2  C/.  G.S.  ii.  225,  n.  2;  G.S.  iv.  123. 

3  One  of  the  formulae  of  arahantship. 

4  To    here    from    ||5|1    above=M.    i.     21-23    (and    cf.    M.    l 
182-3). 


I.  1,  9—2,  1]  DEFEAT  II 

Gotama  made  dliamma  clear.  To  the  lord^  Gotama  I 
go  for  refuge,  and  to  dhamma  and  to  the  Order  of  monks. 
May  the  revered  Gotama  accept  me  as  a  lay  follower, 
as  one  gone  for  refuge,  from  this  day  forth  while  life 
lasts.2  May  the  revered  Gotama  consent  to  spend  the 
rains  at  Veranja  together  with  the  company  of  monks." 
The  lord  consented  by  his  silence.  Then  the  brahmin 
of  Veranja  having  gained  the  lord's  consent,  rose  from 
his  seat,  and  saluting  the  lord,  departed,  keeping  his 
right  side  towards  him.  ||  9  ||  1 1| 

At  that  time  Veranja^  was  short  of  almsfood,*  which 
was  difficult  to  obtain;  it  was  suffering  from  famine,  and 
food  tickets  were  issued.  Nor  was  it  easy  to  keep 
oneself  going^  by  gleaning  or  by  favour.  At  that  time 
some  horse-dealers  of  Uttarapathaka^  arrived  at  the 


1  Here  bhagavantam;  at  A.  iv.  179  bhavantam. 

2  Vin.  i.  236;  M.  "i.  24,  488  f.,  etc.,  for  this  stock  passage.  To 
here,  from  beginning  of  this  Parajika,  cf.  A.  iv.  173-179. 

^  Burlingame,  Buddhist  Legends,  ii.  193,  says  that  Jataka  183 
is  derived  from  this  Vinaya  story;  and  that* the  Corny,  on  Dhp.  83 
is  derived  from  this  Jataka;  cf.  DhA.  ii.  153  ff. 

*  Cf.  below  Par.  I.  5,  5;  Par.  IV.  1,  1. 

The  meaning  of  these  four  stock-phrases  is  doubtful:  (1)  Short  of 
almsfood  =  diibbhikkJia ]  may  also  mean:  (suffering  from)  famine. 
VA.  174,  dullabhikkhd,  almsfood  (was)  hard  to  get.  (2)  Difficult 
to  obtain  =dvlhitikd;  may  also  mean:  crops  were  bad.  See  art.  in 
P.E.D.  (3)  Suffering  from  famine  =  setatthikd;  may  also  mean: 
i.  (strewn  with)  white  bones,  ii.  mildew.  So  trans,  at  Vin.  Texts  iii. 
326  {Vin.  ii.  256),  where  this  word  used  in  simile  =  ^,  iv.  279,  trans. 
G.S.  iv.  185  (see  ibid.  n.  2),  "  white-as-bones  "  (disease).  (4)  Food 
tickets  were  issued  =  saldkdvuttd ;  may  also  mean :  people  subsisted 
on  blades  of  grass.  VA.  175  gives  both  meanings.  G.S.  i.  142  = 
A.  i.  160:  grown  to  mere  stubs.  At  ^.  i.  24  Kundadhana  is. called 
"chief  among  those  who  are  the  first  to  receive  a  food  ticket" 
(G.S.  i.  18).  AA,  i.  260  f.  apparently  refers  to  a  food  ticket.  Cf. 
VA.  174  f.,  AA.  ii.  257,  SA.  iii.  106.  Also  G.S.  i.  142,  ^.>S.  iv.  228 
{=A.i.  160,  /S.  iv.  323)  and  their  notes. 

*  ydpetum.  Cf.  description  of  Vesali  in  opposite  terms  at 
Vin.  i.  238.' 

*  Probably  meaning  Northern  India,  see  B.  C.  Law,  Geography 
of  Early  Buddhism,  p.  48.  At  J  a.  ii.  287  five  hundred  horse- 
dealers  from  Uttarapatha  are  mentioned.  Also  a  certain  dealer 
had  five  hundred  horses. 


12  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [HI.  6 

rains-residence  of  Veranja  with  five  hundred  horses. 
In  the  horse-rings^  they  prepared  patiha  measure  after 
pattha  measure  of  steamed  grain^  for  the  monks.  The 
monks  rising  early  and  taking  their  bowls  and  robes, 
entered  Veranja  for  almsfood.  But  being  unable  to 
obtain  almsfood,  they  went  into  the  horse-rings  for 
almsfood.  Having  brought  the  pattha  measures  of 
steamed  grain  back  to  the  park,  they  pounded  them 
and  ate  them.  The  venerable  Ananda,  having  crushed 
a  pattha  measure  of  the  steamed  grain  on  a  stone,  took 
it  to  the  lord  and  the  lord  ate  it.  Then  the  lord  heard 
the  sound  of  the  mortar.  Now  tathagatas  (sometimes) 
ask  knowing,^  and  knowing  (sometimes)  do  not  ask; 
they  ask,  knowing  the  right  time  (to  ask),  and  they  ask, 
knowing  the  right  time  (when  not  to  ask).     Tathagatas 

1  AssamaiidaliJca.  VA.  176  says:  "Not  being  able  to  journey 
during  the  four  rainy  months  in  this  district,  they  built  outside  the 
city  in  a  place  not  submerged  by  water,  sleeping  quarters  {vdsdgara) 
for  themselves  and  stables  (mandira)  for  the  horses,  encircled  by  a 
fence." 

2  j)aUhapatthamulaka=^DhA.  ii.  154,  where  n.  4  gives  FausboU's 
reading,  pattan  thulakay.  In"  my  copy  of  FausboU's  edition  of  the 
Dhp.,  which  was  formerly  Trenckner's,  Trenckner  has  altered  this 
reading  to  patthay  mulakarj.  VA.  176  reads  °pulakafj  with  v.h 
muldkafj.  Pattha  is  a  measure  of  a  certain  capacity.  See  Rhys 
Davids,  Ancient  Coins,  etc.,  pp.  18-20.  At  VA.  176  it  is  said: 
pattho  ndma  ndlimattay.  Ndlimatlayj  would  seem  to  mean  as  much 
as  a  tube  or  hollow  stalk  holds;  trans,  at  G.S.  ii.  210  "  root- 
fibres."  SnA.  476  says  cattdro  pattha  dlhakay,  an  dlhaka  being 
another  measure;  thus  one  pattha=\  dlhaka.  At  DhA.  ii.  70;  PvA. 
283  and  Jd.  i.  419  pattha  is  used  of  ajalandika,  put  down  a  bad 
monk's  throat. 

Bu.  says,  VA.  176,  that  a  pattha  measure  oi  pulaka  was  prepared 
for  each  monk,  the  horse-dealers  saying,  "  What  if  we  were  now 
to  take  a  pattha  measure  from  the  morning  meal  of  each  horse  and 
give  it  to  each  monk.  Thus  they  will  not  suffer  and  the  horses  will 
be  kept  going."  Bu.  says,  fulakafj  ndma  nitthusan  katvd  ussedetvd 
gahitayavatanduld  vuccanti,  which  would  seem  to  mean:  "having 
done  away  with  the  husk  and  having  steamed  it — pulaka  is  the  name 
of  barley  and  rice  husked  and  taken  after  steaming  "  =  steamed — 
i.e.,  rice  ready  for  boiling. 

Ussedeti  is  not  given  in  P.T.S.  Diet.,  but  sedeti  is  given  as 
causative  of  sijjati,  to  heat,  to  steam. 

3  =Fm.  i.  158=  Fm.  iii.  88-89  below. 


I.  2,  1-2]  DEFEAT  I3 

ask  about  what  belongs  to  the  goal,^  not  about  what 
does  not  belong  to  the  goal;  the  breaking  of  the  bridge^ 
of  the  tathagatas  is  among  what  does  not  belong  to  the 
goal.  The  enlightened  ones,  the  lords,  question  the 
monks  concerning  two  matters,  either:  "  Shall  we  teach 
dhamma  ?"  or,  "  Shall  we  declare  the  course  of  training 
for  the  disciples  ? ' '  Then  the  lord  addressed  the  venerable 
Ananda,  saying: 

"  What,  Ananda,  is  this  sound  of  a  mortar  ?" 
Then  the  venerable  Ananda  told  this  matter  to  the 
lord.  [6] 

"  It  is  good,  Ananda.  Ananda,  those  who  comeafter^ 
will  disdain  the  meaty  boiled  rice  and  the  gruel  won* 
by  you  who  are  men  indeed."^  ||  1 1| 


Then  the  venerable  Moggallana  the  Great*  came  up 
to  the  lord,  and  having  come  up  he  greeted  the  lord  and 
sat  down  to  one  side.  As  he  was  sitting  to  one  side, 
the  venerable  Moggallana  the  Great  spoke  thus  to  the 
lord: 

"  At   present,   lord,^  Veranja   is  short   of  almsfood, 

1  Attha,  in  Sakya  the  positive  goal.  The  translators  of  Vin.  i.  158 
at  Vin.  Texts,  i.  327  translate  afthasamhita  as  "  full  of  sense,"  thus 
taking  attha  (quite  unnecessarily)  in  its  later,  debased  and  narrowed 
meaning.  The  negative  word  anattha  appears  at  Vin.  i.  10  in  the 
First  Utterance,  the  positive  form  being  there  absent.  See  G.S.  iv., 
vii.  and  xix. 

2  Setughdta.  VA.  180  says  setu  vuccati  maggo.  Thus  if  we  follow 
Bu.  in  this  interpretation  of  setughdta,  the  rendering  "  the  bridge 
is  pulled  down  for  the  Tathagatas  "  of  Vin.  Texts,  i.  327  must  be 
given  up.  Cf.  A.  i.  220,  where  it  seems  to  mean  the  breaking  down 
of  new  actions;  and  cf.A.i.  260;  ii.  145;  Dhs.  299  ff. 

^  Pacchima  Janata,  VA.  181  says  andgate;  also  that  they  will 
be  sitting  in  the  vihara,  getting  food  easily,  but  feeling  nothing 
but  contempt  for  it  as  being  not  to  their  liking.     Cf.  below,  p.  66. 

*  Vijitam,  also  meaning  conquered,  subdued,  VA.  180  says  dub- 
hhikkham  vijitam  lobho  vijito  icchdcdro  vijito. 

*  So'ppurisa.  On  prefix  sa-  see  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids,  Intr.  to  G.S.  i. 
ixf. 

^  Generally  paired  with  Sariputta.  At  ^.  i.  23  he  is  called  chief 
among  the  disciples  who  have  psychic  power.  Cf.  Vin.  i.  39; 
Breth.  382  ff. 

'  Bhante. 


14  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  7 

which  is  difficult  to  obtain.  It  is  suffering  from  a 
famine  and  food-tickets  are  being  issued.  Nor  is  it 
easy  to  keep  oneself  going  by  gleaning  or  by  favour. 
Lord,  the  under  surface  of  this  great  earth  is  fertile, 
even  as  a  flawless  honey-comb.^  Good  it  were,  lord,  if 
I  were  to  invert  the  earth,^  so  that  the  monks  might 
enjoy  the  nutritive  essence  of  the  water-plants." 

''But  what  will  you  do  with  those  creatures, 
Moggallana,  who  are  supported  by  the  earth  ?" 

"  Lord,  I  will  make  one  of  my  hands  broad,  like  the 
great  earth,  and  I  will  make  those  creatures  who  are 
supported  by  the  earth  pass  over  thence.  Then  with 
the  other  hand  I  will  invert  the  earth." 

"  Take  care,  Moggallana,  please  do  not  invert  the 
earth,  or  beings  may  meet  with  derangement."^ 

"  It  is  well,  lord,  the  whole  order  of  monks  may  go 
to  Uttarakuru*  for  alms." 

"  Take  care,  Moggallana,  let  not  the  going  of  the  whole 
order  of  monks  to  Uttarakuru  for  alms  seem  good  to 
you."  II 2 II  2 II 


Now  while  the  venerable  Sariputta^  had  gone  into 
seclusion  for  meditation,  this  thought  arose  in  his  mind: 
"Of  which  enlightened  ones,  of  which  lords,  did  the 
Brahma-life  not  last  long  ?  Of  which  enlightened  ones, 
of  which  lords  did  the  Brahma-life  last  long  ?"  Then 
the  venerable  Sariputta,  rising  up  at  evening  time  from 
his  meditation,  came  up  to  the  lord  and  having  come 
up  he  greeted  the  lord  and  sat  down  to  one  side.  As 
he  was  sitting  to  one  side,  the  venerable  Sariputta 
spoke  thus  to  the  lord: 


1  For  this  simile  cf.  D.  iii.  87. 

2  VA.  182  explains:  so  as  to  turn  up  the  lowest  level  to  the  top. 

3  Vijmlldsa,  from  vi-\-pari-\-as,  lit.  to  throw  round  against. 

*  B.  C.  Law  in  his  Geography  of  Early  Buddhism,  pp.  17,  53,  says 
that  Uttarakuru  "  is  alluded  to  in  Pali  literature  as  a  mythical 
region." 

^  Usually  paired  with  Moggallana.  See  Pss.  Breth.,  p.  340.  At 
^.  i.  23  he  is  called  chief  among  the  disciples  "  of  great  wisdom.'* 


I.  3,  1-2]  DEFEAT  I5 

"  Now,  lord,  as  I  was  in  seclusion  for  meditation,  this 
thought  arose  in  my  mind:  *  Of  which  enlightened 
ones  .  .  .  last  long  ?'" 

"  Sariputta,  while  Vipassin^  was  lord,  while  Sikhin^ 
was  lord,  and  while  Vessabhu^  was  lord  the  Brahma-life 
did  not  last  long.  Sariputta,  while  Kakusandha^  was 
lord  and  while  Konagamana^  was  lord  and  while  Kassapa^ 
was  lord  [7]  the  Brahma-life  lasted  long."  ||  1 1| 

"And  what.  Lord,  is  the  cause,  what  the  reason  why 
when  Vipassin  was  lord  and  when  Sikhin  was  lord  and  when 
Vessabhu  was  lord  the  Brahma-life  did  not  last  long  ?" 

"  Sariputta,  the  lord  Vipassin  and  the  lord  Sikhin 
and  the  lord  Vessabhu  were  idle  in  preaching  dhamma 
in  detail  to  the  disciples;  and  these  had  little  of  the 
Suttas^  in  prose  or  in  prose  and  verse,  the  Expositions, 
the  Songs,  the  Verses  of  Uplift,*  the  Quotations,  the 
Jatakas,  the  Miracles,  the  Miscellanies^;  the  course  of 
training  for  the  disciples  was  not  made  known,  the 
Patimokkha  was  not  appointed.  After  the  disappear- 
ance of  these  enlightened  ones,  these  lords,  after  the 
disappearance^  of  the  disciples  enlightened  under  these 
enlightened    ones,'    those    last    disciples    of    various 

1  Some  of  the  24  Buddhas.  For  Sikhin  see  S.  i.  155  &.,  and  for  all 
three  Jd.  i.  4  fi.,  D.  ii.  2  ff. 

2  The  last  three  Buddhas  before  the  present  supreme  Buddha. 
Cf.  Jd.  i.  43;  DhA.  i.  84,  iii.  236;  D.  ii.  2  ff. 

3  See  Fur.  Dial.  i.  93,  n.  1  on  meaning  of  "  Suttas  " ;  not  explained 
in  Vin.  Corny,  on  above  passage.  Also  on  these  names  see  E.  J. 
Thomas,  Hist,  of  Buddhist  Thought,  p.  277  tl".,  and  J.  Przyluski, 
Le  Concile  de  Rdjagrha,  p.  342  &.  At  DA.  i.  23  f.,  VinA.  28,  AA.  iii. 
5  f.,  Asl.  26,  these  nine  angas  of  the  Canon  are  listed  and  described. 

*  Uddna.     On  this  name  see  S.B.B.,  vol.  xiii.,  p.  v  f. 

*  On  derivation  of  vedalla,  see  J.  Przyluski,  Le  Concile  de  Rdjagrha, 
p.  344;  E.  J.  Thomas,  History  of  Buddhist  Thought,  p.  278,  n.  1. 

^  VA.  187,  "  after  the  disappearance  of  the  khandhas,  after  the 
parinibbdna."' 

'  VA.  187,  anubuddhd=sammukhasdvakd.  At  Thag.  679=1246 
=S.  i.  193  huddhdnuhuddho  yo  thero  Kondanno,  trans.,  "  who  next 
to  our  great  Waked  One  was  awake."  SA.  i.  282  says:  "  The 
Teacher  was  first  enlightened  in  the  four  truths,  afterwards  the 
thera."  Thus  an  interesting  variation  is  apparent  in  the  inter- 
pretation of  buddhdnubuddha  as  given  by  SA.  and  VA. 


l6  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  8 

names,  of  various  clans/  of  various  social  strata,^  who  had 
gone  forth  from  various  families,  caused  this  Brahma- 
life  rapidly  to  disappear.  It  is  as  if,  Sariputta,  various 
flowers,  loose  on  a  flat  piece  of  wood,^  not  tied  together 
by  a  thread,  are  scattered  about,  whirled  about  and 
destroyed  by  the  wind.  What  is  the  cause  ?  Inasmuch 
as  they  are  not  held  together  by  a  thread,  even  so, 
Sariputta,  at  the  disappearance  of  these  enlightened 
ones,  these  lords,  at  the  disappearance  of  the  disciptes 
enlightened  under  these  enlightened  ones,  those  last 
disciples  of  various  names,  of  various  clans,  of  various 
social  strata,  who  had  gone  forth  from  various  families, 
caused  this  Brahma-life  rapidly  to  disappear.  And  these 
lords  were  untiring  in  exhorting  the  disciples,  for  they 
read  their  minds  with  their  own.* 

Formerly,  Sariputta,  the  lord  Vessabhu,  perfected,  all 
enlightened  one,  in  a  certain  awe-inspiring  jungle-thicket 
exhorted  and  admonished  a  congregation  of  a  thousand 
monks,  reading  their  minds  with  his  own,  and  saying: 
Apply  the  mind  thus,*  you  should  not  apply  the  mind 
thus^ ;  pay  attention  thus,'  you  should  not  pay  attention 
thus^;  forsake  this^;  having  attained  this,^^  abide  in  it. 
Then  Sariputta,  when  these  thousand  monks  had  been 
exhorted  and  admonished  by  Vessabhu,  the  lord, 
perfected,  all  enlightened  one,  their  minds  were  freed 
from  the  cankers  without  grasping.^^  Moreover,  Sari- 
putta, whoever  not  devoid  of  passion,  is  in  a  terror  of 
the  awe-inspiring  jungle-thicket,  and  enters  the  jungle- 

1  VA.  187,  such  as  "protected  by  Buddha,  protected  by  dhamma." 

2  VA.  187,  such  as  khattiya,  brdhnana. 

^  phalaka,  a  board,  a  plank.  Perhaps  a  tray  here,  such  as  flower- 
Vendors  carry. 

^  C/.  D.  i.  79;if.  i.  445;^.  ii.  233. 

s  VA.  188,  i.e.  to  the  three  vitakkd :  viz.,  renunciation,  benevolence 
and  non-injury. 

^  Ibid.,  to  their  opposites:  viz.,  sensual  pleasures,  malevolence 
and  injury. 

'  Ihid.,  i.e.  to  impermanence,  sorrow  and  non-self. 

8  Ihid.,  i.e.  to  their  opposites. 

*  Ibid.,  i.e.  what  is  wrong. 

^^  Ibid.,  i.e.  what  is  right. 

1*  Anufdddya. 


I.  3,  2-4]  DEFEAT  ly 

thicket,  as  a  rule  his  hair  stands  on  end.  This,  Sariputta, 
is  the  cause,  this  is  the  reason  why,  when  Vipassin  was 
lord  and  when  Sikhin  was  lord  and  when  Vessabhu  was 
lord,  the  Brahma-life  did  not  last  long."  ||  2 1| 

"  But  what,  lord,  is  the  cause,  what  the  reason  why 
when  Kakusandha  was  lord,  and  when  Konagamana  was 
lord  and  when  Kassapa  was  lord  the  Brahma-life  lasted 
long?"  [8] 

"  Sariputta,    the    lord    Kakusandha    and    the    lord 
Konagamana  and  the  lord   Kassapa  were  diligent  in 
giving  dhamma  in  detail  to  the  disciples,  and  these  had 
much  of  the  Suttas  in  prose  or  in  prose  and  in  verse, 
the  Expositions,  the  Songs,  the  Verses  of  Uplift,  the 
Quotations,  the  Jatakas,  the  Miracles,  the  Miscellanies. 
The  course  of  training  for  disciples  was  made  known, 
the  Patimokkha  was  appointed.     At  the  disappearance 
of  these   enlightened   ones,    these    lords,    at   the   dis- 
appearance of  the  disciples  who  were  enlightened  under 
these  enlightened  ones,  those  last  disciples  of  various 
names,  of  various  clans,  of  various  social  strata,  who 
had  gone  forth  from  various  families,  established  the 
Brahma-life  for  a  very  long  time.     It  is  as  if,  Sari- 
putta, various  flowers,  loose  on  a  piece  of  wood,  well 
tied  together  by  a  thread,  are  not  scattered  about  or 
whirled  about  or  destroyed  by  the  wind.     What  is  the 
reason  for  this  ?     They  are  well  tied  together  by  the 
thread.     Even  so,  Sariputta,  at  the  disappearance  of 
these  enlightened  ones,  these  lords,  at  the  disappearance 
of  the    disciples    who    were    enlightened   under    these 
enlightened  ones,  those  last  disciples  of  various  names, 
of  various  clans,  of  various  social  strata,  who  had  gone 
forth  from  various  families,  established  the  Brahma-life 
for  a  very  long  time.     This,  Sariputta,  is  the  cause,  this 
the  reason  why  when  Kakusandha  was  the  lord,  and 
when  Konagamana  was  the  lord  and  when  Kassapa  was 
the  lord,  the  Brahma-life  lasted  long."  ||  3  || 

Then  the  venerable  Sariputta,  having  risen  from  his 
seat,  having  arranged  his  outer  robe  over  one  shoulder, 

2 


l8  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  9-10 

and  held  out  his  joined  palms  in  salutation  to  the  lord, 
said  to  the  lord: 

''  It  is  the  right  time,  lord,  it  is  the  right  time, 
well-farer,^  at  which  the  lord  should  make  known  the 
course  of  training  for  disciples  and  should  appoint  the 
Patimokkha,  in  order  that  this  Brahma-life  may  persist 
and  last  long." 

"  Wait,  Sariputta,  wait,  Sariputta.  The  tathagata 
will  know  the  right  time  for  that.  The  teacher  does 
not  make  known,  Sariputta,  the  course  of  training  for 
disciples,  or  appoint  the  Patimokkha  until  some  con- 
ditions causing  the  cankers  appear  here  in  the  Order.^ 
And  as  soon,  Sariputta,  as  some  conditions  causing 
the  cankers  appear  here  in  the  Order,  then  the  teacher 
makes  known  the  course  of  training  for  disciples,  he 
appoints  the  Patimokkha  in  order  to  ward  off  those 
conditions  causing  the  cankers.  Some  conditions,  Sari- 
putta, causing  the  cankers  do  not  so  much  as  appear 
here  in  the  Order  until  the  Order  has  attained  long 
standing.  And  as  soon,  Sariputta,  as  the  Order  has 
attained  long  standing,  then  some  conditions  causing 
the  cankers  appear  here  in  the  Order.  Hence  the 
teacher  makes  known  the  course  of  training  for  dis- 
ciples [9],  he  appoints  the  Patimokkha  in  order  to  ward 
off  those  conditions  causing  the  cankers.^  Some  con- 
ditions, Sariputta,  causing  the  cankers  do  not  so  much 
as  appear  here  in  the  Order  until  the  Order  has  attained 
full  development.  And  as  soon,  Sariputta,  as  the  Order 
has  attained  full  development,  then  some  conditions 
causing  the  cankers  appear  here  in  the  Order.  Hence 
the  teacher  makes  known  the  course  of  training  for 
disciples,  he  appoints  the  Patimokkha  in  order  to  ward 
off  those  conditions  causing  the  cankers.*  Some  con- 
ditions, Sariputta,  causing  the  cankers  do  not  so  much 

^  Sugata. 

2  VA.  191,  things  belonging  to  the  here  and  now  and  to  the  next 
world,  the  bonds  of  murder,  bad  conscience  and  the  reproaching 
of  others,  and  a  variety  of  ill  and  woe.  For  this  passage,  cf.  M.i.  445. 

3  VA.  194  quotes  Vin.  Mahdvagga,  i.  31. 

4  VA.  194  quotes  Par.  5;  cf.  MA.  iii.  156. 


I.  3,  4]  DEFEAT  I9 

as  appear  here  in  the  Order  until  the  Order  has  attained 
the  chief  greatness  of  gain.^  And  as  soon,  Sariputta, 
as  the  Order  has  attained  the  chief  greatness  of  gain, 
then  some  conditions  causing  the  cankers  appear  here 
in  the  Order.  Hence  the  teacher  makes  known  the 
course  of  training  for  disciples,  he  appoints  the  Pati- 
mokkha  in  order  to  ward  off  those  conditions  causing 
the  cankers. 2  Some  conditions,  Sariputta,  causing  the 
cankers  do  not  so  much  as  appear  here  in  the  Order  until 
the  Order  has  attained  great  learning.  And  as  soon, 
Sariputta,  as  the  Order  has  attained  great  learning,  then 
some  conditions  causing  the  cankers  appear  here  in  the 
Order.  Hence  the  teacher  makes  known  the  course  of 
training  for  disciples,  and  appoints  the  Patimokkha  in 
order  to  ward  off  those  conditions  causing  the  cankers.^ 
Sariputta,  the  Order  of  monks  is  devoid  of  immorality,* 
devoid  of  danger,  stainless,  purified,  based  on  the 
essential.^  Sariputta,  the  most  backward®  of  these  five 
hundred  monks  is  one  who  has  entered  the  stream,  not 
liable  to  be  reborn  in  any  state  of  woe,  assured,  bound 
for  enlightenment . '  1 1 4  1 1 3 1 1 


1  Idbhaggamahatta.  VA.  194  Idbhassa  aggamahattam  yo  labhassa 
aggo  uttamo  mahantahhdvo  tarn  patto  hoti  ti  attho.  For  list  of  **  gains  " 
see  A.  i.  38.  At  M.  i.  445  we  find  Idhhaggam,  trans.  Fur.  Dial. 
I  317  as  "  wealth." 

2  VA.  195  quotes  Pdc.  41;  cf.  MA.  iii.  156. 

3  VA.  195  quotes  Pdc.  68;  cf.  MA.  iii.  157. 

*  nirabhuda.  Lokasmiy  abbuda,  translated  at  K.S.  i.  61  '*  a  hell 
on  earth,"  and  SA.  i.  100  says  that  "  thieves  are  those  who  cause 
ruin  in  the  world."  At  VA.  195  nirabbudo=niccoro,  free  from 
thieves.  It  explains  that  here  thieves  mean  those  who  are  im- 
moral, not  being  true  samanas;  but  pretending  to  be,  they  steal 
the  requisites  of  others.  Therefore  nirabbuda  (free  from  ruin) 
means  free  from  thieves,  free  from  immorality.  Nirabbuda  recurs 
below,  Vin.  iii.  18. 

^  Bu.  says,  VA.  195,  that  this  consists  of  virtue,  contemplation, 
wisdom,  freedom,  and  knowledge  and  insight  into  freedom. 

«  lacchimaka.  At  A.  ii.  80^and  D.  ii.  155  Gotama  is  made  to  use 
this  sentence  in  addressing  Ananda.  The  Corny,  on  A.  ii.  80  and 
at  DA.  ii.  593  say  that  by  pacchimaka,  Ananda  is  meant.  Our 
Corny.  {VA.  195)  naturally  does  not  refer  to  him. 

'  A  usual  formula  for  stream-entrants. 


20  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  10-11 


Then  the  lord  addressed  the  venerable  Ananda, 
saying:  "  Now,  Ananda,  it  is  the  custom  for  tathagatas 
not  to  tour  the  country  for  almsfood  without  having 
(first)  taken  leave  of  those  by  whom  they  have  been 
invited  to  spend  the  rains.  Let  us  go,  Ananda,  to  the 
brahmin  of  Veranja,  and  we  will  take  leave." 

"So  be  it,  lord,"  answered  the  venerable  Ananda. 

Then  the  lord,  taking  his  bowl  and  robe  and  departing 
with  the  venerable  Ananda  as  his  attendant,^  came  to 
the  dwelling  of  the  brahmin  of  Veranja;  and  having 
come  up  he  sat  down  on  the  appointed  seat.  Then  the 
brahmin  of  Veranja  came  up  to  the  lord,  and  having 
come  up  he  greeted  the  lord  and  sat  down  to  one  side. 
The  lord  said  to  the  brahmin  of  Verailja,  as  he  was 
sitting  to  one  side:  [10] 

"  Brahmin,  having  spent  the  rains  invited  by  you,  we 
are  taking  leave  of  you:  we  wish  to  tour  the  country 
for  alms." 

"  It  is  true,  good  Gotama,  that  you  have  spent  the  rains 
invited  by  me,  but  that  the  gifts  (to  mendicants)  were 
not  given.  This  was  not  because  we  did  not  want  to 
give.  But  how  was  it  possible  ?  For  the  household 
life  is  busy  and  there  is  much  to  be  done.  May  the 
revered  Gotama  consent  to  eat  with  me  tomorrow 
together  with  the  company  of  monks." 

The  lord  consented  by  keeping  silence.  Then  the 
lord,  having  taught,  roused,  gladdened  and  delighted 
the  brahmin  of  Veranja  with  dhamma-talk,  rose  from 
his  seat  and  went  away.  Then  the  brahmin  of  Veranja 
having  had  prepared  abundant  hard  and  soft  foods^  in 
his  own  home  by  the  end  of  the  night,  made  the  time 
known  to  the  lord: 

"  It  is  time,  good  Gotama,  the  meal  is  ready,"  he  said. 

Then  the  lord,  rising  up  early  and  taking  his  bowl  and 
robe,  came  up  to  the  dwelling  of  the  brahmin  of  Veranja. 
Having  come  up  together  with  the  company  of  monks,  he 


1  Pacchdsamana,  the  junior  monk  who  walks  behind  the  senior 
on  his  rounds.     Ananda  accompanies  Gotama  again  at  Vin.  iv.  78. 

2  Defined  at  Vin.  iv.  92. 


I.  4-6,  1]  DEFEAT  21 

sat  down  on  the  appointed  seat.  Then  the  brahmin  of 
Veranja,  having  served  with  his  own  hand  abundant 
food,  both  hard  and  soft,  to  the  company  of  monks 
with  the  enUghtened  one  as  their  head,  and  having 
satisfied  them,  when  the  lord  had  eaten  and  had  finished 
his  meal,  he  clothed  him  with  the  threefold  robes  and 
he  clothed  each  monk  with  a  set  of  garments.^  Then 
the  lord,  having  instructed,  roused,  gladdened  and 
delighted  the  brahmin  of  Veranja  with  talk  on  dhamma, 
rose  from  his  seat  and  departed. 

Then  the  lord,  having  remained  at  Veraiija  for  as 
long  as  he  found  suitable,  returning  by  Soreyya,^ 
Saqkassa^  and  Kannakujja*  came  to  Payagapatitthana,^ 
and  having  come  to  Payagapatitthana  and  crossing  the 
river  Ganges,  he  went  down  to  Benares.  And  the  lord 
having  remained  at  Benares  for  as  long  as  he  found 
suitable,  set  out  for  Vesali  for  alms.  In  due  course, 
wandering  for  alms,  he  arrived  at  Vesali.*  The  lord 
stayed  there  at  Vesali  in  the  Gabled  Hall  in  the  Great 
Wood.  I!  4 II 

Told  is  the  Recital  on  Veraiija 


Now  at  that  time  not  far  from  Vesali  was  a  village 
called  Kalandaka.  The  son  of  a  Kalandaka,  the  great 
merchant^  there,  was  named  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka. 


1  dussayuga,  cf.  Yin.  i.  278  and  Vin.  Texts  ii.  190,  n. ;  M.  i.  215 
=S.  V.  71. 

2  A  town  near  Takkasila ;  mentioned  also  in  connection  with  these 
other  two  towns  at  Vin.  ii.  299. 

3  A  town,  said  by  Fausboll  to  be  the  locus  of  Dhp,  181.  At  its 
gate  Sariputta  interpreted  a  problem,  on  which  Jataka  134  is 
based.     See  Jd.  i.  473. 

^  A  town. 

^  The  modern  Allahabad. 

«  Capital  of  the  Vajji  country.  See  B.  C.  Law,  Geography  of 
Early  Buddhism,  p.  12  f. 

'  VA.  202  says  that  as  other  people  there  were  called  Kalanda(ka), 
Sudinna  was  also  called  "  son  of  the  great  merchant  "  [setthiputta) 
— to  distinguish  him. 


22  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  11-12 

Now  Sudinna  the  Kalandaka^  went  to  Vesali,  together 
with  many  friends,  on  some  [11]  business.  At  that  time 
the  lord  was  seated,  surrounded  by  a  great  company 
of  people,  and  teaching  dhamma.  When  Sudinna,  the 
Kalandaka,  saw  the  lord  seated,  surrounded  by  a  great 
company  of  people,  and  teaching  dhamma,  he  thought^ : 
"  What  now  if  I  were  to  listen  to  dhamma  ?"^  Then 
Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka,  came  up  to  this  company, 
and  having  come  up,  he  sat  down  to  one  side.  As 
he  was  sittmg  to  one  side,  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka, 
thought:  "So  far  as  I  understand  dhamma  taught  by 
the  lord,  it  is  no  easy  matter  for  one  who  lives  in  a 
house  to  lead  the  Brahma-life,  complete  and  undefiled 
and  polished  like  a  conch-shell.  What  now  if  I  were 
to  cut  off  my  hair  and  beard  and  don  the  yellow  robes 
and  go  forth  from  home  into  homelessness  ?" 

When  the  crowd  had  been  taught,  roused,  gladdened 
and  delighted  by  the  lord  with  talk  on  dhamma,  and 
had  risen  from  their  seats,  greeting  the  lord  and  walking 
round  him,  keeping  their  right  side  towards  him,  they 
departed.  And  not  long  after  the  crowd  had  departed 
Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka,  came  up  to  the  lord  and 
having  come  up,  he  greeted  the  lord  and  sat  down  to 
one  side.  As  he  was  sitting  to  one  side,  Sudinna,  the 
Kalandaka,  spoke  thus  to  the  lord: 

"  Lord,  so  far  as  I  understand  dhamma  taught  by 
the  lord,  it  is  not  an  easy  matter  for  one  who  lives  in  a 
house  to  lead  the  Brahma-life,  complete  and  undefiled 
and  polished  like  a  conch-shell.  I  desire,  lord,  having 
cut  off  my  hair  and  beard  and  having  donned  the  yellow 
robes,  to  go  forth  from  home  into  homelessness.  May  the 
lord  let  me  go  forth." 


1  Keferred  to  at  Vin.  ii.  286  as  "  the  first  parajika,  promulgated 
at  Vesali  on  account  of  Sudinna  with  regard  to  sexual  intercourse." 
Referred  to  at  Miln.  170. 

2  VA.  202,  "  because  having  in  former  births  been  very  meritori- 
ous, he  was  incited,  a  clansman's  son,  bound  to  become  "  {bhabbakula- 
putta). 

^  This  same  story  is  told  in  practically  the  same  words  about 
Katthapala  at  M,  ii.  55  £f. 


I.  6,  1-2]  DEFEAT  23 

"But,  Sudinna,  have  you  your  parents'  consent  to 
go  forth  ?" 

"  No,  lord,  I  have  not  my  parents'  consent  to  go 
forth." 

"  Sudinna,  tathagatas  do  not  ordain  a  child  without 
the  parents'  consent." 

"  I  will  do  whatever  is  necessary,  so  that  my  parents 
will  consent  to  my  going  forth  from  home  into  homeless- 
ness,  lord."  |i  1 1| 

Then  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka,  having  finished  his 
business  in  Vesali,  went  up  to  his  parents  in  the  village 
of  Kalandaka,  and  having  come  up  to  his  parents,  he 
spoke  thus: 

"  Mother  and  father,  in  so  far  as  I  understand  dhamma 
taught  by  the  lord,  it  is  no  easy  matter  for  one  who 
lives  in  a  house  to  lead  the  Brahma-life,  complete  and 
undefiled  and  polished  like  a  conch-shell.  Having  cut 
off  my  hair  and  beard  and  donned  the  yellow  robes,  I 
wish  to  go  forth  from  home  [12]  into  homelessness. 
Give  me  your  consent  to  go  forth  from  home  into  home- 
lessness." 

When  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka,  had  spoken  thus,  his 
parents  said  to  him: 

"  But  you,  dear  Sudinna,  are  our  only  child,  dear  and 
beloved,  you  live  in  comfort  and  are  well  cared  for. 
Dear  Sudinna,  you  do  not  know  anything  of  discomfort. 
Your  death  would  make  us  desolate  with  no  pleasure 
left.  How  can  we,  while  you  are  still  living,  consent 
that  you  should  go  forth  from  home  into  homelessness  ?" 

A  second  time  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka,  spoke  thus 
to  his  parents:  "Mother  and  father  .  .  ."  ".  .  .  from 
home  into  homelessness?"  A  third  time  Sudinna,  the 
Kalandaka,  spoke  thus  to  his  parents:  "Mother  and 
father  .  .  ."  ".  .  .  from  home  into  homelessness?" 

Then  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka,  said:  "My  parents  do 
not  consent  to  my  going  forth  from  home  into  home- 
lessness." So  he  lay  down  on  the  bare  ground  and 
said:  "  I  will  die  here,  or  go  forth."  Then  Sudinna,  the 
Kalandaka,  did  not  eat  one  meal,  Txor  did  he  eat  two 


24  BOOK  OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  ia-14 

meals,  nor  did  he  eat  three  meals,  nor  did  he  eat  four 
meals,  nor  did  he  eat  five  meals,  nor  did  he  eat  six 
meals,  nor  did  he  eat  seven  meals.^  And  then  the 
parents  of  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka,  spoke  thus  to 
him: 

"  Dear  Sudinna,  you  are  our  only  child,  dear  and 
beloved,  you  live  in  comfort  and  are  well  cared  for. 
Dear  Sudinna,  you  know  nothing  of  discomfort.  Your 
death  would  make  us  desolate  with  no  pleasure  left. 
How  can  we,  while  you  are  still  living,  consent  that 
you  should  go  forth  from  home  into  homelessness  ? 
Get  up,  dear  Sudinna,  eat  and  drink  and  amuse  yourself; 
eating,  drinking,  amusing  yourself,  delighting  in  sensual 
pleasures  and  doing  meritorious  deeds,^  enjoy  yourself.^ 
We  do  not  consent  to  your  going  forth  from  home  into 
homelessness." 

When  they  had  spoken  thus,  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka, 
was  silent.  A  second  time  and  a  third  time  the  parents 
of  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka,  said:  ".  .  .  We  do  not 
consent  to  your  going  forth  from  home  into  homeless- 
ness." A  third  time  was  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka, 
silent.  II  2 II 

Then  the  friends  of  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka,  came 
up  to  him,  and  having  come  up  they  spoke  to  him  thus: 
*'  You,  good  Sudinna,  are  your  [13]  parents'  only  child, 
dear  and  beloved;  you  live  in  comfort  and  are  well  cared 
for.  You  do  not  know  anything,  good  Sudinna,  of 
discomfort.  Your  death  would  make  your  parents 
desolate  with  no  pleasures  left.  How  can  they,  while 
you  are  still  living,  consent  that  you  should  go  forth 
from  home  into  homelessness  ?  Get  up,  good  Sudinna. 
Eat  and  drink  and  amuse  yourself;  eating,  drinking  and 
amusing  yourself,  take  delight  in  sensual  pleasures  and 
doing  meritorious  deeds,  enjoy  yourself.     Your  parents 

1  This  passage  omitted  at  M.  ii.  57,  see  loc.  cit.,  n.  7. 

2  VA.  205,  "  giving  gifts,  cleansing  the  way  to  a  good  bourn, 
doing  good  actions." 

3  Abhiramassu,  or  "indulge  in  love";  but  from  the  context  I 
think  not  here.     Cf.  below,  p.  114. 


I.  5,  3^]  DEFEAT  25 

cannot  consent  to  your  going  forth  from  home  into 
homelessness." 

When  they  had  spoken  thus,  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka, 
was  silent.  A  second  and  a  third  time  the  friends  of 
Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka,  spoke  thus  to  him:  '^  You, 
good  Sudinna,  are  .  .  /'  and  a  third  time  Sudinna,  the 
son  of  Kalandaka,  was  silent.  ||  3  || 

Then  the  friends  of  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka,  went  up 
to  his  parents,  and  having  come  up  to  them,  they  said : 

"  Mother  and  father,  this  Sudinna,  lying  on  the  bare 
ground,  says  that  he  will  die  there  or  go  lorth.  If  you 
do  not  consent  to  Sudinna's  going  forth  from  home  into 
homelessness  he  will  die  there.  But  if  you  consent  to 
his  going  forth  from  home  into  homelessness,  after  he 
has  gone  forth  you  may  see  him  again.  If  he  does  not 
enjoy  the  going  forth  from  home  into  homelessness, 
what  alternative^  will  he  have  than  to  come  back  here  ? 
Consent  to  Sudinna's  going  forth  from  home  into  home- 
lessness." 

"  We  consent,  my  dears,  to  Sudinna's  going  forth  from 
home  into  homelessness,"  they  said. 

Then  the  friends  of  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka,  went 
up  to  him,  and  having  gone  up,  they  said  to  him:  "  Get 
up,  good  Sudinna,  your  parents  consent  to  your  going 
forth  from  home  into  homelessness." 

Then  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka,  said:  "  They  say  that 
my  parents  consent  to  my  going  forth  from  home 
into  homelessness."  And  he  rose,  joyful,  delighted, 
elated,  smoothing  his  limbs  with  his  hands.  Then 
Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka,  after  a  few  days  when  he 
had  regained  his  strength,  went  up  to  the  lord,  and 
having  come  up  he  greeted  the  lord  and  sat  down  to 
one  side.  As  he  was  sitting  to  one  side,  Sudinna,  the 
Kalandaka,  spoke  thus  to  the  lord : 

"  I  am  permitted  by  my  parents,  lord,  to  go  forth 
from  home  into  homelessness.  May  the  lord  allow  me 
to  go  forth."  [14] 

^  gatij  lit.  going  or  bourn. 


26  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  15 


Then  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka,  received  the  pab- 
bajja  ordination  in  the  presence  of  the  lord,  and  he 
received  the  upasampada  ordination.  And  not  long 
afterwards  the  venerable  Sudinna  went  about  with  these 
qualities^  to  the  fore:  he  was  a  dweller  in  the  jungle,  a 
beggar  for  alms,  one  who  wore  rags  taken  from  the 
dust-heap,  one  who  went  on  continuous  alms-begging 
from  house  to  house;  and  he  dwelt  depending  on  a 
certain  village  of  the  Vajjians.  ||  4  || 

At  that  time  the  Vajjians^  were  short  of  almsfood,^ 
which  was  difficult  to  obtain;  they  were  suffering  from 
a  famine,  and  food-tickets  wer^  issued.  Nor  was  it 
easy  to  keep  oneself  going  by  gleaning  or  by  favour. 
Now  the  venerable  Sudinna  thought  to  himself:  "  At 
present  the  Vajjians  are  short  of  almsfood,  which  is 
difficult  to  obtain;  they  are  suffering  from  a  famine, 
and  food-tickets  are  being  issued.  It  is  not  easy  to 
keep  oneself  going  by  gleaning  or  by  favour.  But  in 
Vesali  my  relations  are  rich,  with  great  resources  and 
possessions,  having  immense  (supplies  of)  gold  and  silver,* 
immense  means  and  immense  resources  in  corn.^  What 
now  if  I  should  dwell  supported  by  my  family  ?  Re- 
lations will  give  gifts  for  my  support,  they  will  do 
meritorious  actions;  and  the  monks  will  profit  and  I 
will  not  go  short  of  almsfood." 

Then  the  venerable  Sudinna,  packing  up  his  bedding 
and  taking  his  bowl  and  robe,  set  out  for  Vesali,  where 
he  arrived  in  due  course.  The  venerable  Sudinna 
stayed  there  at  Vesali  in  the  Gabled  Hall  in  the  Great 
Wood.  The  relations  of  the  venerable  Sudinna  said  to 
themselves:  "  They  say  that  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka, 

1  VA.  206,  dhutagune==kilesaniddhunanake  gune. 

2  Tribes  belonging  to  one  of  the  sixteen  stock  mahdjanapadas 
{A.  i.  213 ;  iv.  252,  256,  260).  See  E.  J.  Thomas,  The  Life  of  Buddha, 
p.  13,  and,  on  the  Vajjis  or  Vajjians,  T.  W.  Rhys  Davids,  Buddhist 
India,  p.  25. 

3  Cf  above  Par.  I.  2,  1,  and  below,  Par.  IV.  1,  1. 

*  jdtarupa-rajata.     See  below,  p.  28,  n.  1. 

*  For  this  stock  phrase  cf.  A.  ii.  86;  S.  i.  17.  On  prosperity  of 
Vesali,  cf  Vin.  i.  268. 


I.  6,  5-6]  DEFEAT  27 

has  arrived  at  VesalT."  And  they  brought  him  as  a 
gift  of  food  sixty  offerings  of  barley.^  Then  the 
venerable  Sudinna,  having  given  these  sixty  offerings  of 
barley  to  the  monks,  rising  early  and  taking  his  bowl 
and  robe,  entered  the  village  of  Kalandaka  for  alms. 
As  he  was  going  about  Kalandaka  village  on  a  continuous 
alms-tour,  he  came  up  to  his  own  father's  house.  |i  5  || 

At  that  time  the  female  slave  of  the  venerable 
Sudinna 's  relations  wanted  to  throw  away  the  previous 
evening's  barley-gruel.  But  the  venerable  Sudinna 
spoke  thus  to  this  female  slave: 

"  If  that,  sister,  is  to  be  thrown  away,  put  it  here  in 
my  bowl.*' 

Then  as  the  slave-girl  of  the  venerable  Sudinna's 
relations  was  heaping  the  previous  evening's  barley- 
gruel  into  his  bowl,  she  recognised  his  hands  and  feet 
and  voice. 2  Then  the  female  slave  of  the  venerable 
Sudinna's  relations  went  up  to  his  mother,  and  having 
come  up  she  said  to  her: 

'*  If  it  please  you,^  madam,  you  should  know  that 
the  young  master*  Sudinna  is  back  ?" 

"  Now  then,  if  you  speak  the  truth,  I  will  make  you 
a  freed  woman." 

At  that  time  the  venerable  Sudinna  was  eating  the 
previous  evening's  barley-gruel  in  the  room  provided 
for  the  purpose.^  Then  the  [15]  venerable  Sudinna's 
father  coming  from  work,  saw  the  venerable  Sudinna 

1  VA.  207  explains  that  each  offering  would  feed  ten  monks, 
therefore  sixty  would  feed  six  hundred. 

2  VA.  208  explains  that  Sudinna  had  been  a  monk  for  eight 
years,  so  although  the  slave  did  not  know  him  at  once,  she  recognized 
the  character  of  his  hands,  feet  and  voice. 

3  yagghe. 

*  ayyapiUta. 

^  annataran  kvddamulay  nissdya.  P,T.S.  Diet,  calls  kuddamula, 
"  a  sort  of  root."  But  VA.  209  says  it  means  "  that  in  this  district 
there  are  rooms  in  the  houses  of  the  large  householders  where  there 
are  seats  prepared,  and  where  those  going  for  alms  sit  down  and  eat 
the  gruel  offered  to  them."  Cf.  M.  i.  62,  where  kuddafj  with  v. I. 
kuddamulay.  MA.  iii.  2d7=VA.  210.  Lord  Chalmers  translates 
'*  under  the  hedge."    May  mean  "  leaning  against  a  wall." 


28  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  16 

eating  the  previous  evening's  barley-gruel  in  the  room 
provided  for  the  purpose;  and  seeing  the  venerable 
Sudinna  he  came  up  to  him,  and  having  come  up  he 
said  to  him: 

"  Can  it  be,  dear  Sudinna,  that  you  are  eating  last 
evening's  barley-gruel.  Surely,  dear  Sudinna,  you 
should  go  into  your  own  home  ?" 

"We  went,  householder,  to  your  house;  hence  last 
evening's  barley-gruel." 

Then  the  father  of  the  venerable  Sudinna,  taking  him 
by  the  arm,  said  to  him:  "  Come,  dear  Sudinna,  we  will 
go  to  the  house." 

Then  the  venerable  Sudinna  came  up  to  the  dwelling 
of  his  own  father,  and  having  come  up  he  sat  down  on 
the  appointed  seat.  And  the  father  of  the  venerable 
Sudinna  said  to  him:  "  Eat,  dear  Sudinna." 

"  Not  so,  householder;  today's  meal  is  over  for  me." 

"  Consent,  dear  Sudinna,  to  eat  tomorrow." 

The  venerable  Sudinna  consented  by  keeping  silent. 
Then  the  venerable  Sudinna,  rising  from  his  seat, 
departed.  Then  the  mother  of  the  venerable  Sudinna, 
having  had  the  ground  smeared  with  fresh  cow-dung, 
had  two  heaps  made,  one  of  gold  coins^  and  the  other 


*  ekam  hirannassa  ekam  suvannassa.  At  M.  ii.  63  the  reading  is 
hirannasuvannassa  (punjarn),  translated  at  Fur.  Dial.  ii.  32,  "  of 
gold  and  bullion,"  and  then  again  "  treasure."  Khys  Davids, 
Ancient  Coins,  etc.,  p.  5,  gives  other  and  earlier  translations  for  both 
these  passages.  There  is  no  doubt  that  two  heaps  are  meant, 
cf.  MA.  iii.  299,  and  that  therefore  the  two  words  hiranna  and 
suvanna  are  intended  to  represent  a  difference  in  the  materials  of  which 
the  heaps  were  composed.  Cf.  below,  Vin.  iii.  48,  216,  hirannam 
vd  suvannam  vd.  I  think  that  there  is  little  doubt  that  suvanna  is 
the  worked  or  refined  gold,  but  it  does  not  appear  to  follow  in  the 
least  that  hiranna  is  therefore  the  un worked,  unrefined  gold. 
For  at  A.  i.  2b3  jdtarUpa  is  clearly  the  un  worked  (sterling)  gold; 
the  process  of  working  this  is  described,  and  when  finished  some 
gold  ornament  is  the  result.  (At  Vin.  iii.  238  jdtarupa  is  called 
satthuvanna,  the  colour  of  the  Teacher.)  I  therefore  cannot  sub- 
scribe to  the  translation  of  hiraftnasuvanna  at  Fur.  Dial.  ii.  94 
{=M.  ii.  166)  as  "  wrought  and  unwrought  gold."  JdtarUpa  is 
gold  in  its  unwrought  state,  therefore,  hiranna  will  almost  certainly 
have  some  other  meaning,  with  a  greater  or  lesser  shade  of  difference. 


I.  5,  6]  DEFEAT  29 

of  gold.  The  heaps  were  so  large  that  from  this  side 
a  man  standing  could  not  see  a  man  standing  at  the  other 
side,  and  from  the  other  side  a  man  standing  could  not 
see  a  man  standing  at  this  side.  Hiding  these  heaps 
with  screens,  and  preparing  a  seat  between  them 
surrounded  by  a  curtain,  she  addressed  the  venerable 
Sudinna's  former  wife,  saying: 

"  Daughter-in-law,  adorn  yourself  with  those  orna- 


At  p.  79  Corny,  leads  one  to  suppose  that  hiranna  is  an  ornament; 
cf.  Monier- Williams,  Sanskrit- English  Dictionary  under  hiranya, 
where  one  of  the  meanings  given  is  "  a  golden  ornament  (Ved.).'' 
But  I  think  that  hiranna  most  probably  means  "  gold  coins." 
N.B. — use  of  the  plural  at  Vin.  iii.  219.  According  to  Boehtlingk 
{Sanskrit -Worterbuch)  it  meant  *'  Gold,  spater  auch  Geld,"  and  this 
is  the  interpretation  put  upon  it  in  some  commentarial  passages, 
and  I  think  also  at  S.  i.  89  where  hiranna  is  balanced  by  rupiya, 
silver  {=rajata,  see  Vin.  iii.  238,  240,  except  that  at  240  rUpiya  is  also 
called  satthuvanna,  which  at  238  is  reserved  for  jdtarUpa).  VA.  210 
on  the  above  passage  says  that  "  here  hiranna  should  be  called  kahd- 
pana.''  And  at  SnA.  323,  on  Sn.  307,  and  SnA.  513  on  Sn.  769 
hiranna  is  explained  as  kahdpana.samkhdta,  while  at  SnA.  315  on  Sn. 
285  it  is  said  that  na  hiranna  means  that  "there  was  not  even  quarter 
of  a  masaka,"  (on  musakay  see  below,  p.  72).  In  none  of  these  Sn. 
passages  is  hiranna  combined  with  suvanna,  which  is  interesting  and 
curious.  Although  the  Commentator  shows  a  tendency  to  call  hiranna 
kahapana,  this  does  not  get  us  much  further.  For  we  do  not 
exactly  know  what  a  kahapana  was  at  any  given  time.  At  Vin.  iii. 
238,  240  it  appears  in  the  definitions  of  rajata  and  rupiya,  but  at 
the  time  of  the  Vinaya  its  value  may  have  been  different  from  that 
which  it  had  at  Bu.'s  time.  All  we  can-  say  is  that  the  kahapana 
was  the  medium  of  exchange  in  Pali  literature,  and  because 
the  Commentators  sometimes  explain  hiranna  by  kahapana,  then 
the  nearest  we  can  get  to  a  translation  at  present  is  "  gold  coins." 
This  seems  a  more  likely  translation  than  "  gold  leaf  "  (which  so 
far  as  I  know  has  never  been  suggested).  Hiranna  is  undoubtedly 
connected  with  hari,  meaning  ''  yellow,  yellowish,  green,  greenish," 
and  I  find  that  in  the  Ency.  Brit,  it  is  said  of  gold  that  "  while  in 
very  thin  leaves  it  transmits  a  greenish  light."  Before  the  days 
when  it  was  fashionable  to  plaster  stupas  and  images  of  the 
Buddha  with  gold-leaf,  it  is  not,  however,  very  likely  that  this 
substance  would  have  been  used  in  any  large  quantities.  Rich 
people  would  have  been  more  apt  to  have  "  heaps  of  gold 
coins."  Although  more  Pali  literature  is  available  to  us  than  was 
to  Rhys  Davids,  we  must  still  say  with  him  {Ancient  Coins,  etc., 
p.  5)  that  "  to  decide  these  points  we  must  have  more  texts 
before  us." 


30  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  16-17 


ments,  adorned  with  which  you  were  dear  to  my  son, 
Sudinna,  and  beloved  by  him." 

"  Very  good,  noble  lady,"  the  former  wife  of  the 
venerable  Sudinna  answered  his  mother.  ||  6  || 

Then  the  venerable  Sudinna,  rising  early  and  taking 
his  bowl  and  robe,  came  up  to  the  dweUing  of  his  own 
father,  and  having  come  up  he  sat  down  on  the  appointed 
seat.  Then  the  father  of  the  venerable  Sudinna  came 
up  to  him,  and  having  come  up,  revealing  the  heaps,  he 
spoke  thus  to  the  venerable  Sudinna: 

"  This,  dear  Sudinna,  is  your  mother's  fortune,  the 
wife's  dowry  because  she  is  a  woman.  This  is  your 
father's  and  the  other  is  your  paternal  grandfather's.^ 
It  is  possible,  dear  Sudinna,  while  leading  the  low  life 
of  a  layman,  both  to  enjoy  riches  and  to  do  meritori- 
ous actions.  Come,  dear  Sudinna,  while  leading  the  low 
life  of  a  layman,  enjoy  riches  and  do  meritorious 
actions."  [16] 

*'  I  am  not  able  to  do  so,  father,  I  cannot.  Delighted,^ 
1  lead  the  Brahma-life." 

A  second  and  a  third  time  the  father  of  the  venerable 
Sudinna  spoke  thus  to  him:  "This,  dear  Sudinna,  is 
your  mother's  portion,  the  wife's  dowry  because  she  is 
a  woman.  That  is  your  father's  and  the  other  is  your 
paternal  grandfather's.  It  is  possible,  dear  Sudinna, 
while  leading  the  low  life  of  a  layman,  both  to  enjoy 
riches  and  to  do  meritorious  actions.  Come,  dear 
Sudinna,  enjoy  riches  while  leading  the  low  life  of  a 
layman,  and  do  meritorious  actions." 

"  If  you  would  not  take  it  in  bad  part,  householder, 
we  could  tell  you  what  (to  do)." 

"  Speak,  dear  Sudinna,"  he  said. 

"  Well  then,  you,  householder,  having  had  very  large 
bags  of  hemp-cloth  made,  having  had  them  filled  with 
the  coins  and  the  gold,  and  having  had  them  brought 


1  It  is  curious  that  here  there  seem  to  be  three  heaps,  whereas 
just  above  it  is  said  that  two  were  made. 

*  abJdrato,  to  be  translated  in  this  context  as  above.  But  see 
below,  p.  114. 


I.  6,  7-8]  DEFEAT  3I 

down  on  wagons — sink  them  in  the  middle  stream  of 
the  Ganges.  And  why  ?  Because,  householder,  on 
account  of  them  you  will  become  either  frightened  or 
terrified,^  or  your  hair  will  stand  on  end,  or  there  will 
be  no  protection  for  you." 

When  he  had  thus  spoken  the  father  of  the  venerable 
Sudinna  was  not  pleased,  and  said:  "  Why  does  the  son, 
Sudinna,  speak  thus  ?"  Then  the  venerable  Sudinna's 
father  addressed  the  venerable  Sudinna's  former  wife: 

"  Well  now,  daughter-in-law,  as  you  were  dear  and 
beloved,  so  perhaps  now  the  son  Sudinna  will  do  your 
bidding." 

Then  the  former  wife  of  the  venerable  Sudinna,  taking 
hold  of  his  feet,  spoke  thus  to  the  venerable  Sudinna : 

' '  What  are  these  (deva2-)nyniph8  like,  son  of  my  lord, 
for  whose  sake  you  lead  the  Brahma-life  ?" 

"  I  do  not  lead  the  Brahma-life,  sister,  for  the  sake 
of  (deva2-)nymph8." 

Then  the  former  wife  of  the  venerable  Sudinna  said : 

"  From  this  day  on  my  lord's  son  greets  me  by  saying 
'  sister,'  "  and  she  fell  down  at  that  very  spot  in  a 
swoon.  II  7  II 

Then  the  venerable  Sudinna  spoke  thus  to  his  father: 

"If,  householder,  there  is  food  to  be  given,  give  it, 
but  do  not  annoy  me." 

"  Eat,  dear  Sudinna,"  he  said. 

Then  the  mother  and  the  father  of  the  venerable 
Sudinna  waited  on  him  and  satisfied  him  with  abundant 
food,  both  hard  and  soft.  Then  when  the  venerable 
Sudinna  had  eaten  and  had  finished  his  meal  his  mother 
said  to  him: 

"  This  family,  dear  Sudinna,  is  rich,  of  great  resources 
and  possessions,  having  immense  supplies  of  gold  and 
silver,  immense  means,  and  immense  resources  in  corn. 
It  is  possible,  dear  Sudinna,  while  leading  the  low  life 
of  a  layman,  both  to  enjoy  riches  and  to  do  meritorious 


^  Chambhitatta,  see  below,  p.  119,  n.  3. 
2  So  VA.  212. 


32  BOOK   OF  THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  17-18 

actions.  Come,  dear  Sudinna,  enjoy  riches  while  leading 
the  low  life  of  a  layman  and  do  meritorious  actions." 

"  Mother,  I  am  not  able  to  do  so,  [17]  I  cannot. 
Delighted,!  I  lead  the  good  life." 

A  second  time  and  a  third  time  the  mother  of  the 
venerable  Sudinna  spoke  to  him  thus : 

"  This  family,  dear  Sudinna,  is  rich,  of  great  resources 
and  possessions,  having  immense  (supplies  of)  gold  and 
silver,  immense  means,  and  immense  resources  in  corn. 
For  this  reason,  dear  Sudinna,  beget  offspring;  do  not 
let  the  Licchavis^  take  over  our  heirless  property." 

"  It  is  possible  for  me  to  do  this,^  mother,"  he 
said. 

"  Where,  dear  Sudinna,  are  you  staying  at  present  ?" 
she  said. 

"In  the  Great  Wood,  mother,"  he  said.  Then  the 
venerable  Sudinna,  rising  up  frOm  his  seat,  departed.  ||  8  || 

Then  the  mother  of  the  venerable  Sudinna  addressed 
his  former  wife,  saying: 

"  Daughter-in-law,  as  soon  as  you  menstruate,  the  flow 
coming,  you  should  tell  me." 

"  Very  well,  noble  lady,"  the  former  wife  of  the 
venerable  Sudinna  answered  his  mother.  Not  long 
afterwards  the  former  wife  of  the  venerable  Sudinna 
menstruated  and  the  flow  began.  And  the  former  wife 
of  the  venerable  .Sudinna  said  to  his  mother:  "  Noble 
lady,  I  am  menstruating  and  the  flow  has  begun." 

"  Daughter-in-law,  adorn  yourself  with  those  orna- 
ments, adorned  with  which  you  were  dear  to  my  son 
Sudinna  and  beloved  by  him,"  she  said. 

"  Very  well,  noble  lady,"  the  former  wife  of  the 
venerable  Sudinna  answered  his  mother. 

^  abhirato,  here  I  think  meaning  simply  as  translated  above.  But 
see  below,  p.  114. 

2  Their  capital  was  at  Vesali. 

3  VA.  212  says  that  he  said  this  thinking  that  if  he  had  issue 
his  relations  would  no  longer  bother  him  about  looking  after  the 
property,  and  so  he  would  be  able  to  follow  the  dhamma  of  recluses 
at  ease. 


I.  5,  9]  DEFEAT  33 

Then  the  mother  of  the  venerable  Sudinna  together 
with  his  former  wife  went  up  to  the  venerable  Sudinna 
in  the  Great  Wood,  and  having  come  up  she  spoke  thus 
to  him: 

"  This  family,  dear  Sudinna,  is  rich,  of  great  resources 
and  possessions,  having  immense  (supplies  of)  gold  and 
silver,  immense  means,  and  immense  resources  in  corn. 
For  this  reason,  dear  Sudinna,  beget  offspring;  do  not 
let  the  Licchavis  take  over  our  heirless  property." 

*'  It  is  possible  for  me  to  do  this,  mother,"  he  said, 
and  taking  his  former  wife  by  the  arm  and  plunging 
into  the  Great  Wood,  and  seeing  no  danger,  since  the 
course  of  training  had  not  been  made  known,  three 
times  he  induced  his  former  wife  to  indulge  in  sexual 
intercourse  with  him.  As  a  result  she  conceived.  The 
earth -de  vas  made  this  sound  heard: 

"  Good  sirs,  the  company  of  monks  is  without  im- 
morality,^ it  is  not  beset  by  danger,  but  immorality 
is  evoked,  danger  is  evoked  by  Sudinna,  the  Kalan- 
daka." 

The  retinue  of  the  Four  Firmament  devas,  having 
heard  the  sound  of  the  earth-devas,  made  this  sound 
heard  .  .  .  the  Thirty  devas  .  .  .the  Yama  devas  ... 
the  Happy  devas  .  .  .  the  devas  who  delight  in  creation 
.  .  .  [18]  the  devas  who  dehght  in  the  creation  of 
others  .  .  .  the  devas  belonging  to  the  retinue  of 
Brahma  made  this  sound  heard: 

"  Good  sirs,  the  company  of  monks  is  without  im- 
morality, it  is  not  beset  by  danger,  but  immorality  is 
evoked,  danger  is  evoked  by  Sudinna,  the  Kalandaka." 
Thus  in  this  very  moment,  this  very  second,  the 
sound  went  forth  as  far  as  the  Brahma- world. ^  Then 
the  womb  of  the  venerable  Sudinna's  former  wife 
came  to  maturity,  and  she  gave  birth  to  a  son.  Now 
the  friends  of  th<3  venerable  Sudinna  called  this  boy 
Bijaka;  they  called  the  former  wife  of  the  venerable 
Sudinna,   Bijaka's  mother;   they  called  the  venerable 

^  nirabbuda,  cf.  above,  p.  19,  n.  4. 

2  VA.  215,  brahmalokd=aka7iitthabrahmalokd,  i.e.  the  worlds  of 
the  Elder  Brahma-devas. 

3 


34  600K   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  19 

Sudinna,  Bijaka's  father.  At  (some)  later  time,  both^ 
having  gone  forth  from  home  into  homelessness,  they 
realised  arahanship.  ||  9  || 

Then  the  venerable  Sudinna  was  remorseful  and 
conscience-stricken,  and  said: 

"  It  surely  is  not  a  gain  to  me,  it  surely  is  not  a  gain 
to  me,  I  have  surely  ill-gained,  I  have  surely  not  well- 
gained,  that  having  gone  forth  under  this  dhamma  and 
discipline  which  are  well  preached,  I  was  not  able  for  all 
my  life  to  lead  the  Brahma -life,  complete  and  purified." 
And  because  of  his  remorse  and  bad  conscience,  he 
became  haggard,  wretched,  of  a  bad  colour,  yellowish, 
the  veins  showing  all  over  his  body,  melancholy,  of 
sluggish  mind,  miserable,  depressed,  repentant,  weighed 
down  with  grief. ^  Then  the  monks  who  were  the  friends 
of  the  venerable  Sudinna  said  to  him : 

"  Formerly  you,  reverend  Sudinna,  were  handsome, 
your  features  were  rounded,  your  face  was  a  good  colour, 
your  skin  clear.  But  now  at  present  you  are  haggard, 
wretched,  a  bad  colour,  yellowish,  your  veins  showing 
all  over  your  body,  melancholy,  of  sluggish  mind, 
miserable,  depressed,  repentant,  weighed  down  with 
grief.  Can  it  be  that  you,  reverend  Sudinna,  lead  the 
Brahma-life  dissatisfied  ?"^ 

"I  do  not,  your  reverences,  lead  the  Brahma-life 
dissatisfied.  I  have  done  an  evil  deed.  I  have  indulged 
in  sexual  intercourse  with  my  former  wife.  That  is 
why,  your  reverences,  I  am  remorseful  ...  to  lead  the 
Brahma-life,  complete  and  purified." 

*'  Reverend  Sudinna,  you  ought  to  feel  remorse,* 
reverend  Sudinna,  you  ought  to  have  a  bad  conscience, 
because  you,  having  gone  forth  under  dhanmia  and  the 
discipline  which  are  well  preached,  cannot  during  your 
life-time  lead  the  Brahma-life,  complete  and  purified. 

1  Ilrid. — i.e.,  Bijaka  and  his  mother.  ^  Stock. 

3  anabhirato,  VA.  217,  "  fretting,  longing  to  be  a  householder 
.  .  .  but  I  find  no  delight  (anabhirato)  in  making  become  the 
conditions  of  higher  righteousness."     See  below,  p.  114,  notes. 

*  =Vm.  ii.  250. 


I.  5,  10-11]  DEFEAT  35 

Is  not,  your  reverence,  dhamma  taught  by  the  lord  in 
various  ways  for  the  sake  of  passionlessness,  not  for  the 
sake  of  passion;  is  not  dhamma  taught  for  the  sake  of 
being  without  fetters,  not  for  the  sake  of  being  bound ; 
is  not  dhamma  taught  for  the  sake  of  being  without 
grasping,  not  for  the  sake  of  grasping  ?  How  can  you, 
your  reverence,  while  this  dhamma  is  taught  by  the 
lord  for  the  sake  of  passionlessness,  strive  after  passion; 
how  can  you  while  this  dhamma  is  taught  by  the  lord 
for  the  sake  of  being  without  fetters,  [19]  strive  after 
being  bound ;  how  can  you  while  this  dhamma  is  taught 
by  the  lord  for  the  sake  of  being  without  grasping,  strive 
after  grasping  ?  Is  not,  your  reverence,  dtiamma  taught 
in  many  ways  by  the  lord  for  the  waning  of  passion,  is 
not  dhamma  taught  for  the  subduing  of  conceit,  for  the 
restraint  of  desire,  for  the  abolition  of  clinging,  for  the 
annihilation  of  the  round  of  becomings,^  for  the  destruc- 
tion of  craving,  for  passionlessness,  for  stopping,  for 
waning  P  Has  not,  your  reverence,  the  destruction  of 
the  pleasures  of  the  senses  been  declared  in  many  ways 
by  the  lord,  full  understanding  of  ideas  of  the  pleasures 
of  the  senses  been  declared,  restraint  in  clinging  to  the 
pleasures  of  the  senses  been  declared,  the  elimination 
of  thoughts  of  pleasures  of  the  senses  been  declared, 
the  allaying  of  the  fever  of  the  pleasures  of  the  senses 
been  declared  ?  It  is  not,  your  reverence,  for  the  benefit 
of  non-believers,  nor  for  the  increase  in  the  number  of 
believers,  but  it  is,  your  reverence,  to  the  detriment  of 
both  non-believers  and  believers,  and  it  causes  wavering 
in  some."  II  10  II 


Then  thqse  monks,  having  rebuked  the  venerable 
Sudinna  in  various  ways,  told  this  matter  to  the  lord. 
And  the  lord  for  this  reason,  in  this  connection,  having 
had  the  company  of  monks  convened,  questioned  the 
venerable  Sudinna,  saying: 

^  VA.  218,  tebhiimakavattafj  ucchijjati  {i.e.  the  kdma,  rupa  and 
arupa  becomings). 

2  Cf.  A.  ii.  34,  and  various  passages  in  S.  v. 


36  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  20-21 

**  Is  it  true,  as  is  said,  Sudinna,  that  you  indulged  in 
sexual  intercourse  with  your  former  wife  ?" 

"  It  is  true,  lord,"  he  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  him, 
saying: 

"It  is  not  fit,  foolish  man,  it  is  not  becoming,  it  is 
not  proper,  it  is  unworthy  of  a  recluse,  it  is  not  lawful, 
it  ought  not  to  be  done.  How  is  that  you,  foolish  man, 
having  gone  forth  under  this  dhamma  and  discipline 
which  are  well  taught,  are  not  able  for  your  lifetime 
to  lead  the  Brahma-life  which  is  complete  and  wholly 
purified  ?  How  can  you  strive,  foolish  man,  while 
dhamma  is  taught  by  me  in  various  ways  for  the  sake 
of  passionlessness  .  .  .  foolish  man,  by  me  for  the 
sake  of  passionlessness.  Foolish  man,  is  not  dhamma 
taught  by  me  in  various  ways  for  the  waning  of  passion 
.  .  .  the  destruction  of  pleasures  of  the  senses  .  .  .  the 
allaying  of  the  fever  of  the  pleasures  of  the  senses  been 
declared  ?  It  were  better  for  you,  foolish  man,  that 
your  male  organ  should  enter  the  mouth  of  a  terrible 
and  poisonous  snake,  than  that  it  should  enter  a  woman. 
It  were  better  for  you,  foolish  man,  that  your  male 
organ  should  enter  the  mouth  of  a  black  snake,  than  that 
it  should  enter  a  woman.  It  were  better  for  you, 
foolish  man,  that  your  male  organ  should  enter  a  charcoal 
pit,  burning,  ablaze,  afire,  than  that  it  should  enter  a 
woman.  What  is  the  cause  for  this  ?  For  that  reason, 
foolish  man,  you  would  go  to  death,  or  to  suffering  like 
unto  death,  but  not  on  that  account  would  you  pass 
at  the  breaking  up  of  the  body  after  death  to  the  waste, 
the  bad  bourn,  the  abyss,  hell.  But  for  this  reason, 
foolish  man,  at  the  breaking  up  of  the  body  after  death, 
you  would  pass  to  the  waste,  [20]  the  bad  bourn,  the 
abyss,  hell.^  Thus  for  this  very  deed,  foolish  man,  you 
will  enter  upon  what  is  not  verily  dhamma,^  upon  village 

1  Cf.  below,  p.  155. 

-  asaddhamma.  VA.  22J,  "You  would  follow  untrue  dhamma 
of  interior  people."  On  prefix  sa-  see  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids,  introduc- 
tion to  G.tS.  J.  ix.  f. 


I.  5,  11]  DEFEAT  37 

dhamma,  upon  a  low  dhamma/  upon  wickedness,  upon 
final  ablution,^  upon  secrecy,  upon  having  obtained 
in  couples.  Foolish  man,  you  are  the  first-doer  of  many 
wrong  things.  It  is  not,  foqlish  man,  for  the  benefit 
of  un-believers,  nor  for  the  increase  in  the  number  of 
believers,  but,  foolish  man,  it  is  to  the  detriment  of 
both  unbelievers  and  believers,  and  it  causes  wavering 
in  some." 

Then  the  lord,  having  rebuked  the  venerable  Sudinna 
in  various  ways,  and  having  spoken  in  dispraise  of  his 
difficulty  in  supporting  and  maintaining  himself,  of  his 
arrogance,  of  his  lack  of  contentment,  of  his  clinging 
(to  the  obstructions^)  and  of  his  indolence;  and  having 
spoken  in  various  ways  of  the  ease  of  supporting  and 
maintaining  oneself,  of  desiring  little,  of  contentment,  of 
expunging  (evil),*  of  punctiliousness,  of  what  is  gracious, 
of  decreasing  (the  obstructions^)  and  of  the  putting 
forth  of  energy,^  and  having  given  suitable  and  befitting 
talk  on  dhamma  to  the  monks,  he  addressed  the  monks, 
saying: 

"  On  account  of  this,'  monks,  I  will  make  known  the 
course  of  training  for  monks,  founded  on  ten  reasons: 
for  the  excellence  of  the  Order,  for  the  comfort  of  the 
Order,  for  the  restraint  of  evil-minded  men,  for  the  ease 


1  VA,  221,  "  outcastes  (vasala)  rain  down  evil  dhamma;  the 
dhamma  of  the  outcaste,  low  men  is  outcaste,  or  it  is  a  dhamma 
pouring  out  the  kilesas."  Vasala  at  Sn.  IIG  ff.  translated  by  Lord 
Chalmers,  Suttanipata,  H.O.S.  37,  as  "  wastrel." 

2  Odakantika — i.e.,  following  the  sexual  act.  VA.  221  explains: 
ttdakakiccam  antikam  avasdnam  assd  ti,  the  water-libation  (the 
cleansing,  the  washing)  is  at  an  end,  finished  for  him.  The  word 
udukakicca  occurs  at  D.  ii.  15,  but  DA.  is  silent. 

3  Samganika—kilesasaThganika,  VA.  222. 

*  Sallekhana=niddhunana,  VA.  222. 

*  Apacaya=sabbakilesd])acayabhutd,  VA.  222. 

«  =Fm.  i.  45=ii.  2— iii.  171=iv.  213,  where  this  standing 
dhamma-talk  is  given.  These  are  doubtless  the  subjects  to  be  filled 
in  where  the  text  in  so  many  places  baldly  states  that  Gotama 
'*  gave  dhamma-talk."  All  my  renderings  differ  from  those  given 
at  Vin.  Texts  i.  153,  ii.  331;  iii.  252.  Cf.  M.  i.  13.  Corny,  on 
Vin.  iii.  171  is  silent. 

'  I.e.,  Sudinna's  offence.  VA.  223. 


38  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  21-22 

of  well-behaved  monks,  for  the  restraint  of  the  cankers 
belonging  to  the  liere  and  now,  for  the  combating  of 
the  cankers  belonging  to  other  worlds,  for  the  benefit 
of  non-believers,  for  the  increase  in  the  number  of 
believers,  for  estabhshing  dhamma  indeed,^  for  following 
the  rules  of  restraint. ^  Thus,  monks,  this  course  of 
training  should  be  set  forth: 

Whatever  monk  should  indulge  in  sexual  intercourse 
is  one  who  is  defeated,^  he  is  no  longer  in  communion." 

And  thus  this  course  of  training  for  the  monks  was 
set  forth  by  the  lord.  ||11||5|| 

Told  is  the  Sudinna  Recital 


Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  in  the  Great  Wood 
at  Vesali,  on  account  of  his  lust  *kept  a  female  monkey. 
Then  this  monk,  rising  early  and  taking  his  bowl  and 
robe,  entered  Vesali  for  alms.  Now  at  that  time  a 
large  concourse  of  monks,  who  were  engaged  in  touring 
for  lodgings,  came  up  to  this  monk's  vihara.  The  female 
monkey,  seeing  these  monks  coming  from  afar,  went 
up  to  them  and  *postured  before  them.  [21]     Then  these 

1  VA.  225  says  that  saddhamma  is  threefold:  (1)  the  Tipitaka,  all 
the  utterances  of  the  Buddha  (c/.  KhuA.  191  ff.);  (2)  the  thirteen 
scrupulous  ways  of  life,  the  fourteen  duties,  virtue,  contemplation, 
insight;  (3)  the  four  ariyan  Ways  and  the  four  fruits  of  samanaship 
and  nibbana. 

2  VA.  226  says  that  Vinaya  or  discipline  is  fourfold:  discipline 
by  restraint,  by  rejection,  by  calm,  by  making  known. 

3  On  derivation  of  pdrdjika,  see  Vin.  Texts  i.  3,  n.  2.  Editor 
takes  it  as  "involving  or  suffering  defeat,"  either  specifically  as 
defeat  in  the  struggle  with  Mara;  or  more  probably  defeat  in  the 
struggle  against  evil  generally,  defeat  in  the  effort  to  accomplish 
the  supreme  goal  of  arahanship.  VA.  259  gives  pdrdjiko  ti  pard- 
jito,  pardjayam  dpanno,  defeated,  fallen  on  defeat.  "In  this  mean- 
ing pdrdjika  exists  for  those  people  for  whom  there  is  an  offence 
(dpatti)  against  the  training.  Whoever  transgresses  against  the 
course  of  training,  it  defeats  him  {pardjeti),  therefore  it  is  called  a 
defeat.  Whoever  commits  an  offence,  that  defeats  him,  therefore 
that  is  called  a  defeat.  The  man,  inasmuch  as  defeated,  fallen  on 
defeat,  is  thereby  called  a  defeated  one."  We  thus  get  a  neuter, 
feminine  and  masculine  reference  for  pdrdjika.  Childers  says, 
'*  meriting  expulsion."  I 


I.  6]  DEFEAT  39 

monks  thought:  "Undoubtedly  this  monk  *has  com- 
mitted fornication,"  and  they  hid  themselves  to  one  side. 
Then  this  monk,  when  he  had  gone  about  Vesall  for 
alms,  returned  with  his  almsfood,  and  eating  half  gave 
the  other  half  to  the  female  monkey.  *And  there  was 
some  misbehaviour.  Then  those  monks  said  to  that 
monk: 

"  Surely  the  course  of  training  has  been  made  known 
by  the  lord,  your  reverence  ?  Why  do  you  *commit 
fornication,  your  reverence  ?" 

"  It  is  true,  your  reverences,  that  the  course  of  training 
was  made  known  by  the  lord,  but  it  refers  to  the  human 
woman  and  not  to  the  female  animal." 

''  But  surely,  your  reverence,  it  refers  just  as  much  to 
that.  It  is  not  fit,  your  reverence,  it  is  not  suitable, 
it  is  not  becoming,  it  is  not  worthy  of  a  recluse,  it  is  not 
lawful,  it  ought  not  to  be  done.  How  it  is  that  you, 
your  reverence,  having  gone  forth  under  this  dhamma 
and  discipline  which  are  well  taught,  are  not  able  to 
lead  for  your  life-time  the  Brahma-life,  complete  and 
wholly  purified  ?  Has  not,  your  reverence,  dhamma 
been  taught  in  various  ways  by  the  lord  for  the  sake  of 
passionlessness  and  not  for  the  sake  of  passion^  .  .  . 
and  the  allaying  of  the  fever  of  the  pleasures  of  the 
senses  been  declared  ?  It  is  not,  your  reverence,  for 
the  benefit  of  non-believers  .  .  .  and  it  causes  wavering 


in  some." 


Then  these  monks,  having  rebuked  this  monk  in 
various  ways,  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  And  the 
lord  for  this  reason  and  in  this  connection,  having  the 
company  of  monks  convened,  questioned  this  monk 
thus : 

"Is  it  true,  as  is  said,  monk,  that  you  ^committed 
fornication  ?" 

"  It  is  true,  lord,"  he  said. 

Then  the  lord  rebuked  him,  saying:  (=5.  11  above. 
Instead  of  village  dhamma,  read  the  state  of  monkeys) 
".  .  .  having  obtained  in   couples.     It  is  not,  foolish 

1  Cf.  above,  Par.  I.  5.  10. 


40  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  22-28 

man,  for  the  benefit  of  non-believers.  .  .  .  Monks,  thus 
this  course  of  training  should  be  set  forth : 

Whatever  monk  should  indulge  in  sexual  intercourse 
even  with  an  animaU  is  one  who  is  defeated,  he  is  not  in 
communion." 

And  thus  this  course  of  training  for  monks  was  made 
known  by  the  lord.  ||  6 1| 

Story  of  the  Female  Monkey  [22] 


Now  at  that  time,  a  great  company  of  monks,  dwellers 
at  Vesali  and  sons  of  the  Vajjins,  ate  as  much  as  they 
liked,  drank  as  much  as  they  liked  and  bathed  as  much 
as  they  liked.  Having  eaten,  drunk  and  bathed  as  much 
as  they  liked,  not  having  paid  attention  to  the  training, 
but  not  having  disavowed^  it,  they  indulged  in  sexual 
intercourse  not  having  declared  their  weakness.^  These, 
in  the  course  of  time  being  affected  by  misfortune  to 
their  relatives,  being  affected  by  misfortune  to  their 
wealth,  being  affected  by  the  misfortune  of  disease, 
approaching  the  venerable  Ananda,  spoke  thus  to  him: 

"  Honoured  Ananda,  we  are  not  abusers  of  the 
enlightened  one,  we  are  not  abusers  of  dhamma,  we  are 
not  abusers  of  the  Order.     Honoured  Ananda,  we  are 

1  Cf.  Vin.  I  96. 

^  sikhham  apaccakkhdya,  not  having .  denied  the  teaching,  not 
having  said :  "  I  renounce  (formally)  my  submission  to  the  discipline," 
i.e.  "  I  am  no  longer  a  monk."  Cf.  Vin.  Texts  i.  275,  n.  2,  where 
editor  thinks  this  is  a  formal  renunciation  of  the  Order  as  opposed 
to  the  Vinaya's  term  vibbharnati,  "  he  returns  to  the  house."  Cf. 
A.  iv.  372,  where  among  the  nine  Impossibles  {abhabba)  is  that 
the  monk  who  is  an  arahan  should  disavow  the  buddha,  dhamma  or 
Order.  At  S.  ii.  231  a  monk,  assailed  by  passion,  disavows  the 
training  and  hmdydvattati,  the  Sutta  word  for  returning  to  the  low 
life  of  the  layman,  and  cf.  S.  ii.  271. 

Paccakkhdti  is  pati  +  akkhdti=d  +  khyd,  and  not  pati-\-akkh.  The 
root  akkh  is  purely  theoretical  and  would  certainly  not  explain  the 
a  of  paccakkhdti,  paccakkhdya. 

3  This  refers,  as  noted  in  Vin.  Texts  i.  4,  n.  1,  to  the  permission 
(on  the  ground  that  it  was  better  to  leave  the  Order  than  to  burn, 
see  above,  P|lr.  I.  6,  11),  for  a  monk  to  acknowledge  himself  unfit 
for  the  discipline  and  to  throw  off  the  robes. 


I.  7]  DEFEAT  41 


self-abusers,  not  abusers  of  others.  Indeed  we  are 
unlucky,  we  are  of  little  merit,  for  we,  having  gone 
forth  under  this  dhamma  and  discipline  which  are  well 
taught,  are  not  able  for  our  life-time  to  lead  the  Brahma- 
life,  complete  and  wholly  purified.  Even  now,  honoured 
Ananda,  if  we  might  receive  the  pabbajja  ordination 
in  the  presence  of  the  lord,  if  we  might  receive  the 
upasampada  ordination,  then  contemplating,  we  would 
dwell  continuously  intent  upon  states  which  are  good, 
and  upon  making  to  become  the  states  belonging  to 
enlightenment.^  It  were  good,  honoured  Ananda,  that 
you  should  explain  this  matter  to  the  lord." 

"  Very  well,  your  reverences,"  he  said.  And  the 
venerable  Ananda  having  answered  the  dwellers  in 
Vesali,  the  sons  of  the  Vajjins,  went  up  to  the  lord. 
And,  having  come  up  to  him,  he  told  this  matter  to 
the  lord. 

"  It  is  impossible,  Ananda,  it  cannot  come  to  pass,^ 
that  the  tathagata  should  abolish  the  teaching  on  defeat 
which  has  been  made  known  for  the  disciples,  because 
of  the  deeds  of  the  Vajjins  or  the  sons  of  the  Vajjins." 

Then  the  lord  for  this  reason,  in  this  connection, 
having  given  talk  on  dhamma,  addressed  the  monks 
thus: 

*'  Monks,  whatever  monk  should  come,  without 
having  disavowed  the  training,  without  declaring  his 
weakness,  and  indulge  in  sexual  intercourse,  he  should 
not  receive  the  upasampada  ordination.  But,  monks, 
if  one  comes,  disavowing  the  training  and  declaring 
his  weakness,  yet  indulging  in  sexual  intercourse,  he 
should  receive  the  upasampada  ordination.  And  thus, 
monks,  this  course  of  training  should  be  set  forth: 

Whatever  monk,  possessed  of  the  training  and  mode 


^  The  term  bodhipakkhiyadhamma,  or  as  it  is  here  bodhipakkhika° , 
is  not  usually  considered  to  belong  to  the  earlier  literature.  The 
later  literature  and  Comys.  reckon  these  states  as  thirty-seven. 
On  their  arrangement  see  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids,  Sakya,  p.  395,  and 
K.S.  V.  vi. 

*  Following  Woodward's  translation  at  G.S.  i.  25.  and  see  loc.  cit. 
n.  6.     VA.  229  elucidates  anavakdso  by  kdranapatikkhepavacanafi . 


42  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  23-24 

of  life  for  monks,  but  not  disavowing  the  training  and 
not  declaring  his  weakness,  shoukl  indulge  in  sexual 
intercourse,  even  with  an  animal,  is  one  who  is  defeated, 
he  is  not  in  communion."  11  7  11 


Whatever  means:  he  who,  on  account  of  his  relations, 
on  account  of  his  social  standing,  on  account  of  his 
name,  [23]  on  account  of  his  clan,  on  account  of 
his  morals,  on  account  of  his  dwelling,  on  account  of  his 
field^  (of  activity),  an  elder^  or  a  novice  or  one  of  middle 
standing: — this  is  called  whatever. 

Monk  means:  he  is  a  monk  because  he  is  a  beggar 
for  alms,  a  monk  because  he  submits  to  wandering  for 
alms,  a  monk  because  he  is  one  who  wears  the  patch- 
work cloth,  a  monk  by  the  designation  (of  others),  a 
monk  on  account  of  his  acknowledgment;  a  monk  is 
called  "  Come,  monk,"  a  monk  is  endowed  with  going 
to  the  three  refuges,  a  monk  is  auspicious,  a  monk  is  the 
essential,  a  monk  is  a  learner,  a  monk  is  an  adept,  a 
monk  means  one  who  is  endowed  with  harmony  for  the 
Order,  with  the  resolution  at  which  the  motion  is  put 
three  times  and  then  followed  by  the  decision,^  with 
actions  (in  accordance  with  dhamma  and  the  discip- 
line),^ with  steadfastness,  with  the  attributes  of  a  man 
perfected.'^  Whatever  monk  is  endowed  with  harmony 
for  the  Order,  with  the  resolution  at  which  the  motion 
is  put  three  times,  and  then  followed  by  the  decision, 
with  actions  (in  accordance  with  dhamma  and  the 
discipline),  with  steadfastness  and  the  attributes  of 
a  man  perfected,  this  one  is  a  monk  as  understood  in 
this  meaning. 

Training  means:  the  three  trainings  are — training  in 
the  higher  morality,   training  in  the  higher  thought, 

1  For  definition  oigocara  see  Yhh.  247. 

2  VA.  239,  thera  is  one  who  has  completed  ten  years;  nava,  a 
novice,  is  one  of  four  years  standing;  and  majjhima  is  one  of  more 
than  five  years  standing. 

3  natticatuttha.  *  So  VA.  243. 

^  Cf.  list  of  eighteen  explanations  of  monk  at  Vbh.  245-6. 


I.  8,  1-2]  DEFEAT  43 

training  in  the  higher  wisdom.  Here  the  training 
signified  in  this  meaning  is  the  training  in  the  higher 
morality. 

Mode  of  life  is  called  whatever  course  of  training  is 
made  known  by  the  lord:  this  is  called  mode.  .  .  . 
One  is  trained  in  this,  thereby  one  is  called  possessed 
of  the  mode.  .  .  .  ||  1 1| 

Not  disavowing  the  training,  not  declaring  his  weakness 
means:  there  is,  monks,  both  the  declaration  of  weak- 
ness, the  training  not  being  disavowed;  and  there  is, 
monk:s,  the  declaration  of  weakness,  the  training  being 
disavowed. 

And  how,  monks,  is  there  declaration  of  weakness 
with  the  training  not  disavowed  ?  Here,  monks,  the 
monk  who  is  chafing,  dissatisfied,  desirous  of  passing 
from  the  state  of  a  recluse,  anxious,  troubled  and 
ashamed^  at  being  a  monk,  longing  to  be  a  householder, 
longing  to  be  a  lay-follower,  longing  to  be  a  park- 
attendant,  longing  to  be  a  novice,  longing  to  belong  to 
another  sect,  longing  to  be  a  disciple  of  another  sect, 
longing  not  to  be  a  recluse,  longing  not  to  be  a  son  of 
the  Sakyans — (such  a  monk)  says,  and  declares:  '  What 
now  if  I  were  to  disavow  the  enlightened  one  V  Thus, 
monks,  there  is  both  a  declaration  of  weakness  and  the 
training  not  disavowed.  Then  further,  a  chafing,  dis- 
satisfied .  .  .  longing  not  to  be  a  son  of  the  Sakyans, 
says  and  declares :  '  What  now  if  I  were  to  disavow 
dhamma  ?'  .  .  .  he  says,  he  declares:  '  What  now  the 
Order  .  .  .  what  now  the  training  .  .  .  what  now  the 
discipline  .  .  .  what  now  the  Patimokkha  .  .  .  what 
now  the  exposition  .  .  .  what  [24]  now  the  preceptor 
.  .  .  what  now  the  teacher  .  .  .  what  now  the  fellow- 
monk  .  .  .  what  now  the  novice  .  .  .  what  now  the 
preceptors  of  my  equals  .  .  .  what  now  the  teachers 
of  my  equals  .  .  .  what  now  if  I  were  to  disavow  the 
Brahma-life  V  .  .  .he  speaks,  he  declares:  '  What  now 


^  For  these  three  words,  cf.  D.  i.  213,  where  Gotama  is  made  to 
use  them  in  reference  to  the  exercise  of  supernormal  powers. 


44  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  25-26 

if  I  were  a  householder  V  .  .  .he  says,  he  declares: 
'  What  now  if  I  were  a  lay-follower  .  .  .  what  now  if 
I  were  a  park-attendant  .  .  .  what  now  if  I  were  a 
novice  .  .  .  what  now  if  I  were  an  adherent  of  another 
sect  .  .  .  what  now  if  I  were  a  disciple  of  another 
sect  .  .  .  what  now  if  I  were  not  a  recluse  .  .  .  what 
now  if  I  were  not  a  son  of  the  Sakyans  V  Thus,  monks, 
there  is  a  declaration  of  weakness,  the  training  not 
having  been  disavowed. 

Then  further,  a  chafing,  dissatisfied  .  .  .  longing  not 
to  be  a  son  of  the  Sakyans  says,  declares:  '  But  if  I 
were  to  disavow  the  enlightened  one '  ...  he  says, 
he  declares :  '  But  if  I  w;ere  not  a  son  of  the  Sakyans ' 
...  he  says,  he  declares :  '  And  I  should  disavow  the 
enlightened  one'  ...  he  says,  he  declares:  'And  I 
should  not  be  a  son  of  the  Sakyans  '  ...  he  says,  he 
declares:  '  Come  now,  I  should  disavow  the  enlightened 
one '  .  \  .  he  says,  he  declares :  '  Come  now,  I  should 
not  be  a  son  of  the  Sakyans  '  ...  he  says,  he  declares : 
'  The  enlightened  one  is  disavowed  by  me '  ...  he 
says,  he  declares:  '  There  is  no  existence  as  a  son  of 
the  Sakyans  for  me.'  Thus,  monks,  is  there  a  declara- 
tion of  weakness  and  the  training  is  not  disavowed. 

Then  further,  a  chafing,  dissatisfied  .  .  .  longing  not 
to  be  a  son  of  the  Sakyans,  says,  declares :  '  I  remember 
my  mother  ...  I  remember  my  father  ...  I  remem- 
ber my  brother  ...  I  remember  my  sister  ...  I 
remember  my  son  ...  I  remember  my  daughter  .  .  . 
I  remember  my  wife  ...  I  remember  my  relations 
...  I  remember  my  friends  ...  I  remember  the 
village  ...  I  remember  the  town  ...  I  remember  the 
rice-field  ...  I  remember  my  property  ...  I  re- 
member my  gold  coins  ...  I  remember  my  gold  .  .  . 
I  remember  my  crafts  ...  I  remember  early  laughter 
.  .  .  prattle  and  amusement.'  Thus,  monks,  [25]  there 
is  a  declaration  of  weakness,  the  training  not  having 
been  disavowed. 

Then  further,  a  chafing,  dissatisfied  .  .  .  longing  not 
to  be  a  son  of  the  Sakyans  says,  declares:  '  I  have  a 
mother,  she  ought  to  be  supported  by  me  ...  I  have 


I.  8,  2-3]  DEFEAT  45 

a  father,  he  ought  to  be  supported  by  me  ...  I  have 
a  brother,  he  ought  to  be  supported  by  me  ...  I  have 
a  sister,  she  ought  to  be  supported  by  me  ...  I  have 
a  son  ...  I  have  a  daughter  ...  I  have  a  wife  .  .  . 
I  have  relations,  they  ought  to  be  supported  by  me  .  .  . 
I  have  friends,  they  ought  to  be  supported  by  me.' 
Thus,  monks,  there  is  a  declaration  of  weakness,  the 
training  not  having  been  disavowed. 

Then  further,  a"  chafing,  dissatisfied  .  .  .  longing  not 
to  be  a  son  of  the  Sakyans  says,  declares:  '  I  have  a 
mother,  she  will  support  me  .  .  .  I  have  a  father,  he 
will  support  me  ...  I  have  friends,  they  will  support 
me  ...  I  have  a  village,  I  will  live  by  means  of  it  .  .  . 
I  have  a  town,  I  will  live  by  means  of  it  .  .  .  rice-fields 
.  .  .  property  .  .  .  gold  coins  .  .  .  gold  ...  I  have 
crafts,  I  will  live  by  means  of  them.'  .  .  .  Thus,  monks, 
there  is  a  declaration  of  weakness,  the  training  not 
having  been  disavowed. 

Then  further,  a  chafing,  dissatisfied  .  .  .  longing  not 
to  be  a  son  of  the  Sakyans  says,  declares:  '  This  is  diffi- 
cult to  do  .  .  .  this  is  not  easy  to  do  .  .  .  this  is 
difficult  .  .  .  this  is  not  easy  ...  I  am  unable  .  .  .  I 
cannot  endure  ...  I  do  not  enjoy  myself  ...  I  take 
no  delight.'^  Thus,  monks,  there  is  a  declaration  of 
weakness,  the  training  not  having  been  disavowed."  ||  2  || 

And  how,  monks,  is  there  a  declaration  of  weakness 
with  the  training  being  disavowed  ?  Here,  monks,  a 
monk  who  is  dissatisfied,  chafing  .  .  .  longing  not  to 
be  a  son  of  the  Sakyans  says,  declares:  '  I  disavow  the 
enlightened  one.'  This,  monks,  is  a  declaration  of 
weakness  and  the  training  being  disavowed. 

Then  further,  a  chafing,  dissatisfied  .  .  .  longing  not 
to  be  a  son  of  the  Sakyans  says,  declares:  '  I  disavow 
dhamma  .  .  .  [26]  I  disavow  the  Order  .  .  .  the  train- 
ing .  .  .  the  discipline  .  .  .  the  Patimokkha  .  .  .  the 
exposition  ...  the  preceptor  .  .  .  the  teacher  .  .  .  my 
fellow-monks  .  .  .  the    novice  .  .  .  the    preceptor    of 


1  See  n.  1,  p.  114. 


46  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  27 

my  fellows  .  .  .  the  teacher  of  my  fellows  ...  I  dis- 
avow the  Brahma-life  ...';...  says,  declares:  '  I  will 
be  a  householder  ...  I  will  be  a  lay-follower  ...  a 
park-attendant  ...  a  novice  ...  an  adherent  of 
another  sect  ...  a  disciple  of  another  sect  .  .  .  not 
a  recluse  ...  I  will  not  be  a  son  of  the  Sakyans.' 
Thus,  monks,  there  is  a  declaration  of  weakness  with  the 
training  being  disavowed. 

Then  further,  a  chafing,  dissatisfied  .  .  .  longing  not 
to  be  a  son  of  the  Sakyans,  says,  declares :  '  I  am  tired 
of  the  enlightened  one  ...  I  am  tired  of  the  Brahma- 
life.'     This,  monks  ... 

Then  further  .  .  .  says,  declares:  '  What  is  the  en- 
lightened one  to  me  ?  .  .  .  What  is  the  Brahma-life 
to  me  V     This,  monks  .  .  . 

Then  further  .  .  .  says,  declares:  '  The  enlightened 
one  means  nothing  to  me  ...  The  Brahma-life  means 
nothing  to  me.'     This,  monks  .  .  . 

Then  further  .  .  .  says,  declares :  '  I  am  well  freed 
with  regard  to  the  enlightened  one  ...  I  am  well 
freed  with  regard  to  the  Brahma-life.'  This,  monks 
...  being  disavowed. 

Then  there  are  these  other  attributes  of  the  en- 
lightened one,  or  of  dhamma,  or  of  the  Order,  or  of  the 
training  ...  or  of  the  Brahma-life,  or  of  the  house- 
holder ...  or  of  one  who  is  not  a  son  of  the  Sakyans ; 
he  speaks,  he  declares  by  reason  of  these  properties, 
by  reason  of  these  features,  by  reason  of  these  signs. 
Thus,  monks,  there  is  a  declaration  of  weakness,  the 
training  having  been  disavowed.  ||  3  || 

And  how,  monks,  is  the  training  not  disavowed  ? 
Here,  monks,  by  reason  of  these  properties,  by  reason 
of  these  features,  by  reason  of  these  signs,  the  training 
is  disavowed,  yet  if  one  who  is  out  of  his  mind  disavows 
the  training  by  reason  of  these  properties,  by  reason  of 
these  features,  by  reason  of  these  signs,  then  the  training 
is  not  disavowed.  If  one  disavows  the  training  in  the 
presence  of  one  who  is  out  of  his  mind,  the  training  is 
not  disavowed.     If  one  whose  mind  is  unhinged  disavows 


I.  8,  4-5]  DEFEAT  47 

the  training  ...  if  one  disavows  the  training  in  the 
presence  of  one  whose  mind  is  unhinged  ...  if  one 
is  afflicted  with  pain  ...  in  the  presence  of  one  afflicted 
by  pain  ...  in  the  presence  of  devatas^  ...  if  one 
disavows  the  training  in  the  presence  of  animals,  the 
training  is  not  disavowed.  If  an  ariyan^  disavows  the 
training  in  the  presence  of  a  non-ariyan^  and  he  does 
not  recognise  it,  the  training  is  not  disavowed.  If  a 
non-ariyan  in  the  presence  of  an  ariyan  ...  if  an 
ariyan  in  the  presence  of  an  ariyan  ...  if  a  non- 
ariyan  [27]  disavows  the  training  in  the  presence  of 
a  non-ariyan  and  he  does  not  recognise  it,  the  training 
is  not  disavowed.  If  he  disavows  the  training  for  a 
joke  ...  he  disavows  the  training  for  fun  ...  if  he 
announces  what  he  does  not  wish  to  announce  ...  if 
he  does  not  announce  what  he  wishes  to  announce  .  .  . 
if  he  announces  to  those  not  knowing  ...  if  he  does  not 
announce  to  those  knowing  ...  or  if  he  does  not 
announce  the  whole  thing,  the  training  is  not  disavowed. 
This,  monks,  is  the  training  which  is  not  disavowed.  ||  4  || 

Sexual  intercourse  means :  what  is  not  verily  dhamma, 
village  dhamma,  low-caste  dhamma,  wickedness,  the 
final  ablution,  secrecy,  having  obtained  in  couples:  this 
is  called  sexwil  intercourse. 

Indulges  means:  whenever  the  male  organ  is  made  to 
enter  the  female,  the  male  member  to  enter  the  female, 
even  for  the  length  of  a  fruit  of  the  sesame  plant,  this 
is  called  indulges. 

Even  with  an  animal  means:  indulging  in  sexual  inter- 
course with  a  female  animal,*  he  is  not  a  (true)  recluse, 

^  VA.  255,  from  the  earth  devatas  to  the  devatas  of  the  Akanittha 
reahn. 

^  YA.  255,  ariyaka  means  the  proper  mode  of  speech,  the  language 
of  Magadha.     Note  the  form  ariyaka. 

3  milakkhuka.  Cf.  Mlecchas,  now  a  term  for  all  non-caste  people. 
Here  perhaps  the  aboriginal  inhabitants  of  India.  VA.  255  says, 
ndma  yo  koci  anariyako  Andha-Damilddi,  the  people  of  Andha  {i.e. 
the  Telugus)  and  the  Tamils,  cf.  VbhA.  387,  388. 

*  Tiracchdnagatitthi,  lit.  a  woman  gone  to  the  animals.  Cf.  below, 
p.  212. 


48  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  28-29 

not  a  (true)  son  of  the  Sakyans,  much  less  so  than 
with  women:  hence  the  meaning  is  even  mih  an 
animal. 

Is  one  who  is  defeated  means:  as  a  man  with  his  head 
cut  oif  cannot  become^  one  to  live  with  that  bodily  con- 
nection, so  is  a  monk  indulging  in  sexual  intercourse 
not  a  (true)  recluse,  not  a  (true)  son  of  the  Sakyans^: 
therefore  he  is  called  one  who  is  defeated. 

Is  not  in  communion  means:  communion^  is  called  one 
work,  one  rule,  an  equal  training,  this  is  called  com- 
munion. He  who  is  not  together  with  this  is  therefore 
called  not  in  communion.  II 5  11  8 11 


Three  kinds  of  females :  human  women,  non-human 
females,  female  animals.  Three  kinds  of  hermaphro- 
dites: human  hermaphrodites,  non-human  herma- 
phrodites, animal  hermaphrodites.  Three  kinds  of 
eunuchs:  human  eunuchs,  non-human  eunuchs,  animal 
eunuchs.  Three  kinds  of  males:  human  males,  non- 
human  males,  animal  males.  There  is  an  offence 
involving  defeat  if  he  commits  sexual  intercourse  with 
human  women  *in  three  ways.  Also  with  non-human 
women  and  with  female  animals.  Also  with  human, 
non-human  and  animal  hermaphrodites.  There  is  an 
offence  involving  defeat  for  a  human  eunuch  if  he 
commits  sexual  intercourse  *in  two  ways.  Also  non- 
human  and  animal  eunuchs.  There  is  an  offence  in- 
volving defeat  for  human  males,  non-human  males  and 
male  animals  if  they  commit  sexual  intercourse  *in  these 
two  ways.  ||1||  [28] 

For  a  monk  who,  having  thought  of  cohabitation, 
lets  his  male  organ  enter  a  human  woman  *at  any  one 
of  the  three  places,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat. 

^  Abhabba. 

2  Cf.  Vin.  i.  96. 

^  Samvdsa,  lit.  living  with,  co-residence.  It  often  refers  to  the 
household  life,  as  at  A.  ii.  57,  187;  iii.  164;  iv.  174;  Sn.  283,  290; 
but  in  Vin.  it  is  a  term  of  importance  in  religion. 


I.  9,  2-4]  DEFEAT  49 

For  a  monk  who  ...  a  non-human  female,  a  female 
animal  ...  a  human,  non-human,  an  animal  herma- 
phrodite *at  any  one  of  the  three  places,  there  is  an 
offence  involving  defeat.  For  a  monk  who  ...  a 
human,  non-human  or  animal  eunuch  ...  a  human 
male,  a  non-human  male  or  a  male  animal  ...  in- 
volving defeat.  i|  2  || 

Opponents  of  monks  having  brought  a  human  woman 
into  a  monk's  presence  associate  his  male  organ  *with 
these  three  places.  If  he  agrees  to  application,  if  he 
agrees  to  entry,  if  he  agrees  to  remaining,  if  he  agrees 
to  taking  out,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat. 
Opponents  of  monks  .  .  .  if  he  does  not  agree  to  appli- 
cation, but  agrees  to  entry,  to  remaining,  to  taking  out, 
there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat. 

Opponents  of  monks  ...  if  he  does  not  agree  to  application, 
nor  to  entry,  but  to  remaining  and  to  taking  out  .  .  .  involving 
defeat.  Opponents  of  monks  ...  if  he  does  not  agree  to  * 
application  nor  to  entry  nor  to  remaining,  but  to  taking  out 
.  .  .  involving  defeat.  Opponents  of  monks  ...  if  he  does 
not  agree  to  application  nor  to  entry  nor  to  remaining  nor  to 
taking  out,  there  is  no  offence. 

Opponents  of  monks,  having  brought  a  human 
woman  awake  .  .  .  asleep  .  .  .  intoxicated  .  .  .  mad 
.  .  .  drunk  .  .  .  dead  but  undecomposed  .  .  .  dead  and 
practically  undecomposed  .  .  .  *dead  and  practically 
decomposed  .  .  .  involving  defeat.  [29]  If  he  agrees  to 
its  application,  to  its  entry,  to  its  remaining,  to  taking 
it  out,  there  is  a  grave  offence  .  .  .  if  he  does  not  agree, 
there  is  no  offence. 

(All  this  is  repeated  for  non-human  females,  female 
animals;  human,  non-human,  animal  hermaphrodites; 
human,  non-human,  animal  eunuchs;  human  men,  non- 
human  males,  male  animals.)  ||  3  || 

Opponents  of  monks,  having  brought  a  human 
woman  [30]  into  a  monk's  presence,  associate  his  male 
organ  *at  the  three  places,  the  woman  being  covered,  the 
monk    uncovered  ...;...  the    woman    uncovered, 

4 


50  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  31-33 

the  monk  covereJ  ...;...  the  woman  covered,  the 
monk  covered  .  .  .;  ...  the  woman  uncovered,  the 
monk  uncovered.  If  he  agrees  to  its  application,  to  its 
ejitry,  to  its  remaining,  to  taking  it  out,  there  is  an 
offence  involving  defeat.  If  not,  there  is  no  offence. 
Opponents  of  monks  ...  a  human  woman  awake  .  .  . 
asleep  ....  dead  but  practically  undecomposed  .  .  . 
involving  defeat  .  .  .  dead,  but  practically  decomposed 
.  .  .  the  woman  being  covered,  the  monk  uncovered  .  .  . 
both  being  uncovered.  If  he  agrees  .  .  .  there  is  a  grave 
offence.     If  not,  there  is  no  offence. 

(All  this  is  repeated  for  a  non-human  female,  female 
animal;  human,  non-human  and  animal  hermaphrodite; 
human,  non-human  and  animal  eunuch;  human  males, 
non-human  males  and  male-animals.)  ||4|| 

Vin.  iii.  32-33,  §§  5,  6  are  repetitions  of  §§  3,  4  but 
reading  "  opponents  of  monks,  having  brought  a  monk 
into  the  presence  of  a  human  woman  .  .  ."  ||  5  ||  6  || 

In  as  much  as  opponents  of  monks  have  been  ex- 
plained, so  should  be  explained  opponents  as  kings, 
opponents  as  thieves,  opponents  as  scoundrels,  oppo- 
nents as  "  the  scent  of  lotuses."^  Covered  has  been 
commented  upon. 

He  lets  the  way  enter  by  the  way,  there  is  an  offence 
involving  defeat.  He  lets  what  is  not  the  way  enter 
by  the  way,  .  .  .  involving  defeat.  He  lets  the  way 
enter  by  what  is  not  the  way  .  .  .  involving  defeat. 
He  lets  what  is  not  the  way  enter  by  what  is  not  the 
way,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  A  monk  commits  sin 
with  a  sleeping  monk.  Awakened  he  agrees ;  both  should 
be  expelled. 2    Awakened  he  does  not  agree;  the  defiler 

1  Uppalagandha,  ])erhaps  a  soubriquet  of  some  brigands,  VA.  268 
says  they  needed  human  hearts:  except  monks,  men  were  rare. 
Monks  should  not  be  nmrdcred,  so  the  brigands  led  them  astray  by 
bringing  women  to  them.     Cf.  It  A.  ii.  57. 

2  ndsetabbo.  I  follow  the  renderinf^  of  Vin.  Texts  i.  215,  which 
seems  to  suit  the  context  better  than  the  "  to  atone  "  of  the  P.T.S. 
Did.  Ndseti  is  the  caus.  of  nassati,  to  disappear,  to  come  to  an  end. 
Cf.  below,  pp.  62,  280. 


I.  9,  7—10,  1]  DEFEAT  51 

should  be  expelled.  A  monk  commits  sin  with  a 
sleeping  novice.  Awakened  he  agrees;  both  should  be 
expelled.  Awakened  he  does  not  agree;  the  defiler 
should  be  expelled.  A  novice  commits  sin  with  a 
sleeping  monk.  Awakened  he  agrees;  both  should  be 
expelled.  A  novice  commits  sin  with  a  sleeping  novice. 
Awakened  .  .  .  should  be  expelled.  ||7|| 

If  one  is  ignorant,  if  one  has  not  agreed,  if  one  is  mad, 
unhinged,  afflicted  with  pain,  or  a  beginner,  there  is  no 
offence.  ||8{|9{| 

Told  is  the  Recital  on  Covering 


The  female  monkey,  and  sons  of  the  Vajjins,  a  house- 
holder and  a  naked  one,  adherents  of  another 
sect. 

The  girl,  and  Uppalavanna,  then  two  about  charac- 
teristics, / 

Mother,  daughter,  and  sister,  and  wife,  supple, 
pendent,  [33] 

Two  sores,  and  a  plaster  decoration,  and  a  wooden 
doll,/ 

Five  with  Sundara,^  five  about  cemeteries,  bones, 

A  female  naga  and  a  female  yakkha,  and  a  female  peta, 
a  eunuch,  impaired,  he  touched,  / 

In  Bhaddiya,  the  man  perfected,  asleep,  then  four 
on  Savatthi, 

Three  on  Vesali,  garlands,^  the  Bharukaccha  monk  in 
his  dream,/ 

^  Sundarena  saha  panca.  As  there  is  only  one  episode  recounted 
about  Sundara  below,  this  possibly  means  the  five  actions  that  the 
woman  did  in  connection  with  him:  she  said  two  things  to  him, 
did  him  homage,  lifted  his  robe  and  took  hold  of  him,  see  below, 
il  11 1|.  Or  there  may  have  been  other  stories  referred  to,  but  which 
have  not  survived. 

*  This  is  printed  as  Malld.  But  the  section  ||  21 1|  below  to  which 
this  heading  refers  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  Mallians,  but  it  does 
have  to  do  with  garlands,  mala.  I  have  therefore  rendered  it  thus 
above.  Oldenberg  suggests  the  emendation  at  Vin.  iii.  269,  mala; 
but  maUd  may  be  correct  (  =  malyd). 


52  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  84 

Supabba,  Saddha,  a  nun,  a  female  probationer,  and  a 

female  novice, 
A  prostitute,  a  eunucb,  a  householder,  one  another, 

one  who  had  gone  forth  when  old,  a  deer. 


Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  *committed  fornica- 
tion with  a  female  monkey.  On  account  of  this  he  was 
remorseful.  He  said,  ''  The  course  of  training  has  been 
made  known  by  the  lord.  I  hope  that  I  have  not  fallen 
into  an  offence  entailing  defeat."^  He  told  this  matter 
to  the  lord  ...  "  You,  monk,  have  fallen  into  an 
offence  entailing  defeat,"  he  said.  ||  1 1| 

Now  at  that  time  a  great  company  of  monks,  dwellers 
in  Vesali,  and  of  the  Vajji  clan,  not  disavowing  the 
training  and  not  declaring  their  weakness,  indulged  in 
sexual  intercourse.  On  account  of  this  they  were  re- 
morseful, and  said:  "  The  course  of  training  has  been 
made  known  by  the  lord.  Let  us  hope  that  we  have 
not  fallen  into  an  offence  entailing  defeat."  They  told 
this  matter  to  the  lord  ...  "...  You,  monks,  have 
fallen  into  an  offence  entailing  defeat,"  he  said.  ||2|| 

Now  at  that  time,  a  certain  monk  saying:  "  There  will 
be  no  offence  for  me,"  committed  sexual  intercourse 
(wearing)  the  characteristic  (white  dress)  of  a  layman. 
On  account  of  this  he  was  remorseful  ...  "...  de- 
feat," he  said. 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  being  naked  com- 
mitted sexual  intercourse,  saying:  "  There  will  be  no 
offence  for  me."  On  account  of  this  he  was  remorse- 
ful ..  .    "...  defeat,"  he  said. 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  saying:  "  There  will 
be  no  offence  for  me,"  clad  in  a  kusa-grass  garment^ 


^  Here  and  following:  fdrdjikam  dpattim  dpanno,  instead  of  the 
more  usual,  dpaiti  pdrdjikassa. 

«  At  A.  i.  240=:295=^ii.  206=Vin.  i.  305=Z).  i.  167  these  various 
sorts  of  garments  are  given.  At  Vin.  i.  305  monks,  including  the 
one  who  was  nagga  are  also  given  in  this  ord^r. 


I.  10,  3-5]  DEFEAT  53 

.  .  .  clad  in  a  bark  garment^  .  .  .  clad  in  a  garment  of 
wood  shavings^  .  .  .  clad  in  a  hair  blanket^  .  .  .  clad 
in  a  blanket  made  of  horse-hair  .  .  .  clad  in  a  dress  of 
owls'  wings  .  .  .  clad  in  a  cloak  made  of  strips  of  a 
black  antelope's  hide,^  indulged  in  sexual  intercourse. 
On  account  of  this  he  was  remorseful  ...  '*  ...  en- 
tailing defeat,"  he  said.  ||  3  || 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  as  he  was  wandering 
for  alms,  seeing  a  little  girl  lying  on  her  back,  was 
enamoured  of  her  and  *made  his  thumb  enter  her,  and 
she*  died.  On  account  of  this  he  was  remorseful  .  .  . 
"  .  .  .  Monk,  there  is  not  an  offence  involving  defeat; 
there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order,"*  he  said.  ||4||  [34] 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  brahmin  youth  was  in  love 
with  the  nun  Uppalavanna.^    Then  this  brahmin  youth, 

1  Cf.  D.  i.  166-7  for  these  words.  At  Jd.  i.  356  we  get  purisarn 
phalakam  katvd,  trans.  "  making  this  man  my  stalking-horse,"  which 
editor  suggests,  Vin.  Texts  ii.  246,  "  may  be  a  figure  of  speech 
founded  on  the  use  of  this  word  and  mean  '  making  him  his 
covering.'  " 

2  As  Ajita  Kesakambalin,  see  D.  i.  55. 

3  VA.  272,  "  with  the  hair  and  hooves." 
*  See  below,  p.  195,  n.  1. 

5  Thig.,  ver.  224  fF.,  ThigA.  190;  DhA.  ii.  48  ff.  and  AA.  i.  355-356 
all  relate  how  she  had  power  in  the  sphere  of  light  {cf.  Dabba,  in 
Sangh.  VIII.  below),  and  say  that  she  was  born  at  Savatthi  in  the 
family  of  a  great  merchant.  DhA.  ii.  49  tells  much  the  same  story 
as  that  given  above,  her  assaulter  there  being  a  young  kinsman, 
and  it  says  that  she  went  into  the  Dark  Wood,  because  at  that 
time  forest-dwelling  for  nuns  had  not  been  forbidden.  In  Nissa- 
ggiya  V.  she  is  also  said  to  have  entered  the  Dark  Wood.  There  is 
no  doubt,  I  think,  that  the  Uppalavanna  of  Vin.  iii.  35  above  and 
of  DhA.  are  one  and  the  same.  That  the  Uppalavanna  of  Thig. 
is  the  same  is  less  likely.  For  though  some  of  the  thoughts  there 
attributed  to  her  might  be  construed  to  be  the  outcome  of  her 
adventures,  the  niaii^  episode  of  her  life  as  represented  in  Thig., 
is  that  of  being  her  mother's  co-wife.  Nothing  is  said  of  this  surely 
very  unusual  situation  in  either  DhA.  or  AA.  VA.  gives  no  story. 
It  may  be  that  DhA.  and  AA.  have  welded  the  story  of  the  two 
Uppalavannas  into  one  story.  Such  a  welding  of  two  stories  into 
one  has  a  parallel  in  the  story  of  Kisagotami,  Pss.  Sisters,  p.  109, 


54  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  35 

when  the  nun  Uppalavanna  had  gone  into  the  village 
for  alms,  entered  the  hut  and  sat  down,  concealed.  The 
nun  Uppalavanna,  after  the  meal  and  when  she  had 
finished  eating,  washing  her  feet  and  entering  the  hut, 
sat  down  on  the  couch.  Then  the  brahmin  youth, 
taking  up  the  nun  Uppalavanna,  assaulted  her.  The 
nun  Uppalavanna  told  this  matter  to  the  nuns.  The 
nuns  told  this  matter  to  the  monks.^  The  monks  told 
this  matter  to  the  lord.  He  said:  "  There  is  no  offence, 
monks,  as  she  was  not  willing."  ||  5  || 

Now  at  one  time  the  sign  of  a  woman^  appeared  to  a 
monk.  They  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  He  said: 
"  Monks,  I  allow  a  teacher^  to  meet  with  the  nuns 
during  the  rains,  as  for  the  upasampada  ordination, 
BO  as  in  the  presence  of  nuns  to  turn  the  nuns  away  from 
those  offences  which  they  have  in  common  with  monks; 
but  in  those  offences  of  monks  which  are  offences  not 
in  common  with  nuns,  there  is  no  offence  (for  the 
nuns)." 

Now  at  that  time  the  sign  of  a  male  appeared  to  a 
nun.  They  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  He  said: 
"  Monks,  I  allow  a  teacher  to  meet  with  the  monks 
during  the  rains,  as  for  the  upasampada  ordination, 
so  as  in  the  presence  of  monks  to  turn  the  monks  away 
from  those  offences  which  they  have  in  common  with 
nuns,  but  in  those  offences  of  nuns  which  are  offences 
not  in  common  with  monks,  there  is  no  offence  (for  the 
monks)."  II 6 II 

with  which  c/.  the  story  of  Patacara,  Pss.  Sisters,  p.  70.  At  ^.  i.  24 
Uppalavanna  is  called  chief  of  the  disciples  who  are  nuns  having 
psychic  potencies;  and  at  ^.  i.  88  she  and  Khema  are  taken  as  the 
standard  and  measure  by  which  to  estimate  the  disciples  who  are 
nuns.     See  Horner,  Women  under  Primitive  Buddhism,  p.  168  f. 

*  In  no  passage  are  the  nuns  recorded  to  tell  the  matter  to  the 
lord  direct,  but  always  through  the  medium  of  the  monks.  An 
exception  to  this  is  in  the  case  of  his  aunt  Mahapajapati. 

2  Itihilinga. 

2  Tani  yeva  upajjham  tarn  eva  upasampadain,  explained  at  VA. 
273  as  pubbe  gahitaupajjham  eva  pubbe  kataupsampadarn  eva  ca 
anujdndmi,  which  seems  to  mean:  I  allow  the  teacher  who  was 
taken  before,  the  upasampada  that  was  conferred  before  .  .  , 


T.  10,  7-10]  DEFEAT  55 

Now  at  that  time,  a  certain  monk  thinking:  "  There 
will  be  no  offence  for  me,"  indulged  in  sexual  intercourse 
with  his  mother  ...  his  daughter  ...  his  sister.  On 
account  of  this  he  was  remorseful  ...  He  told  this 
matter  to  the  lord,  who  said:  "You,  monk,  have  fallen 
into  an  offence  involving  defeat." 

Now  at  that  time,  a  certain  monk  indulged  in  sexual 
intercourse  with  his  former  wife.  On  account  of  this 
he  was  remorseful  ...     "...  involving  defeat."  ||  7  || 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  had  a  supple  back.^ 
Tormented  by  chafing,^  he  took  hold  of  *his  own  male 
organ.  On  account  of  this  he  was  remorseful  .  .  . 
"...  involving  defeat." 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  was  able  to  bend 
down  his  male  organ.  Tormented  by  chafing,^  *he 
committed  a  perversion.  On  account  of  this,  he  was 
remorseful  ...     "...  involving  defeat."  ||  8  ||  [35] 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  saw  a  dead  body, 
and  on  the  body  .  .  .  *was  a  sore.  He,  thinking: 
"  There  will  be  no  offence  for  me,"  *had  illicit  relations. 
On  account  of  this  he  was  remorseful  ..."...  in- 
volving defeat." 

(* Another  case  of  this  sort)  ||  9  || 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk,  inflamed,  *had 
illicit  relations  with  a  plaster  decoration.^  On  account 
of  this  he  was  remorseful  ...  "...  Monk,  it  is  not 
an  offence  involving  defeat;  it  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing." 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk,  inflamed,  *had 
illicit  relations  with  a  wooden  doll.*  On  account  of 
this  he  was  remorseful  ...     "...  of  wrong-doing." 

moil 


1  VA.  177,  he  had  formerly  been  a  dancer. 

2  See  below,  p.  114,  n.  1. 

^  Lepacitta.     VA.  278  says  cittakammarupa. 
*  Ddrudhitalika.     VA.  278  says  kattharupa. 


5^  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  36 

Now  at  that  time  the  monk  called  Sundara,  who  had 
gone  forth  from  Rajagaha,  was  walking  along  a  carriage- 
road.  A  certain  woman  said:  "  Wait,  honoured  sir, 
for  a  moment,  I  will  pay  homage  to  you."  As  she  was 
paying  homage  she  held  up  his  inner  garment  and  took 
hold  of  *his  male  organ.  On  account  of  this  he  was 
remorseful.  ...     "...  Monk,  did  you  agree?" 

"  I  did  not  agree,  lord,"  he  said.^ 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  as  you  did  not  agree." 

II 11 II 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  woman  seeing  a  monk, 
spoke  thus:  "  Come,  honoured  sir,  indulge  in  sexual 
intercourse." 

"  Not  so,  sister,  that  is  not  proper  for  me." 

"  Come,  honoured  sir,  I  will  exert  myself,  do  not  you 
exert  yourself,  thus  there  will  be  no  offence  for  you." 
The  monk  acted  accordingly.  On  account  of  this  he 
was  remorseful  ...     "...  involving  defeat." 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  woman  seeing  a  monk, 
spoke  thus:  "  Come,  honoured  sir,  indulge  in  sexual 
intercourse." 

"  Not  so,  sister,  that  is  not  proper  for  me." 
'    "  Come,  honoured  sir,  you  exert  yourself,  I  will  not 
exert  myself,  thus  there  will  be  no  offence  for  you." 
The  monk  acted  accordingly.     On  account  of  this  he 
was  remorseful  ...     "...  involving  defeat." 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  woman  seeing  a  monk 
spoke  thus:  "  Come,  honoured  sir  ..."  "...  not 
proper  for  me." 

"  Come,  honoured  sir,  *  touching  the  inner  parts,  dis- 
charge semen  .  .  .  touching  the  outer  parts,  discharge 
semen.  Thus  there  will  be  no  offence  for  you."  The 
monk  acted  accordingly.  On  account  of  this  he  was 
remorseful  ...     "...  involving  defeat."  ||12|| 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  going  to  a  cemetery 
and  seeing  a  body  not  yet  decomposed  indulged  in  sexual 

1  VA,  278  says  he  was  a  non-returner,  therefore  he  did  not 
agree. 


1.  10,  13-14]  DEFEAT  57 

intercourse  with  it.  [36]  On  account  of  this  he  was 
remorseful  ...     *'  .  .  .  involving  defeat." 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  going  to  a  cemetery 
and  seeing  a  body  which  was  practically  undecom- 
posed  ...    "...  involving  defeat." 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  going  to  a  cemetery 
and  seeing  a  body  which  was  practically  decomposed 
...  "...  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat, 
there  is  a  grave  offence." 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  going  to  a  cemetery 
and  seeing  a  decapitated  head,  *behaved  wrongly,  touch- 
ing its  mouth.  On  account  of  this  he  was  remorseful.  ... 
"...  You,  monk,  have  fallen  into  an  offence  involving 
defeat." 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  going  to  a  cemetery 
and  seeing  a  decapitated  head,  *behaved  wrongly,  but 
not  touching  its  mouth.  On  account  of  this  he  was 
remorseful.  .  .  "Monk,  there  is  no  offence  involving 
defeat,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing." 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  was  in  love  with  a 
certain  woman.  She  died,  and  her  bones  were  thrown 
in  the  chamel-ground  and  scattered.  Then  the  monk, 
going  to  the  cemetery,  collected  the  bones  and  *behaved 
in  an  unsuitable  way.  On  account  of  this  he  was  re- 
morseful. ...  "...  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  in- 
volving defeat,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||  13  || 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  indulged  in  sexual 
intercourse  with  a  female  naga^  .  .  .  with  a  female 
yakkha^  .  .  .  with  a  female  departed  one^  .  .  .  with 

.  1  VA.  279  says  "  whether  it  is  a  young  female  ndgd  {ndga- 
mdnavikd,  cf.  Jd.  iii.  275  and  DA^.  iii.  232,  trans,  at  Buddhist 
Legends,  iii.  57  as  '  dragon-maiden  ')  or  a  kinnarl "  (birds  [?]  living 
in  the  heart  of  mountains);  c/.  ThigA.  255. 

2  VA.  279,  "  the  female  yakkhas  are  all  devatas." 

3  VA.  279,  "  the  nijjhdmatanhika  petis  and  so  on  are  not  to  be 
approached,  but  there  are  petis  who  live  in  mansions;  the  demerit  of 
these  matures  during  the  dark  half  of  the  month,  but  in  the  light  half 
they  experience  bliss  like  devatas."  The  nijjhdmatanhika  petas  are 
consumed  by  thirst.  At  Miln.  294  it  is  said  that  they  do  not  derive 
benefit  from  ofiferings  made  by  their  living  relatives.  Cf.  Miln. 
303,  357. 


58  BOOK    OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  nil.  87-38 

a  eunuch.     On  account  of  this  he  was  remorseful  .  .  . 
"...  involving  defeat."  ||  14  || 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk's  faculties  were 
impaired.^  Saying:  "I  feel  neither  ease  nor  discom- 
fort >  thus  there  will  be  no  offence  for  me,"  he  indulged 
in  sexual  intercourse.  They  told  this  matter  to  the 
lord.  He  said:  "Monks,  whether  this  foolish  man  felt 
or  did  not  fee},^  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat." 
II15II 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk,  saying:  "  I  will 
indulge  in  sexual  intercourse  with  a  woman,"  was 
conscience-stricken  at  the  mere  touch  ...  "  Monk, 
there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  there  is  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order."  ||  16 1| 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  was  lying  down  in 
the  Jatiya  Grove  at  Bhaddiya,^  having  gone  there  for 
the  day-sojourn.  All  his  limbs  were  stiff  with  pain. 
A  certain  woman  seeing  him,  sat  down  *on  him,  and 
having  taken  her  pleasure,  departed.  The  monks,  seeing 
that  he  was  wet,"*  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  [37] 
He  said  ..."*...  Monks,  this  monk  is  a  man  per- 
fected; monks,  there  is  no  offence  for  this  monk."  i|  17  |! 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  was  lying  down, 
having  gone  to  the  Dark  Wood  at  Savatthi  for  the  day- 
sojourn.  A  certain  woman  cowherd  seeing  him,  sat 
down  *on  him.  The  monk  consented  ...  On  account 
of  this  he  was  remorseful.  ...  "  You,  monk,  have 
fallen  into  an  offence  involving  defeat." 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  ...  at  Savatthi .  .  . 
A  certain  woman  goatherd  seeing  him  ...  a  certain 
woman  gathering  fire-wood  seeing  him  ...  a  certain 


1  upahatindriya.  ^  vedayi  vd  .  .  .  na  vd  vt 

3  The  capital  of  the  Anga  kingdom.     Here  lived  Mendaka,  famed 

for  his  psychic  potency,  Vin.  i.  240  ff.     The  town  is  mentioned  also 

at  Vin.  i.  189,  190;  A.  iii.  36. 
*  kilinna. 


I.  10,  18-20]  DEFEAT  59 

woman  gathering  cow-dung  seeing  him,  sat  down  *on 
him  ...     "...  involving  defeat.''  ||18|| 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  lying  down, 
having  gone  into  the  Great  Wood  at  Vesali  for  the  day- 
sojourn.  A  certain  woman  seeing  him,  sat  down  *on 
him,  and  having  taken  her  pleasure,  stood  laughing 
near  by.  The  monk,  waking  up,  spoke  thus  to  this 
woman:  "  Have  you  done  this  V 

'^  Yes,  I  have,"  she  said.  On  account  of  this  he  was 
remorseful  ... 

"  Monk,  did  you  consent  ?" 

"  I  did  not  know,  lord,"  he  said. 

"  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  as  you  did  not  know."  ||  19  || 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  was  lying  down, 
resting  against  a  tree,  having  gone  into  the  Great  Wood 
at  Vesali  for  the  day-sojourn.  A  certain  woman,  seeing 
him,  sat  down  *on  him.  The  monk  got  up  hastily.  On 
account  of  this  he  was  remorseful  ...  "  Monk,  did 
you  consent  ?" 

"  I  did  not  consent,  lord,"  he  said. 

"  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  as  you  did  not  consent." 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  was  lying  down, 
resting  against  a  tree,  having  gone  into  the  Great  Wood 
at  Vesali  for  the  day-sojourn.  A  certain  woman,  seeing 
him,  sat  down  *on  him.  The  monk,  rising  (quickly), 
knocked  her  over.^  On  account  of  this  he  was  remorse- 
ful ..  .     "  Monk,  did  you  consent  ?" 

"  I  did  not  consent,  lord,"  he  said. 

"  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  as  you  did  not  con- 
sent." II  20 II 


^  akkamitvd  pavattesi.  VA.  280  says  that  the  monk,  rising 
suddenly  and  giving  a  kick  {akkamitvd),  knocked  her  over  in  such 
a  way  that  she  rolled  on  the  ground.  The  same  expression 
recurs  below,  p.  138,  in  connection  with  a  mortar.  The  Corny,  on 
this  passage,  VA.  475  gives  akkamitvd  in  explanation  of  ottharitvd, 
which  seems  to  mean  "  sitting  on."  Tr.  Cr.  Pali  Diet,  says  that 
akkamati  is  "  to  make  a  kick  %t  one,"  and  in  that  connection  cites 
the  above  passage.  P.T.S.  Diet.,  evidently  following  the  Corny., 
gives  "  to  rise  "  for  this  passage. 


6o  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  SR-SO 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk,  in  the  Gabled  Hall 
in  the  Great  Wood  at  Vesali  for  his  day-sojourn,  was 
lying  down  having  opened  the  door.  All  his  limbs  were 
stiff  with  pains.  Now  at  that  time  a  large  company  of 
women,  bringing  scents  [38]  and  garlands,  came  to  the 
park  looking  at  the  vihara.  Then  these  women  seeing 
that  monk,  sat  down  *on  him,  and  having  taken  their 
pleasure  and  saying:  "  Isn't  he  a  bull  of  a  man^  ?" 
departed,  piling  up  their  scents  and  garlands.  The 
monks,  seeing  the  moisture,  told  this  matter  to  the 
lord.  He  said  .  .  .  (c/.  ||17||)  "...  Monks,  there  is 
no  offence  for  this  monk.  I  allow  you,  monks,  when  you 
are  in  seclusion  for  meditation  during  the  day,  to  medi- 
tate in  seclusion,  having  closed  the  door."  ||  21 1| 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  of  Bharukaccha,^ 
having  dreamed  that  he  committed  sexual  intercourse 
with  his  former  wife,  said:  "  I  am  not  a  (true)  recluse, 
I  willleaVe  the  Order, "^  and  going  to  Bharukaccha,  and 
seeing  the  venerable  Upali*  on  the  road,  he  told  him 


1  purisusabha. 

2  Bhdrukacchako  bhikkhu.  Bharukaccha  was  a  town,  see  Jd.  iii. 
188;  and  Pss.  Breth.,  p.  194,  Pss.  Sisters,  p.  103;  here  Vaddha  and 
his  mother  were  said  to  have  been  born.  Professor  E.  Miiller, 
J.P.T.S.  1888,  p.  63,  says  that  Bharukacchaka  is  a  monk;  but  he 
is  mentioned  nowhere  but  here.  At  Miln.  331  the  inhabitants  of 
the  town  are  called  Bharukacchaka.  Pss.  Sisters,  p.  103,  n.  1,  calls 
it  "  a  seaport  on  the  north-west  seaboard,  the  Bharoch  of  today." 

3  Vibbhamissdmi.  P.T.S.  Diet.,  referring  to  the  above  passage, 
says  "  co-habiting."  But  see  below,  p.  114,  for  an  exact  repetition 
of  this  phrase,  where  it  is  probably  to  be  taken  in  its  sense  of  "to 
leave  the  Order."  The  question  is,  does  the  text  of  the  above 
passage  justify  the  Dictionary's  rendering  ?  It  is  as  easy  to  believe 
that  the  monk  was  merely  returning  to  his  former  home  as  that 
he  was  declaring  his  intention  of  returning  to  his  former  wife.  On 
the  other  hand,  on'  p.  62  below,  vibbhama  possibly  means  "  co- 
habit." At  p.  323  below,  vibbh°  probably  means  "  left  the  Order." 
Doubtless  this  meaning  carried  the  other  with  it.  See  also  p.  114 
and  n.  3. 

*  At  A.  i.  25  he  is  called  "  chief  among  those  who  know  the  dis- 
ciplinary rules  by  heart,"  quoted  bv  VA.  283.  Verses  at  Thag.  249- 
251,  see  Pss.  Breth.  168.  Of.  Vin.  Texts  ii.  276,  n.  1;  Mrs.  Rhys 
Davids,  Manual  of  Buddhism,  p.  217. 


I.  10,  22-25]  DEFEAT  6l 

this  matter.     The  venerable  Upali  said :  ''  There  is  no 
offence,  your  reverence,  since  it  was  in  a  dream."  ||  22  || 

Now  at  that  time  in  Rajagaha  there  was  a  female 
lay-follower,  called  Supabba,^  who  beheved  in  the  en- 
lightened one.  She  held  this  view:  whatever  (woman) 
gives  sexual  intercourse,  gives  the  highest  gift.  Seeing 
a  monk  she  spoke  thus:  ''Come,  honoured  sir,  indulge 
in  sexual  intercourse." 

''  Not  so,  sister,  it  is  not  fitting,"  he  said. 

"  Come,  honoured  sir,  (only)  touch  the  region  of  the 
breasts,  thus  there  will  be  no  offence  for  you  .  .  .  Come, 
honoured  sir,  (only)  touch  the  navel  .  .  .  the  stomach 
.  .  .  the  waist  .  .  .  the  throat  .  .  .  the  ear  .  .  .  the 
coil  of  hair  .  .  .  the  spaces  between  the  fingers  .  .  . 
Come,  honoured  sir,  approaching  (me  only)  with  (your) 
hands,  I  will  make  you  *function,  thus  there  will  be  no 
offence  for  you."  The  monk  acted  accordingly.  On 
account  of  this  he  was  remorseful.  ''  Monk,  there  is 
no  offence  involving  defeat;  there  is  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order."  ||  23  || 

Now  at  that  time  at  Savatthi  was  a  female  lay- 
disciple,  called  Saddha,  who  believed  in  the  enlightened 
one.  She  held  this  view :  whatever  (woman)  gives  sexual 
intercourse,  gives  the  highest  gift.  Seeing  a  monk,  she 
spoke  thus:  "  Come,  honoured  sir,  indulge  in  sexual 
intercourse." 

"  Not  so,  sister,  it  is  not  fitting." 

"  Come,  honoured  sir,  touch  the  region  of  the  breasts. 
.  .  .  Come,  honoured  sir,  approaching  (me  only)  with 
(your)  hands,  I  will  make  you  *function,  thus  there  will 
be  no  offence  for  you."  The  monk  acted  accordingly. 
On  account  of  this  he  was  remorseful.  "  Monk,  there 
is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  there  is  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order."  ||  24  || 

Now  at  that  time  at  Vesali  some  Licchavi  youths, 
taking  hold  of  a  monk,  made  him  commit  sin  with  a 

^  Mentioned,  I  think,  nowhere  but  here. 


62  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  89-40 

nun.  [39]  Both  agreed,  then  both  should  be  expelled.^ 
Neither  agreed,  there  was  no  offence  for  either. 

Now  at  that  time  at  Vesali  some  Licchavi  youths, 
taking  hold  of  a  monk,  made  him  commit  sin  with  a 
female  probationer  .  .  .  with  a  female  novice.  Both 
agreed,  then  both  should  be  expelled.  Neither  agreed, 
there  was  no  offence  for  either. 

Now  at  that  time  at  Vesali  some  Licchavi  youthSj 
taking  hold  of  a  monk,  made  him  commit  sin  with  a 
prostitute^  .  .  .  with  an  eunuch  .  .  .  with  a  woman 
householder.  The  monk  agreed,  then  the  monk  should 
be  expelled.  The  monk  did  not  agree,  then  there  is 
no  offence  for  the  monk. 

Now  at  that  time  at  Vesali  some  Licchavi  youths 
taking  hold  of  (some)  monks  made  them  commit  s.in 
with  one  another.  Both  agreed,  then  both  should  be 
expelled.  Neither  agreed,  there  is  no  offence  for 
either.  ||25|| 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  who  had  long  gone 
forth,  went  to  see  his  former  wife.  She  said,  "  Come, 
honoured  sir,  leave  the  Order,"^  and  she  took  hold  of 
him.  The  monk,  stepping  backwards,  fell  down  on  his 
back.^  She,  bending  him  up,^  sat  down  *on  him.  On 
account  of  this  he  was  remorseful.  .  .  .  They  told  this 
matter  to  the  lord.     He  said: 

''  Monk,  did  you  consent  ?" 

"  I  did  not  consent,  lord,"  he  said. 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  as  you  did  not  con- 
sent." II 26  II 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  dwelt  in  the  jungle. 
A  young  deer,  coming  up,  (*niade  that  monk  consent  to 

^  ndsetabbo.     Cf.  above,  p.  50. 

2  vesli  or  low-caste  woman. 

3  vibbhama,  see  above  p.  60,  n.  3. 

*  VA.  284,  says  that  he  stepped  back  to  free  himself  from  her 
grasp,  but  fell  down  as  he  was  weak  through  old  age.  But  he  was 
a  non-returner,  one  who  had  cut  off  passion  and  sense-desires, 
therefore  he  did  not  consent. 

»  ubbhujitvd.    Cf.  Vin.  ii.  222. 


I.  10,  27]  DEFEAT  63 

what  it  wanted  to  do).  On  account  of  this  he  was  re- 
morseful. He  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  He  said: 
"  You,  monk,  have  fallen  into  an  offence  involving 
defeat."  ||27||10|| 

Told  is  the  First  Offence  involving  Defeats  [40] 


1  samatiam,  instead  of  the  more  usual  nitthitam. 


DEFEAT  (PARAJIKA)  II 

At  one  time  the  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  was  stay- 
ing at  Rajagaha  on  the  slopes  of  the  Vulture's  Peak. 
Now  at  that  time  a  large  company  of  monks  who  were 
friends  and  comrades,  having  made  a  grass  hut  on  the 
Isigili  mountain-slope,^  went  up  there  for  the  rains. 
Also  the  venerable  Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  having 
made  a  grass  hut,  went  up  there  for  the  rains.  Then 
these  monks  having  spent  the  rains  for  three  months, 
demolished  the  grass  huts,  and  having  put  away  the  grass 
and  wood,  departed  on  tour  into  the  country.  But  the 
venerable  Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  spent  the  rains 
there,  the  cold  weather  there,  the  hot  weather  there. 
Then  when  the  venerable  Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  had 
gone  into  the  village  for  alms,  women,  gathering  grass, 
gathering  firewood,  demolished  the  grass  hut,  and  went 
away  taking  the  grass  and  wood.  A  second  time  did 
the  venerable  Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  having  collected 
grass  and  wood,  make  a  grass  hut.  A  second  time, 
when  the  venerable  Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  had  gone 
into  the  village  for  alms,  women,  gathering  grass,  gather- 
ing firewood,  destroyed  the  grass  hut,  and  went  aw^ay 
taking  the  grass  and  wood.  A  third  time  did  the 
venerable  Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  having  collected 
grass  and  wood,  make  a  grass  hut.  A  third  time,  when 
the  venerable  Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  had  gone  into 
the  village  for  alms,  women,  gathering  grass,  gathering 
firewood,  demolished  the  grass  hut,  and  went  away 
taking  the  grass  and  wood.  Then  the  venerable 
Dhaniya,   the  potter's  son,  thought:    "For  the  third 

^  One  of  the  group  of  hills  above  Rajagaha,  whence  the  other 
crests  could  be  seen  {M.  iii.  68,  if.);  a  resort  of  the  Order,  Vin.  ii. 
76;  where  Godhika  committed  suicide,  S.  i.  120;  cf.  D.  ii.  116. 

64 


II.  1,  1-2]  DEFEAT  65 

time,  when  I  have  gone  into  the  village  for  alms,  women, 
gathering  grass,  gathering  firewood,  demolished  the 
grass  hut,  and  went  away  taking  the  grass  and 'wood. 
But  I  am  well  taught,  experienced  in  my  own  craft, 
accomplished  in  the  potter's  craft.  What  now,  if  I, 
kneading  mire  myself,  should  make  a  hut  consisting  of 
nothing  but  mud  ?"  Then  the  venerable  Dhaniya,  the 
potter's  son,  kneading  mire  himself,  [41]  making  a  hut 
consisting  of  nothing  but  nmd,  collecting  grass  and  wood 
and  cow-dung,  baked  this  hut.  It  was  a  beautiful, 
lovely,  pleasing  red  hut,  just  like  a  little  lady-bird^ ;  and 
just  like  the  sound  of  a  small  bell,  so  was  the  sound  of 
this  hut.  Ill  II 

Then  the  lord  as  he  was  descending  from  the  slopes 
of  the  Vulture's  Peak  with  a  great  company  of  monks, 
saw  this  beautiful,  lovely,  pleasing  red  hut,  and  seeing 
it  he  addressed  the  monks  saying: 

"  Monks,  what  is  this  beautiful,  lovely,  pleasing  red 
thing  like  a  little  lady-bird?"  Then  the  monks  told 
this  matter  to  the  lord.  The  enlightened  one,  the  lord, 
rebuked  them  saying: 

"  Monks,  it  is  not  suitable  in  this  foolish  man,  it  is 
not  fit,  it  is  not  becoming,  it  is  not  worthy  of  a  recluse, 
it  is  not  seemly,  it  should  not  be  done.  For  how,  monks, 
can  this  foolish  man  make  a  hut  out  of  nothing  but 
mud  ?  Certainly,  monks,  this  foolish  man  can  have 
no  consideration,  compassion  and  mercy  for  creatures. ^ 

^  Indagopaka,  lit.  India's  cowherds.  Corny,  makes  no  remark. 
But  c/.  Thag.  13  and  Pss.  Breth.  18,  n.,  where  it  is  said  that  "  ac- 
cording to  the  (Thag.)  Commentary  these  are  coral-red  insects, 
alluded  to  in  connection  with  recent  rain,  but  said  by  some  to  be 
a  red  grass."  Note  also  here  Sir  Charles  Eliot's  remark  that  the 
Russians  call  lady-birds,  "  God's  little  cows."  Dhaniya's  hut 
might  have  been  of  a  round  kraal-like  shape,  suggesting  a  beetle's 
back.  Monier  Williams'  Sanskrit-English  Dictionary  gives  under 
indragopaka,  "  the  insect  cochineal  of  various  kinds  ";  and  St.  Peters- 
burgh  Dictionary  gives  "  Coccinelle."  The  coccineds  are,  however, 
lady-birds. 

'^  na  hi  ndma  tassa  moghajmrisassa  pdnesti  anuddayd  anukampd 
avihesd  bhavissati.  This  must  refer  to  the  small  creatures  in  the  mud 
which  would  be  destroyed  when  the  mud  was  baked. 

I.  5 


66  BOOK    01-    THE    DISCIPLINE  III.  42 

Co,  monks,  demolish  this  liut.  Do  not  let  the  folk 
who  come  after  bring  downfall  to  creatures.^  And, 
monks,  a  hut  consisting  of  nothing  but  mud  should  not 
be  made.  Whoever  shall  make  one — ^there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing. "2 

"  Very   well,    lord,"    the    monks    said,    and    liaving 
answered  the  lord  they  went  up  to  the  hut,  and  having 


^  md  pacchinid  Janata  jydiiesu  pdtavi/afam  dpajji.  VA.  288  para- 
phrases pacchimd  janald  by  janasamuho,  concourse  or  multitude  of 
people.  At  Viti.  ii.  128  we  find  pacchimamjanatam  lathdgato  amikam- 
yati,  trans,  at  Vin.  Texts,  iii.  128, "  The  tathagata  has  mercy  even  on 
the  meanest  thing."  And  atiW.  ii.  93,  pacchimam  janatam  tatlulgato 
apaloketi,  trans,  at  Fur.  Dial.  ii.  47,  "  The  Truth-Finder  is  looking 
towards  those  that  shall  follow  hereafter."  MA.  gives  no  help. 
Pacchimam  janatam  at  A.  i.  61  is  trans,  at  G.S.  i.  55  as  "  future 
generations,"  with  n.  that  "  Corny,  takes  it  to  mean  '  his  disciples 
who  come  after.'  "  At  A.  iii.  108=251  we  get  pacchimd  janatd  dit- 
thdnugatim  dpajjati  [dpajjissati,  108),  trans.,  G.S.  iii.  86,  184,  "  and 
the  folk  who  come  after  fall  (will  fall)  into  the  way  of  wrong  views." 
At  <S.  ii.  203  we  find  pacchimam  ca  janatam  anukampamdno  appeva- 
ndma  jHicchijhd  janatd  ditthdnugatim  dpajjeggum,  trans.,  K.S.  ii. 
136,  *'  and  being  filled  with  compassion  for  them  who  will  come  after 
us.  For  surely  these  may  fall  into  error."  ^.4.  makes  no  comment. 
Because  of  this  array  of  translations  of  pacchimd  janatd  as  "  those 
who  come  after,"  I  am  reluctant  to  think  that  here  it  means  "  lowest 
or  most  backward  persons  " — in  this  case  represented  by  Dhaniya.  It 
was  meant,  I  think,  that  it  was  a  bad  example  if  he  should  destroy 
creatures,  for  then  those  who  might  use  the  hut  after  him  might 
destroy  them.  Cf.  pacchimaka  bhikkhu,  above,  p.  19;  D.  ii.  155; 
A.  ii.  80. 

Fdlavyatd  is  paraphrased  at  VA.  288  as  pdtabyahhdva,  and  it  is 
said  that  in  the  time  of  a  Buddha  the  monks  did  bring  "  downfall 
to  creatures,  thinking  that  there  was  no  fault  in  de})riving  them  of 
life,  falling  into  the  way  of  wrong  views  {ditthdnugatim  dpajjamdnd, 
cf.  A.  iii.  108-^251)  about  this;  so  now  it  is  said:  'Let  not  the 
lowest  })eoj)le  think  thus  of  the  ruin  [pdtabbe,  with  v.  11  pdhabyate, 
pdtubye)  and  crushing  {ghamdtahbe)  of  creatures."  At  M.  i.  305= 
A.  i.  266  we  find  kdmesu  pdtavyafam  dpajjati  {°byatam  dpajjanti, 
M.  i.),  translated  Fur.  Dial.  i.  219,  "  they  give  way  to  indulgence  in 
}>leasures  of  sense,"  and  G.S.  i.  244,  "  comes  to  be  intoxicated  with 
his  lusts.'^  Mr.  Woodward  says,  G.S.  i.  244,  n.  2,  that  Comy.  on 
A.  a])pears  to  derive  pdtavyata  from  \/'piv.,  intoxication,  as  does 
I'dA.  351, 365,  as  he  points  out.  So  also  does  MA.  ii.  371.  But  such 
u  derivation  is  not  hinted  at  at  1^4.  288,  nor  would  it  fit  the  case. 

2  VA.  289,  "  There  was  no  oU'ence  for  Dhaniya,  because  it  was 
a  first  ofience." 


II.  1,  2-3]  DEFEAT  67 

gone  up  to  the  hut  they  destroyed  it.     Then  the  vener- 
able Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  said  to  these  monks : 
"  Why,  reverend  sirs,  do  you  destroy  my  hut  ?" 
**  Reverend  sir,  the  lord  causes  it  to  be  demolished," 
they  said. 

"  Destroy  it,  reverend  sirs,  if  the  lord  of  dhamma^ 
causes  it  to  be  destroyed,"  he  said.  ||  2  || 

Then  the  venerable  Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  thought: 
"  For  the  third  time  when  I  have  gone  into  the  village 
for  alms,  women,  gathering  grass,  gathering  firewood, 
demolished  the  grass-hut,  went  away  taking  the  grass 
and  wood;  and  now  this  hut  made  by  me  and  consisting 
of  nothing  but  mud  has  been  caused  to  be  demolished  by 
the  lord.  Now  the  overseer  in  the  wood-yard  is  a  friend 
of  mine.  What  now,  if  I,  having  begged  the  overseer  in 
a  wood-yard  for  some  sticks,  were  to  make  a  wood  hut  ?" 
Then  the  venerable  Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  went  up 
to  the  overseer  in  the  wood-yard,  and  having  gone  up, 
he  spoke  thus  to  the  overseer  in  the  wood-yard : 

"  For  the  third  time,  your  reverence,  when  I  had 
gone  into  the  village  for  alms,  women,  gathering  grass, 
gathering  firewood  .  .  .  has  been  caused  to  be  destroyed 
by  the  lord.  Give  me  some  sticks,  your  reverence, 
I  want  to  make  a  wood  hut." 

''  There  are  no  such  sticks,  honoured  sir,  that  I  could 
give  the  master.  [42]  These,  honoured  sir,  are  sticks 
held  for  the  king,  serving  to  repair  the  city,  laid  down 
in  case  of  accident.  If  the  king  has  those  dealt  out, 
you  might  take  them,  honoured,  sir,"  he  said. 

''  Your  reverence,  they  are  gifts  from  the  king." 

Then  the  overseer  of  the  wood-yard  thought:  ''  These 
recluses,  sons -of  the  Sakyans,  are  followers  of  dhamma, 
followers  of  tranquillity,  followers  of  the  Brahma-life, 
speakers  of  truth,  virtuous,  of  good  conduct.  Now  the 
king  has  faith  in  these.  It  is  not  right^  for  what  is 
said  to  be  given  not  to  be  given."  Then  the  overseer 
of  the  wood-yard  spoke  thus  to  the  venerable  Dhaniya, 


dhammasdnd,  cf.  S.  iv.  94;  A.  v.  220.  ^  na  arahati. 


68  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  48 

the  potter's  son:  "You  may  take  (some),  honoured 
sir/'  Then  the  venerable  Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son, 
had  these  sticks  broken  up  piece  by  piece  and  having 
them  brought  out  by  means  of  wagons,  made  a  wood 
hut.  II 3  II 

Now  the  brahmin  Vassakara,^  the  chief  minister  in 
Magadha,  while  he  was  inspecting  the  works  in  Raja- 
gaha,  came  up  to  the  overseer  in  the  wood-yard,  and 
having  come  up  he  spoke  thus  to  the  overseer  in  the 
wood -yard:  "Look  here,  where  are  these  sticks  held 
for  the  king,  serving  to  repair  the  city,  laid  down  in 
case  of  accident  ?" 

"  Sir,2  these  sticks  were  given,  by  the  king  to  master 
Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,"  he  said. 

Then  the  brahmin  Vassakara,  the  chief  minister  in 
Magadha,  was  displeased:  "  How  can  the  king  give  the 
sticks  held  for  the  king,  serving  to  repair  the  city,  laid 
down  in  case  of  accident,  to  Dhaniya,  the  potter's 
son  ?"  he  said. 

Then  the  brahmin  Vassakara,  the  chief  minister  in 
Magadha,  went  up  to  King  Seniya  Bimbisara  of  Magadha, 
and  having  come  up  he  spoke  thus  to  King  Seniya 
Bimbisara  of  Magadha:  "Is  it  true,  as  it  is  said,  sire, 
that  the  sticks  held  for  the  king,  serving  to  repair  the 
city,  laid  down  in  case  of  accident,  were  given  by  the 
king  to  Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son  ?" 

"Who  said  that?" 

"  The  overseer  of  the  wood-yard,  sire,"  he  said. 

"  Then,  brahmin,  send  for  the  overseer  of  the  wood- 
yard,"  he  said.  Then  Vassakara,  the  chief  minister  of 
Magadha,  had  the  overseer  of  the  wood-yard  fetched, 
bound.  The  venerable  Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  saw 
the  overseer  of  the  wood-yard   being  brought  along, 

1  At  Vin.  i.  22S=D.  ii.  SQ=Ud.  87  he  and  Sunidha,  another 
chief  minister,  were  building  a  fortified  town  at  Patahgama  against 
the  Vajjins.  At  JJ.  ii.  72  Ajatasattu,  then  King  of  Magadha,  sent 
Vassakara  to  tell  Gotania  that  he  (Ajata°)  was  going  to  fight  the 
Vajjins. 

^  Sdnii. 


II.  1,  4-5]  DEFEAT  69 

bound,  and  said  to  liim:  "  Wliy  are  you  brought  bound, 
your  reverence  ?" 

"  Because  of  this  business  with  the  pieces  of  wood, 
honoured  sir,"  he  said. 

"  Go,  your  reverence,  for  I  come,"  he  said. 

**  You  should  come  with  me,  honoured  sir,  before  1 
am  done  for,"  he  said.  ||  4  |j 

Then  the  venerable  Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  ap- 
proached the  dwelling  of  King  Seniya  Bimbisara  of 
Magadha,  and  having  approached  it  he  sat  down  on  the 
appointed  seat.  Then  King  Seniya  Bimbisara  of 
Magadha  came  up  to  the  venerable  Dhaniya,  [43]  the 
potter's  son,  and  having  come  up  and  greeted  the 
venerable  Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  he  sat  down  to  one 
side;  and  sitting  to  one  side.  King  Seniya  Bimbisara  of 
Magadha  spoke  thus  to  the  venerable  Dhaniya,  the 
potter's  son: 

"Is  it  true,  as  is  said,  honoured  sir,  that  the  pieces 
of  wood  held  for  the  king,  serving  to  repair  the  city, 
laid  down  in  case  of  need,  have  been  given  by  me  to 
the  master  ?" 

"It  is  so,  your  majesty,"  he  said. 

"  We  kings  are  very  busy,  honoured  sir,  with  much 
to  do;  having  given,  we  may  not  remember.  Come, 
honoured  sir,  remind  me." 

"  Do  you  remember,  your  majesty,  when  you  were 
first  anointed,  this  phrase  was  uttered :  '  Let  the  recluses 
and  brahmins  enjoy  gifts  of  grass,  wood  and  water  V  " 

"  I  remember,  honoured  sir.  There  are,  honoured 
sir,  recluses  and  brahmins  who  are  modest,  scrupulous, 
anxious  for  training;  there  is  only  a  little  worry  with 
these.  What  was  uttered  by  me  was  meant^  for  these, 
and  that  was:  what  was  in  the  jungle  not  owned.^  So 
you,  honoured  sir,  think  to  steal  wood  not  given  (to 
you)  by  this  trick  ?     How  could  one  like  me  flog  or 

*  Tesam  mayd  sandhdya  bhdsitam.  Sandhdya  of  text  altered  to 
saddhdya  at  Vin.  v.  260.     VA.  295  reads  sandh°. 

*  VA,  295  says:  "  that  grass,  wood,  and  water  not  owned  in  the 
jungle,  this  is  the  meaning  intended  by  me." 


70  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [111.  44 

imprison  or  banish  a  recluse  or  a  brahmin  living  in  the 
kingdom  '{  (Jo,  lionoured  sir,  you  are  freed  on  account 
of  your  hair,'  but  do  not  do  such  a  thing  again.'*  ||6  || 

People  became  annoyed,  vexed  and  angry,  saying: 
*'  Tlicse  recluses,  sons  of  the  Sakyans,  are  shameless, 
of  bad  conduct,  liars.  And  they  pretend  to  be  followers 
of  dhamma,  followers  of  tranquillity,  followers  of  the 
Brahma-life,  speakers  of  truth,  those  who  are  virtuous, 
of  good  conduct.  There  is  no  recluseship  among 
these,  there  is  no  brahmanhood  among  these;  recluse- 
ship is  lost  among  these,  brahmanhood  is  lost 
among  these.  Where  is  recluseship  among  these  ? 
Where  is  brahmanhood  among  these  ?  These  have 
destroyed  recluseship,  these  have  destroyed  brahman- 
hood. If  these  deceive  the  king,  how  much  more  then 
do  other  people  ?" 

Monks  heard  these  people  who  were  annoyed,  vexed 
and  angry.  Tliose  who  were  modest,  happy  monks, 
conscientious,  scrupulous,  anxious  for  training,  became 
annoyed,  vexed,  angry  and  said:  "  How  can  the  vener- 
able Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  take  pieces  of  wood 
belonging  to  the  king  when  they  have  not  been  given 
(to  him)  ?"  Then  these  monks  told  this  matter  to  the 
lord.  And  the  lord,  on  that  occasion,  in  this  connection, 
having  the  company  of  monks  convened,  questioned 
the  venerable  Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  saying: 

"  Is  it  true,  as  is  said,  Dhaniya,  that  you  have  taken 
pieces  of  wood  belonging  to  the  king  when  they  were 
not  given  (to  you)  ?" 

'^  It  is  true,  lord." 

^  Lomena.  VA.  295  says  that  laina  is  the  characteristic  mark  of 
pahbajjd.  It  is  like  the  case  of  some  evil-minded  people,  who  wanting 
to  eat  flesh,  take  a  goat  with  a  fine  coat.  A  clever  man  comes  along 
and  thinks  that  the  goat's  coat  is  valuable^  so  giving  the  other  people 
two  goats,  he  himself  takes  the  valuable  one.  Thus  this  goat  is 
freed  on  account  of  its  coat  or  hair  {lomena).  Similarly,  although 
the  man  who  has  done  the  deed  (referred  to  in  the  text)  is  worthy 
of  flogging  or  binding,  yet  because  he  bears  the  mark  of  an  arahan 
(arahaddhaja)  he  is  scatheless.  Therefore,  on  account  of  his  hair 
{Imnena,  i.e..,  the  down  on  the  Kmbs)  which  is  the  sign  of  his  having 
gone  forth,  he  is  freed,  like  the  valuable  goat. 


II.  1,  6]  DEFEAT  7I 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  him,  saying: 
"  It  is  not  fit,  foolish  man,  it  is  not  seemly,  it  is  not  be- 
coming, it  is  not  worthy  of  a  recluse,  it  is  not  proper,  it  is 
not  to  be  done.  How  can  you,  [44]  foolish  man,  take  the 
pieces  of  wood  belonging  to  the  king  when  they  have 
not  been  given  to  you  ?  Foolish  man,  it  is  not  for  the 
benefit  of  non-believers/  not'  for  increase  in  the  number 
of  believers,  it  is  to  the  detriment  of  non-believers  as 
well  as  of  believers,  and  it  causes  wavering  in  some." 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  former  minister  of  justice 
who  had  gone  forth  among  the  monks,  was  sitting  near 
the  lord.     And  the  lord  spoke  thus  to  this  monk: 

''  For  what  amount  (of  theft)  does  King  Seniya 
Bimbisara  of  Magadha,  having  caught  a  robber,  flog 
or  imprison  or  banish  him  V 

"  For  a  pdda,^  lord,  or  for  the  worth  of  a  pdda,^  or 
for  more  than  a  pdda/'  he  said. 

Now  at  that  time  in  Eajagaha  the  pdda  was  (worth) 

^  ^.  i.  98.  At  G.S.  i.  84  appasanndnam  is  trans.  "  to  believers  " 
in  error.     It  is,  of  course,  '*  to  non-believers  or  unbelievers." 

2  On  2)dda  see  Rhys  Davids,  Ayicienl  Coins,  etc..  p.  2  f.,  where  he 
says  "  there  is  nothing  to  prove  that  it  meant  a  coin  at  all;  it  may 
have  been  a  weight  .  .  .  recognised  as  a  basis  of  calculation  or  a 
medium  of  exchange."  VA.  297  says,  "  then  in  Rajagaha  a  kahapana 
was  (worth)  twenty  masakas,  therefore  a  pada  was  (worth)  five 
masakas,  and  a  pada,  because  of  this  property,  is  to  be  called  a 
quarter  of  a  kahiipana  throughout  the  countryside."  At  Vin.  iii. 
238,  240,  kahapana  appears  in  definition  of  rajata  (silver),  rupiija 
(silver),  respectively,  but  I  think  that  it  need  not  necessarily  mean 
silver  literally,  as  the  copper,  wood  and  lac  masakas  also  a])))ear 
in  these  definitions  of  rajata  and  rupiya.  See  p.  72,  n.  for  )t\dsaJxa. 
At  VvA.  n=^DhA.  iii.  108  we  get  a  descending  line,  kahnpana, 
addhapdda,  mdsaka,  then  kdkanikd.  For  this  last  see  Rhys  Davids, 
Ancient  Coins,  etc.,  }).  10.  Owing  to  the  uncertainty  as  to  the 
exact  nature  of  the  coins:  kahapana,  masaka,  pada,  if  indeed  they 
were  coins  at  all,  I  think  it  better  to  leave  them  untranslated. 
All  we  can  say  is  that  the  kahapana  was  the  unit  of  exchange  in 
Pali  literature,  and  that  the  others  were  mediums  of  exchange  of 
lesser  value  than  the  kahapana.  To  translate  kahapana  by ' '  penny 
and  so  on  as  does  Burlingame  in  Buddhist  Legends,  ii.  333  f. 
brings  us  no  nearer  to  the  sense  of  the  Pali. 

^  pdddrahaij.  Here  we  have  what  is  possibly  an  early  use  of 
araharj,  when  it  simply  meant  "  worth  "  or  "  value,"  and  not  even 
-so  nmch  as  a  "  worthy  person,"  far  less  a  saint  or  man  perfected. 


72  BOOK   OF  THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  46 

five  mdsahas?  Then  the  lord,  blaming  the  venerable 
Dhaniya,  the  potter's  son,  in  several  ways  for  his  diffi- 
culty in  behaving  himself  ...  "  Thus,  monks,  this 
course  of  training  should  be  set  forth: 

"  Whatever  monk  should  take  by  means  of  theft 
what  has  not  been  given  to  him,  in  such  manner  of  taking 
as  kings,  catching  a  thief  in  the  act  of  stealing,  would 
flog  him  or  imprison  him  or  banish  him,  saying :  '  You 
are  a  robber,  you  are  foolish,  you  are  wrong,  you  are 
a  thief,' — even  so  a  monk,  taking  what  is  not  given  him, 
is  also  one  who  is  defeated,  he  is  not  in  communion." 

And  thus  this  course  of  training  for  monks  was  made 
known  by  the  lord.  ||  6  i|  1 1| 


Now  at  that  time  the  group  of  six  monks,  going  to 
tlie  bleachers'  ford  and  stealing  a  bundle  of  things  that 
had  been  bleached,  carried  it  off  to  the  park  and  divided 
it.     The  monks  spoke  thus: 

"  You,  your  reverences,  have  great  merit,  for  many 
robes  have  accrued  to  you." 

"  Where  is  there  merit  for  us,  your  reverences  ?  Now 
we,  having  gone  to  the  bleachers'  ford,  stole  a  bundle 
of  things  that  had  been  bleached." 

'*  But  surely,  your  reverences,  a  course  of  training  was 
made  known  by  the  lord.  How  can  you,  your  rever- 
ences, steal  a  bundle  of  things  that  had  been  bleached  ?" 

*'  It  is  true,  your  reverences,  that  a  course  of  training 
was  made  known  by  the  lord;  but  it  is  for  the  village 
and  not  for  the  jungle." 

"  Surely,  your  reverences,  it  is  just  as  much  for  that. 

1  mdsaka  from  mdsa,  a  bean  of  the  phaseolus,  see  below,  p.  83,  n. 
Enough  has  been  said  to  show  that  usually  twenty  masakas  were 
reckoned  to  make  a  kahapana.  As  mentioned  in  foregoing  note 
the  copper,  wood  and  lac  masakas  are  included  in  a  definition  of 
rajata  and  rupiya.  See  also  VA.  689-690  which  speaks  of  masakas 
made  of  skin,  bone,  fruits  or  seeds  of  trees,  and  says  that  some 
masakas  have  figures  stamped  upon  them.  This  passage  goes  on 
to  say  that,  together  with  silver  and  gold,  the  gold  masaka  and  the 
silver  masaka  are  four  things  to  be  given  up  (by  monks).  See  Rhys 
Davids,  AncieTU  Coins,  etc.,  pp.  8,  14.     Cf.  S.  i.  79. 


II.  2  3]  DEFEAT  73 

It  is  not  fit,  it  is  not  seemly,  it  is  not  becoming,  it  is 
not  worthy  of  a  recluse,  it  is  not  right,  it  should  not  be 
done.  How  can  you,  your  reverences,  steal  a  bundle  of 
things  that  had  been  bleached  ?  Your  reverences,  it  is 
not  for  the  benefit  of  non-believers,  nor  for  increase  in  the 
number  of  believers,  it  is  to  the  detriment  of  non-believers 
as  well  as  of  believers,  and  it  causes  wavering  in  some." 

And  then  these  monks,  having  rebuked  the  group  of 
six  monks  in  various  ways,  [45]  told  this  matter  to  the 
lord.  Then  the  lord,  on  this  occasion,  for  this  reason, 
having  the  company  of  monks  convened,  questioned 
the  group  of  six  monks: 

"Is  it  true,  as  they  say,  monks,  that  you,  having 
gone  to  the  bleachers'  ford,  stole  a  bundle  of  things  that 
had  been  bleached  ?" 
"  It  is  true,  lord." 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  them,  saying: 
"It  is  not  fit,  foolish  men,  it  is  not  seemly,  it  is  not 
becoming,  it  is  not  worthy  of  a  recluse,  it  is  not  right, 
it  should  not  be  done.  How  can  you,  foolish  men, 
going  to  the  bleachers'  ford,  steal  a  bundle  of  things 
that  had  been  bleached  ?  FooHsh  men,  it  is  not  for 
the  benefit  of  non-believers  ...  in  some."  Then  the 
lord  rebuking  the  group  of  six  monks  for  their  difiiculty 
in  behaving  themselves  .  .  .  praising  the  putting  forth 
of  energy,  giving  dhamma-talk  on  what  was  right  and 
on  what  was  seemly,  said  to  the  monks  .  .  .  "Thus 
this  course  of  training,  monks,  should  be  set  forth: 

"  Whatever  monk  should  by  means  of  theft  take  from 
a  village  or  from  the  jungle  what  has  not  been  given  to 
him  in  such  manner  of  taking  as  kings,  catching  a  thief 
in  the  act  of  stea,ling,  would  flog  him  or  imprison,  him 
or  banish  him,  saying,  *  You  are  a  robber,  you  are 
foolish,  you  are  wrong,  you  are  a  thief,' — even  so  a 
monk,  taking  what  is  not  given  him,  is  also  one  who  is 
defeated,  he  is  not  in  communion."  11  2 11 


Whatever  means  he  who  .  .  .      Monk  ...  is  monk 
to  be  understood  in  this  meaning. 


74  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  48-47 

Village  moans:  a  village  of  one  Iiut,  and  a  village 
of  tAvo  huts,  and  a  village  of  three  huts,  and  a  village  of 
four  huts,  and  a  village  with  human  beings,^  and  a 
village  with  beings  who  are  not  human,i  and  a  fenced-in 
village,  and  a  village  which  is  not  fenced  in ;  and  a  village 
arranged  fortuitously,  and  even  a  caravan  that  is  camp- 
ing for  more  than  four  months  is  called  a  village.  The 
precincts  of  the  village  means :  of  a  fenced-in  village,  the 
outward  stone-throw  of  a  man  of  average  height  standing 
at  the  threshold;  of  a  village  not  fenced  in,  the  outward 
stone-throw  of  a  man  of  average  height  standing  at  the 
precincts  of  a  house.^ 

The  jungle  means :  leaving  aside  the  village  and  the 
outskirts  of  the  village,  what  remains  is  called  the  jungle.^ 

What  has  not  been  given  means:  what  has  not  been 
given,  nor  granted,  nor  thrown  away;  what  is  guarded, 
protected,  cherished,  what  belongs  to  others — this  is 
called  what  has  not  been  given. 

By  means  of  theft  means:  intending  to  steal,  intending 
to  thieve. 

Should  to^  means:  should  take,  should  steal,  should 
thieve,  should  interrupt  the  mode  of  movement,  should 
remove  from  a  place,  should  wait  at  a  rendezvous.* 

In  such  manner  of  taking  as  means :  a  pdda,  the  worth 
of  a  pdda,  or  more  than  a  pdda.  [46] 

Kings  mean:  kings  of  the  earth,  local  kings,  kings' 
deputies,  subordinate  chieftains,  judges,  chief  ministers ; 
moreover  those  who  administer  torture  and  maiming 
are  called  kings. 

^  samanusso  pi  gdmo  amanusso  pi  gdmo,  or  "  a  village  that  is 
inhabited  or  a  village  that  is  uninhabited."     See  n.  2,  p.  147  below. 

2  See  Viwi.  71  f.,  which  goes  into  the  question  of  fixing  the 
village  precincts  at  greater  length.  It  adduces  Vinaya  evidence: 
a  stone  thrown  by  young  men  in  a  display  or  strength  fixes  the 
boundary.  The  standard  throw  decides  this.  The  Vism,.  goes  on 
to  say  that  the  Suttanta  scholars  say  that  the  boundary  is  the  fall 
of  a  stone  thrown  to  drive  away  a  crow. 

3  Quoted  at  SnA.  83;  and  at  Vism.  73.  Here  Vibhanga  defini- 
tion is  also  collected:  "  it  is  jungle  when  one  goes  out  by  the  gate- 
pillars,"  Vhh.  251.  Suttanta  views  as  to  relation  of  jungle  and  village 
are  also  given  at  Vism.  73.  *  samketa,  see  below  Par.  11.  4.  30. 


II.  8-4,  1]  DEFEAT  75 

A  thief  means:  he  who  takes  by  means  of  theft  (any- 
thing) having  the  value  of  five  mdsakas  or  more  than  five 
rndsakas  that  has  not  been  given — he  is  called  a  thief. 

Would  flog  means:  they  would  flog  with  the  hand,  or 
the  foot,  or  a  whip,  or  a  cane,  or  a  rod,  or  with  maiming. 

Would'  imprison  means:  they  would  imprison  with  a 
binding  of  rope,  with  a  binding  of  fetters,  with  a  binding 
of  chains,  with  a  binding  of  a  house,  with  a  binding  of 
a  town,  with  a  binding  of  a  village,  with  a  binding  of 
a  small  town,  or  they  would  make  a  guard  of  men. 

Would  banish  means:  they  would  banish  from  the  vil- 
lage or  small  town  or  town,  or  province  or  rural  district. 

You  are  a  robber,  you  are  foolish,  you  are  ivrong,  you 
are  a  thief  means :  this  is  censure. 

Even  so  means:  a  pdda  or  the  worth  of  a  pdda  or  more 
than  a  pdda. 

Taking  means:  taking,  stealing,  thieving,  interrupting 
the  mode  of  movement,  moving  from  a  place,  waiting  at 
a  rendezvous. 

Also  means:  it  is  called  so,  in  reference  to  the  first. 

One  ivho  is  defeated  means:  as  a  withered  leaf  freed 
from  its  hold  could  not  become^  green  again,  thus  a 
monk,  taking  by  means  of  theft,  a  pdda  or  the  worth 
of  a  pdda  or  more  than  a  pdda  which  had  not  been  given 
to  him,  is  not  a  recluse,  is  not  a  son  of  the  Sakyans^ ; 
therefore  he  is  called  one  who  is  defeated. 

Not  in  communion  means:  communion  is  called  one 
work,  one  rule,  an  equal  training,  this  is  called  com- 
munion. He  who  is  not  together  with  this,  is  therefore 
called  not  in  communion.  11 3 II 


Being  in  the  earth,^  being  on  firm  ground,  being  in 


^  Abhabba. 

*  Cf.  Yin.  i.  96,  where  it  is  said  that  a  monk  who  has  received  the 
upasampada  ordination  should  abstain  from  taking  what  is  not 
given  him  and  from  theft,  even  of  a  blade  of  grass. 

^  Where  necessary  these  terms  are  commented  upon  in  notes  on 
the  following  paragraphs. 


76  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [TIT.  47 

the  air,  being  above  ground,  being  in  the  water,  being 
in  a  boat,  being  in  a  vehicle,  carried  as  a  burden,  being 
in  a  park,  being  in  a  vihara,  being  in  a  field,  being  on  a 
property,  being  in  a  village,  being  in  a  jungle,  water, 
tooth-cleaner,  forest  tree,  goods  in  transit,  deposit, 
customs  frontier,  a  creature  without  feet,  two-footed, 
four-footed,  many-footed  creatures,  a  spy,  the  keeper 
of  entrusted  wares,  an  arranged  theft,  the  makmg  of 
a  rendezvous,  the  making  of  a  sign.  ||  1 1| 

Being  in  the  earth  means :  the  goods  are  put  down  into 
the  earth,  buried  and  covered.  If  he  says:  "  I  will 
take  the  goods  which  are  in  the  earth,"  and  intending 
'to  steal,  either  he  seeks  for  a  companion,^  or  he  seeks 
for  a  hoe  or  a  basket  (or)  goes  (himself) ,2  there  is  an 

1  duitya,  a  second  one,  a  mate  or  helper,  a  friend,  associate  or 
accomplice. 

2  There  are  two  curious  points  in  this  passage:  (1)  he  seeks  for  a 
hoe  or  a  basket,  not  for  both;  (2)  the  construction  pariyesati  gacchati, 
the  use  of  two  indicatives  together  being  uncommon.  It  is  more 
usual  to  find  an  indicative  following  a  gerund.  Does  this  sentence 
mean  that  having  been  unable  to  find  a  willing  friend  he  goes  and 
seeks  for  the  implements  himself  ?  Or  that  seeking  a  hoe  or  a 
basket  he  goes  himself  to  do  the  theft  ?  In  the  following  paragraphs 
the  reading  is  simpler:  dntiyam  vd  pariyesati  gacchati  vd,  he  seeks 
for  a  friend  or  he  goes  away  (or  goes  himself).  VA.  310  f.  says  that 
realising  that  the  treasure  is  too  heavy  for  one  person  alone,  he  goes 
and  wakes  a  sleeping  friend  (sahdya),  who  may  bring  his  own  hoe. 
But  if  he  has  not  one,  the  intending  thief  goes  to  another  monk 
and  says:  "  Give  me  a  hoe,  I  want  it  for  something,"  and  he  gives 
some  excuse — a  pacittiya  offence.  If  he  finds  that  the  hoe  has  no 
handle,  he  goes  away  for  this  purpose,  and  cuts  down  and  shapes 
a  piece  of  dry  wood.  There  is  a  dukkata  offence  in  all  these  under- 
takings, except  in  lying,  which  is  a  pacittiya,  and  in  cutting  reeds 
for  a  basket — also  a  pacittiya. 

We  thus  get  two  possible  interpretations  for  gacchati:  (1)  that  th^ 
intending  thief  goes  away  to  another  monk ;  (2)  that  he  goes  away 
to  make  a  handle  for  the  hoe.  But  in  commenting  on  gacchati  vd, 
VA.  311  says,  "  he  goes  to  the  place  where  the  treasure  is,  the 
friend  sought,  the  hoe  (sought),  the  basket  (sought)."  This  seems 
to  convey  the  idea  that  he  goes  himself.  I  have  therefore  translated 
it  in  this  way. 

VA.  312  mentions  the  names  of  eight  dukkata  offences  which  are 
interesting.  There  are  pvhbapayogadukkala,  sahapayogaduk° ,  ana- 
rmsaduk°y  duriipaciri,naduk° ,  vinayaduk°,  ndtaduk°,  nattiduk°,  patis- 


II.  4,  2]  DEFEAT  77 

offence  of  wrong-doing.^  [47]  If  he  breaks  a  piece  of 
wood  or  a  slender  tree*^  growing  there  ...  If  he  digs 
up  the  soil  or  removes  it  or  lifts  it  up  .  .  .  If  he  lays 
hold  of  a  large  round  pot,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. If  he  makes  it  quiver,^  there  is  a  grave  offence.* 
If  he  removes  it  from  the  place,^  there  is  an  offence 
involving  defeat.  Making  it  enter  his  own  bowl,  he 
touches  something  worth  five  mdsakas  or  more  than 
five  tndsakas,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he 
makes  it  quiver,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  If  he  either 
puts  it  into  his  own  bowl,®  or  detaches  a  handful,^  there 
is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  If  he  touches  the  goods, 
intending  to  steal  them,  (and)  puts  on  an  article  such  as 
a  chain,*  or  a  string,^  or  an  ornamental  string  of  beads 

savadukkata,  which  seem  to  mean  respectively:  the  offence  of  a 
previous  action,  of  a  present  action,  of  touching  something  forbidden 
(so  Crit.  Pali  Diet.),  the  offence  of  handling  something  wrongfully, 
an  offence  concerning  discipline,  an  offence  concerning  relations, 
an  offence  concerning  a  resolution,  concerning  obedience. 

^  Dukkata,  explained  at  VA.  313  as  duUhu  kata,  badly,  wrongly 
done;  and  transgressing  being  done  is  called  dukkata.  This  is  not 
one  of  the  worst  transgressions. 

2  Lata,  a  slender  creeper. 

^  Phanddpeti,  cf.  M.  i.  404  phandato  phanddpayato,  trans,  at 
Fur.  Dial.  i.  291,  "  who  sets  folk  quaking  or  causes  another  to  do  so." 
The  meaning  probably  is  that  he  takes  hold  of  the  article  so  that 
it  throbs,  trembles  or  shakes — a  worse  offence  than  merely  laying 
hold  of  it,  but  not  so  bad  as  removing  it. 

*  Thullaccaya,  an  offence  whose  nature  is  grave,  VA.  314. 

*  Thdnd  cdveti.  Cf.  Sn.  442  7nd  mam  thdnd  acdvayi,  trans. 
H.O.S.  vol.  37,  "  May  he  never  beat  me  back,"  and  S.B.E.  vol.  x., 
"  that  he  may  not  drive  me  away  from  my  place." 

"  Attano  hhdjanagatam  vd  karoti.  Cf.  below,  p.  85.  Bhdjana- 
gatam  expl.  at  VA.  316  to  mean  bhdjane  yeva  hoti,  as  kumhhigatam  is 
kumhhiyam,  fem.  loc. 

'  Mutthim  chindati,  i.e.,  of  kahapanas.  VA.  316;  which  also  says, 
evam  ynutthim  karonto  mutthim  chindati  ndma,  making  a  fist  so  is 
called  detaching  a  handful  so  that  no  kahapanas  come  out  between 
the  fingers. 

«  Suttdrulham.  VA.  316,  "  putting  on  chains  means,  tying  on 
chains,  made  of  chains."  Cf.  Vin.  ii.  106  where  the  group  of  six 
monks  wore  similar  things. 

»  Pdmanga,  at  Vin.  Texts  iii.  69,  "ear-drops."  VA.  316,  "made 
of  gold,  made  of  silver,  made  of  chains,  strings  of  pearls  and  so  on." 
Otherwise  Bu.  of  no  help  here.     Cf.  VA.  534. 


yS  BOOK   OF    THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  48 

for  the  throat,  or  an  ornamental  string  lianging  from 
the  ear.i  or  an  ornamental  girdle,^  or  a  cloak,  or  a  turban, 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  he  makes  it  quiver,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  If, 
holding  it  by  the  top,^  he  raises  it  up,  there  is  a  grave 
offence.  If  he  draws  it  out,  levelling  it,*  there  is  a 
grave  offence.  If  he  releases  (the  goods)  even  (as  much 
as)  a  hair's  breadth  from  the  rim  of  the  bowl,  there  is 
an  offence  involving  defeat.  If,  intending  to  steal,  he 
drinks  at  one  gulp^  ghee  or  oil  or  honey  or  molasses® 
to  the  value  of  five  indsakas  or  more  than  five  mdsakas, 
there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  Inasmuch  as  he 
breaks  or  disperses  or  burns  or  renders  useless,  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  ||  2  || 

Being  on  firm  ground?  means :  the  goods  are  put  down 
on  the  firm  ground.  If  intending  to  steal  and  saying: 
''  I  will  steal  the  goods  which  are  on  the  firm  ground," 
he  either  searches  for  a  companion,  or  goes  himself, 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.     If  he  touches  them, 

1  KamasuUaka  at  Yin.  i.  286  seems  to  mean  a  clothes-line;  but 
cf.  Vin.  ii.  143. 

2  Katisuitaka.  Not  enuinerated  at  Vin.  ii.  136  where  other  special 
kinds  of  girdles  arc  mentioned.  The  monks  were  forbidden  to  wear 
any  of  these  things,  Vin.  ii.  107.  The  use  of  katisuitaka,  meaning  a 
hip-string,  is  forbidden  to  the  nuns  at  Vin.  ii.  271. 

3  kotiyani  gahetva=dkdsattham  akaronto,  VA.  317, 

*  ghamsanto  nlharati,  which  according  to  VA.  317  means  that  when 
a  big  pot  is  brim-full,  drawing  it  out  and  levelling  a  chain  {pdmahga) 
across  the  mouth  of  the  big  pot,  if  he  draws  the  chain  further  than 
the  mouth,  so  that  he  drags  off  whatever  goods  rise  higher  than  the 
level  of  the  top  of  the  pot,  there  is  a  parajika  offence.  But  if,  in 
pulling  the  chain,  he  does  not  pull  over  any  goods,  as  he  does  not 
pull  the  chain  beyond  the  rim,  there  is  a  thullaccaya  offence.  Sec 
above,  p.  77  n.,  on  pdmahga. 

^  payoga,  an  elastic  term,  meaning  action,  business,  undertaking; 
cf.  Vin.  iii.  50  below,  where  it  seems  to  mean  occasion,  occurrence, 
happening. 

«  These,  with  fresh  butter,  navanlta,  constitute  the  five  kinds  of 
medicine,  vf.  below,  Vin.  iii.  251. 

^  thalattham.  Thala  is  solid  ground,  firm  ground,  as  opposed  to 
water;  dry  ground — i.e.,  high,  raised  or  sloping  as  opposed  to  low 
ground;  or  a  plateau  as  opposed  to  a  low-lying  place.  VA.  322 
explains  by  bhwnilale  vd  pdsddapabbatatalddisu  vd. 


II.  4,  3-5]  DEFEAT  79 

there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  makes  them 
quiver,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  If  he  removes  them 
from  the  place,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat,  ||  3|| 

Being  in  the  air  means:  the  goods  going  in  the  air.^ 
A  peacock  or  a  francolin  partridge^  or  a  partridge  or 
a  quaiP  or  a  cloak*  or  a  turban,  or  an  ornament^  or 
gold,^  being  broken,  falls  to  the  ground;  and  he  says: 
**  I  will  steal  the  goods  which  have  been  in  the  air." 
If,  intending  to  steal,  he  either  searches  for  a  com- 
panion, or  goes  himself,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. If  he  interrupts  their  journey  .  .  .  If  he  touches 
them,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  makes 
them  quiver,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  If  he  removes 
them  from  the  place,  there  is  an  offence  involving 
defeat.  II 4  II 

Beifig  above  ground^  means :  the  goods  are  found  above 
ground.'     They  get  stuck  in  a  couch  or  chair,  or  on  a 

1  akasagatam ,  gat  am  being  an  elastic  termination  of  some  fixed 
significance. 

2  kapinjara,  possibly  with  this  meaning,  cf.  Kvu.  268  {kapinjala) 
and  J  a.  vi.  538. 

3  vattako,  P.T.S.  Did.  says  a  ''  cart,"  vattakd  being  "  quail." 

^  Blown  by  the  force  of  the  wind  and  extended  on  the  ground, 
VA.  324. 

^  hirannam  vd  suvannam  vd.  While  people  are  putting  on,  e.g.  a 
necklace  or  while  a  goldsmith  is  making  a  salakd,  if  it  falls  from 
the  fastener,  and  the  thief  makes  off  with  it,  VA.  324.  But  for 
these  two  words,  hir°  and  suv^,  cf.  above  p.  28,  n. 

^  VehdsaUham.  There  is  usually  little  difference  between  vehdsa 
and  dkdma,  which  is  part  of  the  word  explained  in  the  preceding 
})aragraph.  Both  usually  mean  "air"  or  "  atmosphere."  But 
it  is  clear  in  this  context  that  some  greater  difference  is  intended. 
In  this  paragraph,  beginning  "  Being  above  ground,"  the  goods 
are  shown  to  come  into  contact  with  something  standing  on  or 
supj)orted  by  the  earth,  and  are  not,  as  ''  in  the  air,"  freed,  like  a 
bird,  from  the  earth's  support.  V ehdsaUhani ,  with  bhumigatam, 
occurs  at  D.  i.  115,  and  is  trans,  at  Dial.  i.  147  "  above  the  ground," 
which  1  follow,  and  at  Fur.  Dial  ii.  94,  "  housed  in  treasury  chambers." 
DA.  i.  2^'i^:=MA.  iii.  420,  says  ''completing  terraces  and  turrets 
{pdsddaniyyuhdddgo)  and  putting  (it  there)  is  called  '  above  the 
ground.'  " 

^  vehdsagatam. 


80  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  48  49 

bamboo  peg  for  hanging  up  a  robe,^  or  on  a  cord  for 
hanging  up  a  robe,  or  on  a  peg  in  the  wall,^  or  on  an 
''  elephant-tusk  "(peg),^  or  in  a  tree,  even  on  the  support 
for  a  begging-bowl.'*  If,  intending  to  steal,  he  thinks: 
"  I  will  steal  the  goods  that  are  found  above  ground," 
he  either  searches  for  a  companion,  or  goes  himself, 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  touches  them, 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  makes  them 
quiver,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  If  he  removes  them 
from  the  place,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat. 
II 6  II  [48] 

Being  in  the  tvater  means:  the  goods  are  put  down  in 
the  water.  Intending  to  steal,  he  thinks:  "  I  will  steal 
the  goods  which  are  in  the  water;"  he  either  searches 
for  a  companion,  or  goes  himself,  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  He  either  dives  into  (the  water)  or 
emerges  from  (it),  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 
If  he  touches  (the  goods),  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. If  he  causes  them  to  quiver,  there  is  a  grave 
offence.  If  he  removes  them  from  the  place,  there  is 
an  offence  involving  defeat.  Intending  to  steal,  he 
touches  either  a  blue,  red,  or  white  lotus  which  is  growing 
there,^  or  the  sprout  of  a  lotus,  or  a  fish  or  a  turtle  to 
the  value  of  five  7ndsakas  or  more  than  five  mdsakas, 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  causes  them 
to  quiver,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  If  he  removes  them 
from  the  place,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  ||  6  || 

A  boat  means:  that  by  which  one  crosses.^  Being 
in  a  boat  means:  the  goods  are  put  down  in  a  boat. 

1  clvaravarjsa.  This  and  the  next,  civararajju,  are  often  found 
together  in  Vinaya;  cf.  Vin.  i.  47  and  286  where  these  things  were 
prescribed  for  the  monks. 

2  bhittikhila.  VA.  327,  something  knocked  against  the  wall, 
driven  straight  in,  or  something  that  was  there  originally. 

^  ndgadanta.     VA.  327  says  that  this  is  curved. 

^  VA.  328,  this  may  be  a  support  on  a  tree  or  on  a  fence  or 
on  a  stick. 

^  tadhajdtaka,  lit.  born  there. 

^  VA.  332,  here  meaning  even  a  washerman's  tub  or  a  sheaf  of 
bamboos. 


II.  4,  7-9]  DEFEAT  8l 

Intending  to  steal,  he  thinks:  "I  will  steal  the  goods 
which  are  put  down  in  a  boat " ;  he  either  searches  for 
a  companion,  or  goes  (himself),  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  If  he  touches  them  .  .  .  involving  de- 
feat. Intending  to  steal,  he  says:  ''I  will  steal  the 
boat,"  ...  or  goes  himself,  -  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  If  he  touches  it,  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  If  he  makes  it  quiver,  there  is  a  grave 
offence.  If  he  loosens  the  moorings,  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing.  If,  having  loosened  the  moorings,  he 
touches  it,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he 
makes  it  quiver,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  If  he  makes 
it  move  up  or  down,  or  across  (the  river)  even  for  as 
much  as  a  hair's  breadth,  there  is  an  offence  involving 
defeat.  |i7|| 

A  vehicle^  means:  a  litter,  a  two-wheeled  carriage, 
a  waggon,  a  chariot.^  Being  in  a  vehicle  means:  the 
goods  are  laid  down  in  a  vehicle.  Intending  to  steal, 
he  thinks:  "  I  will  steal  the  goods  laid  down  in  the 
vehicle,"  ...  or  goes  himself:  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  If  he  touches  them  .  .  .  involving  de- 
feat. Intending  to  steal,  he  thinks:  "I  will  steal  the 
vehicle  "...  or  goes  himself,  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  If  he  touches  (it)  .  .  .  involving  de- 
feat. II  8  II 

A  burden  means:  a  burden  carried  on  the  head,  a 
burden  carried  on  the  back  (or  shoulder),  a  burden 
carried  on  the  hip  and  hanging  down.  Intending  to 
steal,  he  touches  the  burden  on  the  head,  there  is  an 


^  ydna,  a  way,  the  act  of  going,  so  a  vehicle.  Earlier,  in  the 
Brahmanas  and  Upanisads,  it  had  meant  a  way,  rather  than  the 
means  of  going,  as  devaydna,  pitrydna,  the  way  to  the  devas,  the 
way  to  the  ancestors.  Dasgupta  sees  the  word  as  "  career,"  History 
of  Indian  Philosophy  I.  125.  This  rendering  was  adopted  by 
E.  J.  Thomas,  History  of  Buddhist  Thought,  p.  178,  in  referring  to 
later  (Mahayana)  teaching.  The  above  definition  clearly  rules 
out  "  career  "  for  this  passage. 

^  Cf.  Vin.  iv.  339  where  two  more  are  added:  slvikd  pdtahki, 
palanquin  and  sedan-chair. 

I.  6 


82  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [HI.  49-60 

offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  makes  it  quiver,  there  is 
a  grave  offence.  If  he  robs  the  back  (of  its  burden), 
there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  Intending  to  steal, 
he  touches  the  burden  on  the  back,  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing.  If  he  makes  it  quiver,  there  is  a  grave 
offence.  If  he  robs  the  hip,  there  is  an  offence  involving 
defeat.  Intending  to  steal,  he  touches  the  burden  on 
the  hip,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he 
causes  it  to  quiver,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  If  he  takes 
it  with  his  hands,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat. 
Intending  to  steal  the  burden  with  his  hand,  he  deposits 
it  on  the  ground,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat. 
Intending  to  steal,  he  takes  it -from  the  ground,  there 
is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  ||  9  || 

A  park  means:  a  park  with  flowers,  a  park  with  fruit 
(i.e.,  an  orchard).  Being  in  a  park  means:  the  goods 
are  laid  down  in  the  park  in  four  places:  in  the  earth, 
on  the  firm  ground,  in  the  air,  above  the  ground.  [49] 
Intending  to  steal,  he  thinks:  "  I  will  steal  the  goods 
which  are  in  the  park,"  ...  or  goes  himself,  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  touches  them  .  .  . 
involving  defeat.  Intending  to  steal,  he  touches  a  root 
growing  there, ^  or  a  (piece  of)  bark,^  or  a  leaf,  or  a  flower,^ 
or  a  fruit  to  the  value  of  five  nmsakas  or  more  than  five 
mdsakas  .  .  .  involving  defeat.  If  he  claims  the  park,* 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  evokes  doubt 
in  the  keeper  (of  the  park),  there  is  a  grave  offence. 
If  the  keeper,  saying:  "  This  will  not  be  for  me,"  gives 
up  his  post,^  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  Re- 
sorting to  law®  he  defeats  the  keeper,  there  is  an  offence 

1  tatfhajdfala,  (f.  p.  80,  n.  5;  VA.  337  f.,  applies  this  adjectiA^c 
only  to  myJa. 

2  })ark  was  used  for  medicine  or  dye;  to  harm  a  tree  with  valu- 
able bark  was  a  parajika,  VA.  338.        ^  such  as  jasmine  and  lotus. 

*  VA.  338,  i.e.  belonging  to  someone  else,  saying,  '  It  is  mine'; 
in  this  attempt  to  take  what  is  not  given,  there  is  a  dukkata. 

^  (Ihuram  nikkhipati,  or  "  throws  ofE  his  responsibility." 

*  d/ianrmam  caranto.  VA.  ii.  339=^b}iikkhusan(/he  vd  mjnknlc 
vd  vinicchayarn  karonto ;  but  the  judges  having  descended  to  false 
witnesses  pervert  justice  and  conquer  the  keeper. 


II.  4,  10-12]  DEFEAT  83 

involving  defeat.     Resorting  to  law,^  he  is  defeated,^ 
there  is  a  grave  offence.  ||  10 1| 

Being  in  a  vihdra^  means :  the  goods  are  deposited 
in  a  vihara  in  four  places:  in  the  earth,  on  the  firm 
ground,  in  the  air,  above  the  ground.  Intending  to 
steal,  he  thinks:  ''  I  will  steal  the  goods  deposited  in 
the  vihara,"  ...  or  goes  himself,  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing.  If  he  touches  .  .  .  involving  defeat. 
If  he  claims  the  vihara  ...  he  is  defeated^:  there  is 
a  grave  offence.  ||  11  || 

A.  field  means:  where  grain  and  pulses*  are  produced. 
Being  in  a  field  means :  the  goods  are  deposited  in  a . 
field  in  four  places:  in  the  earth,  on  the  firm  ground,  in 
the  air,  above  the  ground.  Intending  to  steal,  he  thinks : 
"I  will  steal  the  goods  deposited  in  the  field,"  .  .  .or 
goes  himself,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If 
he   touches  .  .  .  offence    involving    defeat.     Intending 

^  Here  VA.  339  says,  "but  if  proceeding  with  the  investigation 
by  means  of  Vinaya  and  dhanima  and  the  master's  teaching,  he 
accomplishes  his  own  defeat  ...  he  falls  into  a  thullaccaya." 

2  parajjati. 

3  Note  that  this  par,  and  ||  14  ||  below  do  not  begin  by  saying: 
**  a  vihara  means:",  "  a  village  means:",  as  do  the  others  here. 

*  There  are  seven  sorts  of  grain  {pubbanva)  and  seven  kinds  of 
pulses  or  cereals  {aparanna).  Nd.  ii.  314  distinguishes  these  two 
sorts  of  grain:  pubhatwa  (natural)  and  aparanna  (prepared).  To 
the  first,  here  called  dhanna,  belong  sali  and  vihi  (rice-sorts),  yai'>a 
(barley),  godhuma  (wheat),  kartga  (millet),  varaka  (beans),  kndru- 
saka.  At  Dial.  iii.  70  n.  1  translator  says  kudrusaka  is  a  "kind 
of  rye."  At  D.  iii.  71  it  is  said  that  as  now  soli  and  curry  {mafjsodana) 
are  the  highest  kinds  of  food,  so  when  man's  life-span  is  reduced  to 
ten  years,  kudrusaka  will  become  the  highest  food.  At  Vin.  iv.  264 
these  kinds  of  grain  are  catalogued  under  dmaka-dhanna,  "  raw  " 
grain,  corn  in  its  natural,  unprepared  state.  At  D.  i.  b=A.  ii.  209 
it  is  said  that  Gotama  is  one  who  abstains  from  accepting  this 
dmakadhanna.  Nd.  i.  248,  in  defining  khetta  gives  a  rather  different 
series  of  seven  grains;  sdli,  vihi,  mugga  (kidney-bean),  nmsa  (a  bean, 
Phaseolus  indica  or  radiata),  yai^a,  godhuma,  tila  (sesame  plant). 
Miln.  106  again  varies  slightly:  sdli,  vlhi,  yava,  tandula  (rice-grain), 
tila,  mugga,  mdsa.  A.  iv.  108=112  includes  tila,  mugga,  mdsa  under 
aparanna.  A  list  of  provisions  for  a  journey  at  Vin.  i.  244  includes 
tandula,  mugga,  mdsa.     J  a.  v.  106  says  that  harenukd  ti  aparannajd  ti. 


84  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  50 

to  steal,  he  touches  either  the  grain  which  grows  there 
or  the  pulses  to  the  value  of  five  mdsakas  or  more  than 
five  mdsakas,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  If 
he  claims  the  field  ...  he  is  defeated,  there  is  a  grave 
offence.  If  he  shifts  the  post,  or  the  cord,  or  the  fence, 
or  the  boundary,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 
Before  he  has  finally  done  this,  there  is  a  grave  offence; 
when  he  has  finally  done  this,  there  is  an  offence  involving 
defeat.i  ||12i| 

A  property  means :  the  property  of  a  park,  the  property 
of  a  vihara.  Being  on  a  property  means:  the  goods  are 
deposited  on  a  property  in  four  places:  in  the  earth, 
on  the  firm  ground,  in  the  air,  above  the  ground.  In- 
tending to  steal,  he  thinks:  "  I  will  steal  the  goods  which 
are  on  the  property,"  ...  or  he  goes  himself,  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  touches  .  .  .  involv- 
ing defeat.  If  he  claims  the  property  ...  he  is  de- 
feated, there  is  a  grave  offence.  If  he  shifts  the  post, 
or  the  cord,  or  the  fence,  or  the  boundary,  there  is  an 
offence  of  wrong-doing.  Before  he  has  finally  done  this, 
there  is  a  grave  offence;  when  he  has  finally  done  this, 
there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  ||  13  || 

Bei7ig  in  a  village  means:  the  goods  are  deposited 
in  a  village  in  four  places:  in  the  earth,  on  the  firm 
ground,  in  the  air,  above  the  ground.  Intending  to 
steal,  he  thinks:  "I  will  steal  the  goods  which  are  in 
the  village,"  ...  or  he  goes  himself,  there  is  an  offence 

^  Ekam  payogam  andgate,  dpatti  thullaccayassa ;  tasmin  payoge 
agate,  upatti  pdrdjikassa.  Note  the  use  of  ace.  and  loc.  VA.  341 
says,  "  desiring  to  make  a  field  for  himself  using  the  enclosure  of 
another  person's  field,  he  digs  in  the  wood.  Each  time  he  uses  a 
piece,  there  is  a  dukkata  offence  {payoge  payoge  dukkatam)]  when 
one  piece  is  still  to  come,  there  is  a  thullaccaya  offence  {ekasmim 
andgate  thullaccayaw);  when  that  piece  has  come,  there  is  a  parajika 
{taswim  dgate  pdrdjikam)''  Corny,  goes  on  to  say  that  if  by 
these  means  one  is  able  to  enclose  a  field  for  himself,  then  there  is 
a  dukkata  with  the  first  payoga,  and  finally  (avasdne)  there  is  one 
of  two  thiujufs:  a  thullaccaya  according  to  one,  a  parajika  according 
to  the  other. 


II.  4,  14-17]  DEFEAT  '  85 

of  wrong-doing.     If  he  touches  them,  there  is  an  offence 
involving  defeat.  ||  14  ||  [50] 

The  jungle  means :  that  which  is  taken  for  (the  use) 
of  men,  that  is  the  jungle.  Being  in  the  jungle  means: 
the  goods  are  deposited  in  the  jungle  in  four  places: 
in  the  earth,  on  the  firm  ground,  in  the  air,  above  the 
ground.  Intending  to  steal,  he  thinks:  "  I  will  steal 
the  goods  which  are  in  the  earth,"  ...  or  he  has  access 
to  them,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  He  touches 
them  .  .  .  involving  defeat.  Intending  to  steal,  he 
touches  a  piece  of  wood  growing  there,  or  a  creeper, 
or  grass  to  the  value  of  five  mdsakas  or  more  than  five 
masakas  .  .  .  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  ||  15  || 

Water  means:  either  it  has  gone  into  a  bowl  or  into 
a  pond  or  into  a  reservoir.  Intending  to  steal,  he  touches 
it  .  .  .  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  Having 
put  water  to  the  value  of  five  mdsakas  or  more  than  five 
mdsakas  into  his  own  bowl,  he  touches  it,  intending  to 
steal  it,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  makes 
it  quiver,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  If  he  puts  it  into 
his  own  bowl,^  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  If 
he  breaks  the  embankment,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. Having  broken  the  embankment  he  empties 
water  to  the  value  of  five  mdsakas  or  more  than  five 
mdsakas,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  He 
empties  water  to  the  value  of  more  than  a  mdsaka  or  of 
four  mdsakas,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  He  empties  water 
to  the  value  of  a  mdsaka  or  less  than  a  Tndsaka,  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  ||  16  || 

Tooth-cleaner  means:  either  broken  or  unbroken. 
Intending  to  steal,  he  touches  one  of  the  valuQ  of  five 
mdsakas  or  more  than  five  jndsakas,  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing.  If  he  makes  it  quiver,  there  is  a  grave 
offence.  If  he  removes  it  from  the  place,  there  is  an 
offence  involving  defeat.  |i  17  || 

^  attano  bhdjanagatam  laroti,  cf.  above,  p.  77. 


86  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  61-52 

Forest  tree^  means :  what  is  taken  for  (the  use  of)  men, 
a  useful  tree.  Intending  to  steal,  he  fells  it,  for  each 
blow  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  With  one 
still  to  come,  there  is  a  grave  offence;  when  that  blow 
has  come,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.^  ||  18  || 

Goods  in  transit^  means :  the  goods  in  transit  belonging 
to  another.  Intending  to  steal,  he  touches  them  .  .  . 
involving  defeat.  Thinking:  "  I  will  take  the  carrier 
together  with  the  goods,"  he  moves  the  first  foot,  there 
is  a  grave  offence;  he  moves  the  second  foot,  there  is 
an  offence  involving  defeat.  Thinking:  "I  will  seize 
the  fallen  goods,"  he  makes  them  fall,  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing.  Intending  to  steal,  he  touches  the 
fallen  goods  to  the  value  of  five  mdsakas  or  more  than 
five  tndsahas  .  .  .  involving  defeat.  ||  19  || 

Deposit  means:  goods  laid  down  (reserved).  "  Give  me 
the  goods,"  he  says;  if  one  calls  out  to  him:  "I  am  not 
taking  them,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  He 
evokes  doubt  in  (the  mind  of)  the  keeper,  there  is  a  grave 
offence.  [61]  The  keeper,  saying:  '-  He  will  not  give  it 
to  me,"  gives  up  his  post,  there  is  an  offence  involving 
defeat.  Resorting  to  law  he  defeats  the  keeper,  there 
is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  Resorting  to  law  he  is 
defeated,  there  is  a  grave  offence.*  I|20|| 

Customs-frontier  means:  it  is  established  by  the  king 
in  a  mountain-pass,  or  at  a  ford  in  a  river,  or  at  the  gate 
of  a  village,  so  that  tax  shall  be  received  on  a  person 
entering  here.  Intending  to  steal,  and  having  entered 
there,  he  touches  goods  which  are  of  value  to  the  king 
to  the  value  of  five  mdsakas  or  more  than  five  mdsakas, 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  makes  them 
quiver,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  If  he  makes  his  first 
foot  cross  the  customs-frontier,  there  is  a  grave  offence. 

^  VA.  347,  "  the  oldest  tree,  but  here  (idha)  all  are  taken  for 
the  use  of  people."  ^  Cf.  above,  pars.  12,  14. 

^  haranaka,  from  ^/h^,  to  bring,  convey,  carry,  fetch. 
4  CJ.  above,  II.  4,  10. 


TI.  4,  21-25]  DEFEAT  87 

If  he  makes  his  second  foot  cross  the  customs-frontier, 
tliere  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  Standing  within 
the  customs-frontier,  he  makes  them  fall  outside  the 
customs-frontier,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat. 
If  he  evades  the  tax,  ther<^.  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. II  21  II 

Creature  means :  what  is  called  a  human  creature.  In- 
tending to  steal,  he  touches  it  .  .  .  there  is  an  offence 
involving  defeat.  Thinking:  "I  will  conduct  (him)  on 
foot,"  he  makes  the  first  foot  move,  there  is  a  grave 
offence.  If  he  makes  the  second  foot  move,  there  is  an 
offence  involving  defeat.  ||  22 1| 

Footless  means:  snakes  and  fish.  Intending  to  steal, 
he  touches  them  to  the  value  of  five  mdsakas  or  more 
than  five  mdsakas  .  .  .  involving  defeat.  ||23|| 

Two-footed^  means:  men  and  birds.  Intending  to 
steal,  he  touches  them  .  .  .  involving  defeat.  Saying: 
"  I  will  lead  them  away  on  foot,"  he  makes  the  first  foot 
move,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  If  he  makes  the  second 
foot  move,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  ||  24  || 

Four-footed  mesms:  elephants,  horses,  camels,^  bullocks, 
asses,  cattle.  Intending  to  steal,  he  touches  them  .  .  . 
there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.     Saying:  "I  will 

^  VA.  363  says  there  are  three  kinds  of  creatures  born  with  wings: 
those  with  wings  of  down  {loma),  such  as  peacocks  and  partridges; 
those  with  wings  of  skin,  such  as  bats;  those  with  wings  of  bone,  such 
as  bees. 

2  ottha,  "  camel "  in  Class.  Sanskrit.  This  word  appears  in 
another  list  of  animals  at  Miln.  32,  there  translated  "  camels." 
Morris,  J.P.T.S.  1887,  p.  150,  for  otthivyddhi  suggests  "  female 
elephant,"  a  rendering  followed  by  Francis  and  Neil  in  translating 
Jd.  iii.  385.  Here  the  otthivyddhi  is  made  to  speak  of  feats  done  by 
her  in  battle  with  words  which,  however,  ring  equally  true  if  they 
came  from  a  camel.  Ouha  can  hardly  mean  "  elephant  "  here, 
since  the  ordinary  word  hatthi  is  included  in  the  list.  Monier 
Williams,  Sanskrit  Dictionary,  Oxford,  1872,  has  "  ustra  ...  a 
buffalo;  a  bull  with  a  hump;  a  camel;  a  cart,  a  waggon;  .  .  . 
(7),  f.  a  she-camel;  an  earthen  vessel  in  the  shape  of  a  camel." 


88  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  52-68 

lead  them  away  on  foot,"  he  makes  the  first  foot 
move,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  If  he  makes  the  second 
foot  move,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  If  he  makes  the 
third  foot  move,  there  is  a  grave  offence.  If  he  makes 
the  fourth  foot  move,  there  is  an  offence  involving 
defeat.  ||  25  || 

Many-footed  means:  scorpions,  centipedes,  live  maw- 
worms.^  Intending  to  steal,  he  touches  them  to  the 
value  of  five  mdsakas  or  more  than  five  mdsakas  ... 
there  is  an  joffence  involving  defeat.  Saying:  "I  will 
lead  them  away  on  foot,"  he  makes  them  move,  for 
each  foot  there  is  a  grave  offence.  If  he  makes  the  last 
foot  move,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  ||  26  || 

A  spy  means:  spying  on  the  goods,^  he  describes 
them,^  saying:  "Do  you  steal  such  and  such  goods," 
there  is  an  offence  involving  a  double  defeat.*  ||  27  ||  [52] 

The  keeper  of  entrusted  wares  means:  guarding  goods 
that  have  been  brought  (to  him)  to  the  value  of  five 
mdsakas  or  more  than  five  mdsakas,  (and)  intending  to 
steal,  he  handles^  (the  goods)  .  .  .  involving  defeat.  ||  28 1| 

An  arranged  theft  means:  a  crowd  having  arranged 
together^  (to  commit  a  theft),  one  steals  the  goods,  all 
are  involved  in  defeat.  ||29  || 

The  making  of  a  rendezvous'^  means :  he  makes  a  ren- 
dezvous (for  a  time)  either  before  or  after  a  meal,  or 
during  the  night  or  the  day;  according  to  this  rendezvous, 
he  says:  "Do  you  steal,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing.    If,  at  this  rendezvous,  he  steals  the  goods,  there 

^  uccdlingapdnaJid.     Corny,  gives  no  help. 

2  "  examining  them  and  considering  them."     VA.  365. 

3  I.e.,  to  another  as  goods  put  carelessly  or  unguarded  in  other 
houses  or  viharas. 

*  ubhinnayn  pdrdjikassa,  for  he  both  incites  others  and  assists 
in  the  theft  himself. 

^  "  He  puts  them  into  a  sack  or  a  well."    VA.  366. 

*  samvidahitvd,  also  below,  Par.  II.  7,  34. 
'  sarnketakamma. 


II.  4,  30-31—5,  2]  DEFEAT  89 

is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  both.  If  he  steals  the 
goods  before  or  after  the  (time  of  the)  rendezvous,  there 
is  no  offence  for  the  instigator,  there  is  an  offence  in- 
volving defeat  for  the  thief.  ||  30 1| 

The  making  of  a  sign  means:  he  makes  a  sign,  saying: 
"  I  will  either  cover  up  my  eyes  or  I  will  raise  my 
eyebrows  or  raise  my  head:  according  to  this  sign,  do 
you  steal  the  goods,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 
If,  according  to  this  sign,  he  steals  the  goods,  there  is 
an  offence  involving  a  double  defeat.  If  he  steals  the 
goods  before  or  after  this  sign,  there  is  no  offence  for 
the  instigator,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for 
the  thief.  11 31 11  4 II 


If  a  monk  enjoins  a  monk,  saying:  "  Steal  such  and 
such  goods,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he, 
thinking  these  (are  goods  to  be  stolen),  steals  them,  there 
is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  both.  If  a  monk 
enjoins  a  monk,  saying:  "  Steal  such  and  such  goods," 
and  he,  thinking  these  (are  the  goods  to  be  stolen),  steals 
something  else,  there  is  no  offence  for  the  instigator, 
there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  the  thief.  If  a 
monk  ...  he,  thinking  something  else  (are  the  goods 
to  be  stolen),  steals  them,  there  is  an  offence  involving 
defeat  for  both.  If  a  monk  ...  he,  thinking  some- 
thing else  (are  the  goods  to  be  stolen),  steals  something 
else,  there  is  no  offence  for  the  instigator;  there. is  an 
offence  involving  defeat  for  the  thief.  ||  1 1| 

If  a  monk  enjoins  a  monk,  saying:  "  Tell  of  such  and 
such  (matter),  let  so  and  so  tell  of  such  and  such,  let 
so  and  so  steal  such  and  such  goods,"  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing.  If  he  speaks  to  another,  there  is  an 
offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  the  thief  agrees,  there  is 
a  grave  offence  for  the  instigator.  If  he  steals  these 
goods,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  all  (these 
four  people).^     If  a  monli:  enjoins  a  monk,  saying:  "  Tell 

^  YA.  369,  sabbesam  catunnam  pijandnam  pdrdjikam. 


go  BOOK    OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  53-54 

of  such  and  such  (a  matter)  ...  let  so  and  so  steal 
such  and  such  goods,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. If  he  enjoins  another,  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  If  the  thief  agrees,  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  If  he  steals  these  goods,  there  is  no 
offence  for  the  instigator,  there  is  an  offence  involving 
defeat  for  the  en  joiner  and  the  thief.  ||2|| 

If  a  monk  enjoins  a  monk,  [63]  saying:  "  Steal  such 
and  such  goods,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 
Having  gone,  he  returns,  saying:  "I  am  not  able  to 
steal  these  goods,"  and  if  he  enjoins  him  again,  saying: 
"  When  you  are  able,  then  steal  these  goods,"  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  steals  the  goods, 
there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  both.  ||  3  |t 

If  a  monk  enjoins  a  monk,  saying:  "  Steal  such  and 
such  goods,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If 
having  enjoined  (this  course),  he  regrets  it,  but  does 
not  say^  to  him:  "Do  not  steal,"  and  he  steals  these 
goods,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  both. 
If  a  monk  .  .  .  having  enjoined  (this  course),  regrets  it, 
and  says  to  him:  "  Do  not  steal,"  and  he  says:  "  Very 
well, "2  and  desists,  there  is  no  offence  for  either.  11 4  11 5  I! 


There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  through  appro- 
priating in  five  ways  what  is  not  given :  it  is  the  possession 
of  another,  and  known  to  be  the  possession  of  another, 
and  it  is  important,  and  it  is  a  requisite  to  the  value 
of  five  or  more  mdsakas,  and  there  is  present  the  in- 
tention to  steal.  If  he  touches  it,  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing.  If  he  makes  it  quiver,  there  is  a  grave 
offence.  If  he  removes  it  from  the  place,  there  is  an 
offence  involving  defeat. 

There  is  a  grave  offence  through  appropriating  in 
five  ways  what  is  not  given :  it  is  the  possession  of  another, 
and  known  to  be  the  possession  of  another,  and  it  is 

^  na  sdveti,  causative  of  sundti,  to  hear.  ^  sufthu. 


II.  6,  1-3]  DEFEAT  9I 

unimportant,  and  it  is  a  requisite  to  the  value  of  more 
than  a  mdsaka  or  less  than  five  mdsaJcas,  and  tliere  is 
intention  to  steal  what  is  at  one's  disposal.  If  he 
touches  it,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he 
makes  it  quiver,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If 
he  removes  it  from  the  place,  there  is  a  grave  offence. 

There  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing  through  appro^ 
priating  in  five  ways  what  is  not  given :  it  is  the  property 
of  another  ...  a  requisite  to  the  value  of  a  nidsaka 
or  less  than  a  mdsaka ^  and  there  is  present  the  in- 
tention to  steal.  If  he  touches  it,  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing.  If  he  makes  it  quiver,  there  is  an 
offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  removes  it  from  the 
place,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  ||  1 1| 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  through  appro- 
priating in  six  ways  what  is  not  given :  he  does  not  know 
it  is  his  own,  he  does  not  take  a  confidant,  it  is  not  for 
the  time  being,  it  is  important,  it  is  a  requisite  to  the 
value  of  five  mdsakas  or  more  than  five  mdsakus,  and 
there  is  present  the  intention  to  steal.  If  he  touches  it 
...  involving  defeat. 

There  is  a  grave  offence  through  appropriating  in 
six  ways  what  is  not  given:  he  does  not  know  it  is  his 
own  ...  it  is  unimportant,  it  is  a  requisite  [54]  worth 
more  than  a  mdsaka  or  less  than  five  Tndsakas,  and  there 
is  intention  to  steal  .  .  .  there  is  a  grave  offence. 

There  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing  through  appro- 
priating in  six  ways  what  is  not  given:  he  does  not  know 
it  is  not  his  own  ...  it  is  unimportant,  it  is  a  requisite 
to  the  value  of  a  mdsaka  or  less  than  a  mdsaka,  and  there 
is  intention  to  steal  .  .  .  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. II  2  II 

There  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing  through  appro- 
priating in  five  ways  what  is  not  given:  it  is  not  the 
possession  of  another,  he  thinks  it  is  the  possession  of 
another,  it  is  important  ...  to  the  value  of  more  than 
five  mdsakas,  there  is  present  the  intention  to  steal.  If 
he  touches  it,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.    If 


92  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  55 

he  makes  it  quiver,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 
If  he  removes  it  from  the  place,  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing. 

There  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing  through  appro- 
priating in  five  ways  what  is  not  given:  it  is  not  the 
possession  of  another,  he  thinks  it  is  the  possession  of 
another,  it  is  unimportant  ...  to  the  value  of  less 
than  five  mdsakas,  there  is  present  the  intention  to 
steal.  If  he  touches  it,  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  If  he  makes  it  quiver,  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing.  If  he  removes  it  from  its  place,  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

There  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing  through  appro- 
priating in  five  ways  what  is  not  given:  it  is  not  the 
'property  of  another,  he  thinks  it  is  the  property  of 
another,  it  is  unimportant  ...  to  the  value  of  less 
than  a  mdsaka,  and  there  is  present  the  intention  to 
steal.  If  he  touches  it,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. If  he  makes  it  quiver,  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  If  he  removes  it  from  its  place,  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  ||  3  || 

There  is  no  offence  if  he  knows  it  is  his  own,  if  he 
is  taken  as  a  confidant,  if  it  is  taken  temporarily ,i  if  he  is 
in  the  realm  of  the  departed,^  if  he  is  in  the  animal- world, 
if  he  thinks  them  to  be  rags  taken  from  the  dust-heap,^ 


^  I.e.,  with  intention  to  give  it  back;  VA.  372,  patidassdmi pati- 
karissdmi\  cf.  Vin.  iii.  66=ii.  174,  where  the  lord  is  represented  as 
allowing  monks  to  take  away  temporarily. 

2  petapariggahe=pittwisaye,  VA.  372,  the  realm  or  world  of  the 
departed.  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids,  Indian  Religion  and  Survival  (London, 
1934),  p.  35,  says  peta,  "  a  word  which,'  meaning  literally  '  gone 
before,'  is  held  to  be  a  corruption  of  the  older  teim.  pitr-,  or  fathers'- 
world."  VA.  372  says,  "  having  done  his  time  in  the  world  of  the 
departed  where  he  had  arisen  and  being  reborn  in  that  existence, 
all  the  devas  of  the  retinue  of  the  Four  Firmament  Devas  go  to 
destruction  as  departed  ones:  for  these  there  is  no  guilt  in  that 
realm." 

^  VA.  373.  If  he  knows  that  these  rags  have  no  owner  (assdmika) 
there  is  no  offence  in  taking  them;  but  if  they  have  an  owner,  he 
should  give  them  to  him,  having  had  them  fetched. 


II.  6,  4—7,  1]  DEFEAT  93 

if  he  is  mad,  if  his  mind  is  unhinged,  if  he  is  afflicted 
by  pain,  if  he  is  a  beginner. ^  il  4  ||  6  || 

Told  is  the  First  Eecital  on  Taking  what  is  not  Given. 


Five  things  told  about  bleachers,   and  four  about 

outer  coverings. 
Five  indeed  about  darkness,^  and  five  about  carrying,  / 
Five  things  told  about  the  way  of  expressing  oneself, 

the  next  two  about  the  wind, 
The  not  decomposed,  the  casting  of  a   Kusa  lot,^ 

in  the  bathroom*  is  the  tenth,/ 
Five  things  told  about  broken  meats,  and  five  about 

inexistent  receivers. 
And  Kuru-meat  in  famine,  cakes  and  sweetmeats,  / 
The  bag  for  carrying  the  set  of  necessaries,  bolster, 

a  bamboo-peg,  on  not  coming  out, 
And    trust   about    foodstuffs,   the   next   two   about 

knowing  one's  own,/ 
Seven  times  saying  "  We  do  not  steal,"  seven  times 

they  did  steal, 
Seven  times  they  stole  from  the  Order;  the  next  two 

on  flowers,  / 
Three  on  taking  greetings,^^  three  jewels  are  taken  past, 
And   pigs,   deer,   fish,    and   even   he   set   going  the 

vehicle,  / 
Two  on  a  piece  of  flesh,  two  on  sticks,  rags  taken  from 

the  dust-heap,  two  on  water,  [55] 
Little  by  little,  having  made  arrangement,  it  did  not 

amount  (to  five  mdsakas),/ 
Four  handfuls  at  Savatthi,  two  on  broken-meats,  two 

about  grass, 

1  Bu.  says  (VA.  373)  that  Dhaniya  was  the  beginner,  and  there 
was  no  offence  for  him. 

2  Andhakdra. 

3  A  blade  (or  blades)  of  the  Kusa  grass  cast  to  give  the  proper 
distribution  of  robes.     VA.  378. 

*  Text  here  leads  jantagghena,  but  at  Vin.  iii.  58,  where  the  story 
is  given  we  get  jantdghare. 
5  Vuttavddino. 


94  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  56 

Seven  on  distribution  for  the  Order,  seven  on  being 

not  owners,/ 
Wood,   water,    clay,   two   on  grass,   he   stole   seven 

times  intentionally  from  the  Order, 
One  should  not  take  away  what  has  an  owner,  one 

may  take  for  the  time  being  what  has  an  owner,  / 
At  Campa  and  in  Rajagaha,  and  Ajjuka  at  Vesali,' 
And    Benares,    and    Kosambi,    Sagala    and    about 

Dalhika. 


At  one  time  the  group  of  six  monks  having  gone  to  the 
(things)  spread  out  to  be  bleached,  stole  a  bleacher's 
bundle.  They  were  remorseful,  and  said:  ''  The  course 
of  training  has  been  made  known  by  the  lord.  Let  us 
hope  that  we  have  not  fallen  into  an  offence  involving 
defeat.'*^  .  .  .  They  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  .  .  . 
"  You,  monks,  have  fallen  into  an  offence  involving 
defeat."  ||  1 1| 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  having  gone  to  the 
(things)  spread  out  to  be  bleached,  and  seeing  a  garment 
of  very  great  worth,  had  the  intention  to  steal  it.  On 
account  of  this  he  was  remorseful.  ...  "  There  is  no 
offence,  monk,  because  it  was  a  passing  thought." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  .  .  .  seeing  a  garment 
of  very  great  worth,  intending  to  steal  it,  touched  it. 
On  account  of  this  he  was  remorseful.  ...  "  Monk, 
there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  .  .  .  made  it  quiver. 
On  this  account  he  was  remorseful.  ...  "  There  is  a 
grave  offence." 

At  one  time  there  was  a  certain  monk  .  .  .  removed 
it  from  its  place.  On  account  of  this  he  was  remorse- 
ful. ..  .  "  You,  monk,  have  fallen  into  an  offence 
involving  defeat."  ||  2 1| 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  who  was  going  for  alms 

1  Cf.  1. 10, 1. 


II.  7,  3-6  DEFEAT  95 

saw  a  valuable  outer  cover^  and  liad  the  intention  to 
steal  it  .  .  .  intending  to  steal  it,  he  touched  it  .  .  . 
intending  to  steal  it,  he  made  it  quiver  .  .  .  intending 
to  steal  it,  he  removed  it  from  the  place.  On  account 
of  this  he  was  remorseful.  ...  ''  You,  monk,  have 
fallen  into  an  offence  involving  defeat."  ||3|| 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  seeing  some  goods  during 
the  day,  made  a  sign,  saying:  "I  will  steal  (these)  at 
night."  Thinking  of  them  he  stole  them  .  .  .  thinking 
of  them,  he  stole  something  else  .  .  .  thinking  others  to 
be  the  ones,  he  stole  these^  .  .  .  thinking  others  to  be 
the  ones,  he  stole  those  others.  On  account  of  this  he 
was  remorseful.  ...     "...  defeat."  [56] 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  seeing  some  goods  during 
the  day,  made  a  sign,  saying:  "I  will  steal  (these)  at 
night."  Thinking  others  to  be  the  ones,  he  stole 
his  own  goods.  On  account  of  this  he  was  remorseful. 
...  "  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  there 
is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||4|| 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  carrying  the  goods  of 
another,  touched  the  burden,  intending  to  steal  it,  on  the 
head  .  .  .  intending  to  steal  it,  he  made  it  quiver  .  .  . 
intending  to  steal  it,  he  lifted  it  on  to  his  shoulder  ...  in- 
tending to  steal  it,  he  touched  the  burden  on  the  shoulder 
.  .  .  intending  to  steal  it,  he  moved  it  .  .  .  intending 
to  steal  it,  he  lifted  it  on  to  his  hip  .  .  .  intending  to  steal 
it,  he  touched  the  hip-burden  .  .  .  intending  to  steal  it, 
he  moved  it  .  .  .  intending  to  steal  it,  he  took  hold  of  it 
with  his  hands  .  .  .  intending  to  steal  the  burden  in 
his  hands,  he  deposited  it  on  the  ground.  On  account 
of  this  he  was  remorseful.  ...  "  You,  monk,  have 
fallen  into  an  offence  involving  defeat."  ||  5  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  having  spread  out  his 
robe  in  the  open  air,  entered  the  vihara.     A  certain 


^  uttarattharana. 

2  which  he  had  originally  thought  of  stealing. 


96  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  57-68 

monk,  saying:  "Do  not  let  this  robe  be  lost,"  put  it 
aside.  Having  come  out  (of  the  vihara),  he^  asked  the 
monks:  "Your  reverences,  who  has  stolen  my  robe?" 
He^  said:  "  I  have  stolen  it."  He^  seized  him  and  said: 
"  You  are  not  a  (true)  recluse."  Thereupon  he^  was 
remorseful.  He  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  He  said : 
"  Of  what  were  you  thinking,  monk  ?" 

"I,  lord  ?    It  was  a  way  of  speaking,"  he  said, 

(The  lord)  said:  "There  is  no  offence,  monk,  in  the 
way  of  speaking."^ 

At  one  time,  a  certain  monk,  putting  down  his  robe 
on  a  chair  ...  his  mat  on  a  chair  .  .  .  putting  down 
his  bowl  under  the  chair,  entered  the  vihara.  A  certain 
monk,  saying:  "Do  not  let  the  bowl  be  lost,"  put  it 
aside.  Having  come  out,  he^  asked  the  monks:  "  Your 
reverences,  who  has  stolen  my  bowl?"  He^  said:  "I 
have  stolen  it."  He^  seized  him  ..."  your  way  of 
speaking." 

At  one  time  a  certain  nun,  having  spread  out  her 
robe  on  a  fence,  entered  the  vihara.  A  certain  nun, 
saying:  "Do  not  let  this  robe  be  lost,"  put  it  aside. 
Having  come  out,  she*  asked  the  nuns:  "Ladies,^  who 
has  stolen  my  robe?"  She^  said:  "I  have  stolen  it." 
She*  seized  her  and  said:  "  You  are  not  a  (true)  woman 
recluse."  On  account  of  this  she^  was  remorseful. 
This  nun  told  this  matter  to  the  nuns.  The  nuns  told 
this  matter  to  the  monks.  The  monks  told  this  matter 
to  the  lord.  ...  "  There  is  no  offence,  "monks,  because 
of  her  way  of  speaking."  ||  6  ||  [67] 

At  that  time  a  certain  monk  seeing  a  cloak  blown  up 
during  a  whirlwind,  took  hold  of  it,  saying:  "  I  will  give 
it  to  the  owners."  The  owners  reprimanded  the  monk, 
saying:  "You  are  not  a  (true)  recluse."  On  account 
of  this  he  was  remorseful.  ...  "Of  what  were  you 
thinking,  monk  ?" 

1  The  first  monk.  ^  The  second  monk. 

3  dpatti  here  followed  by  loc.  instead  of  gen. 

*  The  first  nun.  ^  ^yy^-  *  The  second  nun. 


II.  7,  7-10]  DEFEAT  97 

*'  I  did  not  intend  to  steal  it,  lord,"  he  said. 

"  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  as  you  did  not  intend 
to  steal." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  intending  to  steal,  laid 
hold  of  a  turban  which  had  been  blown  into  the  air 
during  a  whirlwind,  ''before  the  owners  see. "  The  owners 
reprimanded  the  monk,  saying:  "  You  are  not  a  (true) 
recluse."  Because  of  this  he  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 
"  You,  monk,  have  fallen  into  an  offence  involving 
defeat."  ||7|| 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  going  to  the  cemetery 
took  hold  of  rags  taken  from  the  dust-heap  which 
were  on  a  body  not  (yet)  decomposed.  And  the  de- 
parted one^  was  dwelling  in  this  body.^  Then  the 
departed  one  said  to  the  monk:  "  Honoured  sir,,  do  not 
take  hold  of  my  cloak."  The  monk,  unheeding,  went 
away.  Then  the  body,  arising,^  followed  closely  on 
the  heels  of  the  monk.  Then  the  monk,  entering  the 
vihara,  closed  the  door.  Then  the  body  fell  down  at 
that  very  place.*  On  account  of  this  he  was  remorse- 
ful. ...  "  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat. 
(But)  a  monk  should  not  take  rags  from  the  dust-heap 
(which  are)  on  a  body  not  (yet)  decomposed.^  Whoever 
should  take  them :  this  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||  8  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  at  the  distribution  of 
robes  to  the  Order,  casting  the  kusa-grass  and  intending 
to  steal,  took  hold  of  a  robe.  On  account  of  this  he 
was  remorseful  ..."  involving  defeat."  ||  9  || 

At  one  time  the  venerable  Ananda,  thinking  that  the 
inner  garment   of  another  monk  was  his  own,  robed 


^  peta.     See  above,  p.  92,  n. 

"  "  On  account  of  its  longing  for  a  cloak,*'  VA.  374 — i.e.,  probably 
naked  and  needing  a  cloak. 

^  Through  the  pclas  own  power,  VA.  374. 

*  At  the  closed  door  the  pela,  being  devoid  of  desire  for  the  cloak, 
left  the  body,  and  went  according  to  its  deed,  VA.  374. 

s  Still  warm.     VA.  374. 

I  7 


98  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [HI.  58-59 

himself  in  the  bath-room.^  Then  this  monk  said  to  the 
venerable  Ananda:  "Why  did  you,  reverend  Ananda, 
robe  yourself  in  my  inner  garment  V 

"  Your  reverence,  I  thought  it  was  my  own,"  he 
said. 

They  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  He  said:  "There 
is  no  offence,  monks,  as  he  thought  it  was  his  own."  ||  10  || 

At  one  time  a  company  of  monks,  descending  from 
the  slopes  of  the  Vulture's  Peak,  seeing  the  remains  of  a 
lion's  kill,  had  it  cooked  and  ate  it.  Because  of  this  they 
were  remorseful.  ...  "  Monks,  there  is  no  offence  in 
(this  matter  of)  the  remains  of  a  lion's  kill."^ 

At  one  time  a  company  of  monks,  descending  from 
the  slo^^es  of  the  Vulture's  Peak,  seeing  the  remains  of 
a  tiger's  kill  .  ..  .  seeing  the  remains  of  a  panther's 
kill  .  .  .  seeing  the  remains  of  a  hyena's  kill  .  .  . 
seeing  the  remains  of  a  wolf's  kill,  had  it  cooked  .  .  . 
"  Monks,  there  is  no  offence  in  taking  what  belongs  to 
animals."  ||11||  [58] 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  gruel  being  distributed 
to  the  Order,  said  to  another:  "Give  me  a  portion  for 
another,"  and  he  took  fbr  an  inexistent  (monk).^  For 
this  he  was  remorseful.  ...  "  Monk,  there  is  no  offence 
involving  defeat,  there  is  an  offence  involving  expiation^ 
for  deliberately  lying. "^ 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  hard  foods  being  distri- 
buted to  the  Order  .  .  .  cakes  .  .  .  sugar-cane  ...  (a 
species  of  cucumber)  being  distributed  to  the  Order  said 
to  another:  "  Give  (me)  a  portion  for  another,"  and  he 
took  for  an  inexistent  (monk)."^     On  account  of  this  he 


^  jantdghara. 

'  This  shows  that  vegetamuism  was  not  (at  this  time)  enjoined; 
</.  below,  pp.  297,  298. 

^  amulaka, 

*  Pdciitiya,  discussed  in  forthcoming  vol. 

5  He  must  therefore  have  eaten  it  himself,  the  "for  another'* 
being  only  an  excuse. 


II.  7,  12-15]  DEFEAT  99 

was  remorseful.  ..."  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  involving 
defeat,  there  is  offence  involving  expiation  for  deliber- 
atelylying."!  II12II 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  entering  a  rice  kitchen^ 
during  a  shortage  of  alms-food,  intending  to  steal, 
stole  a  bowlful  of  rice.  On  account  of  this  he  was  re- 
morseful. ..."...  defeat." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  entering  a  slaughter- 
house during  a  shortage  of  alms-food,  intending  to  steal, 
stole  a  bowlful  of  meat.^  ...    "...  defeat." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  entering  a  bakery  during 
a  shortage  of  alms-food,  intending  to  steal,  stole  a  bowl-, 
ful  of  baked  cakes  .  .  .  intending  to  steal,  stole  a  bowlful 
of  cake  .  .  .  intending  to  steal,  stole  a  bowlful  of  sweet- 
meats. On  account  of  this  he  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 
"...  defeat."  ||  13  |i 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  seemg  a  set  of  requisites 
during  the  day,  made  a  sign,  saying:  "I  will  steal  it 
at  night."  Thinking  this  to  be  the  one,  he  stole  it  .  .  . 
thinking  another  to  be  the  one,  he  stole  that  (which 
he  had  originally  thought  of  stealing)  .  .  .  thinking 
another  to  be  the  one,  he  stole  this  other.  On  account 
of  this  he  was  remorseful.  ...     "...  defeat." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  seeing  a  set  of  requisites 
during  the  day,  made  a  sign,  saying:  "I  will  steal  it  at 
night."  Thinking  another  to  be  the  one  (which  he 
had  thought  of  stealing),  he  stole  his  own  set  of  re- 
quisites. On  account  of  this  he  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 
"  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||  14  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  seeing  a  bag  put  by  on 
a  seat,  and  saying:  "  If  I  take  it  from  here  J  shall  be- 
come one  who  is  defeated,"  he  took  hold  of  it,  moving 

1  He  must  therefore  have  eaten  it  himself,  the  "for  another" 
being  only  an  excuse. 

2  odaniyaghara. 

3  Again  the  fault  is  not  in  eating  meat,  it  is  in  stealing. 


100  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  59-60 

it  together  with  the  seat.     On  account  of  this  he  was 
remorseful.  ...    *'  .  .  .  defeat."  ||  15  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  intending  to  steal,  stole 
a  bolster  belonging  to  the  Order.  On  account  of  this 
he  was  remorseful.  ...    ''  .  .  .  defeat."  ||  16  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  [69]  intending  to  steal, 
stole  a  robe  from  the  bamboo^  used  for  hanging  up 
the  robes.  On  account  of  this  he  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 
'^  .  .  defeat."  ||  17  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  stealing  a  robe  in  the 
vihara,  and  saying:  "  Coming  out  from  here  I  shall 
become  one  who  is  defeated,"  he  did  not  go  out  from 
the  vihara.  They  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  He 
said:  "Whether  he  comes  out,  monks,  or  whether  the 
foolish  man  does  not  come  out,  there  is  an  offence  in- 
volving defeat."  ||  18  || 

At  one  time  two  monks  were  companions.  One  monk 
went  into  the  village  for  alms.  The  other  monk,  taking 
his  friend's  portion  of  the  hard  foods  distributed  to  the 
Order,  putting  his  trust  in  him,  ate  it.  (But)  as  he^  knew 
this,  he  reprimanded  him,  saying:  "  You  are  not  a  (true) 
recluse."     On  account  of  this  he  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 

"  Monk,  of  what  were  you  thinking  ?" 

*'  I  had  a  misconception  as  to  the  trust,  lord,"  he 
said. 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  because  there  was  a 
misconception  as  to  the  trust."  ||  19  || 

At  one  time  a  company  of  monks  was  making  robes. 
As  the  hard  food  was  distributed  to  the  Order,  the  por- 
tions^ brought  to  them  were  laid  aside.^    A  certain  monk, 

i  Here  clvamvamsa  is  not  in  conjunction  with  civararajju,  the 
cord  or  ro])e  for  hanging  the  robes  on. 

-  The  first  monk.  ^  pativisa. 

^  LJpanikkhittd  honli.  V panikkhiita  is  the  participle  of  the 
perfect  passive  of  upanikkhipati. 


II.  7,  20-22]  DEFEAT  lOI 


I 


thinking  that  it  was  his  own,  ate  the  portion^  of  another 
monk.  He,  knowing  this,  reprimanded  him,  saying: 
"  You  are  not  a  (true)  rechjse."  On  account  of  this  he 
was  remorseful.  ...  "...  Monk,  are  you  out  of 
your  senses  ?" 

"  I  thought  it  was  my  own,  lord,"  he  said. 

'*  There  is  no  oifence,  monk,  as  you  thought  it  was 
your  own,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  a  company  of  monks  was  making  robes. 
When  a  certain  monk  had  taken  with  his  bowl  another 
monk's  share^  of  the  Order's  hard  and  soft  foods,  it 
was  laid  aside.  The  monk  who  was  the  owner  of  the 
bowl  ate  (the  food),  thinking  it  was  his  own.  Knowing 
this,  he  reprimanded  him,  .  .  .  "  There  is  no  offence, 
monk,  as  you  thought  it  was  your  own."  ||  20  || 

At  one  time  mango-tree  thieves,  having  made  the 
mangoes  fall,  went  off  taking  a  bundle  of  fruit.  The 
owners  pursued  these  thieves.  The  thieves,  seeing  the 
owners,  dropped  the  bundle  and  ran  away.  The  monks, 
thinking  it  to  be  rags  taken  from  the  dust-heap,  had  it 
procured,  and  ate  (the  mangoes).  The  owners  repri- 
manded these  monks,  saying:  "You  are  not  (true) 
recluses."  These  were  remorseful.  Tliey  told  this 
matter  to  the  lord.  "  Monks,  of  what  were  you  think- 
ing ?"  he  said. 

"  Lord,  we  thought  they  were  rags  tnken  from  the 
dust-heap,"  they  said. 

"  Monks,  there  is  no  offence,  since  you  thought  they 
were  rags  taken  from  the  dust-heap." 

At  one  time  rose-apple  tree  thieves  ...  bread-fruit 
tree  thieves  .  .  .  jack-fruit  thieves  .  .  .  palm-fruit 
thieves  .  .  .  sugar-cane  thieves  .  .  .  cucumber  thieves, 
[60]  having  cut  off  cucumbers,  went  away,  taking  a 
bundle.  The  owners  ...  "  There  is  no  offence, 
monks,  since  you  thought  they  were  rags  taken  from  the 
dust-heap."  ||21|| 

At  one  time  mano^o-tree  thieves  having  made   the 


1  pativisa. 


102  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  pil.  Cl 

mangoes  fall  .  .  .  ran  away.  The  monks  saying:  "  Be- 
fore the  owners  see  them,"  and  mtending  to  steal, 
ate  (the  mangoes).  The  owners  reprimanded  the 
monks,  saying:  '*You  are  not  (true)  recluses."  These 
were  remorseful.  ...  "  You,  monks,  have  fallen  into 
an  offence  involving  defeat." 

At  one  time  rose-apple  tree  thieves  .  .  .  cucumber 
thieves  .  .  .  ran  away.  The  monks  saying:  "Before 
the  owners  see  them,"  and  intending  to  steal,  ate  (the 
cucumbers).  The  owners  ...  "  You,  monks,  have 
fallen  into  an  offence  involving  defeat."  ||22|| 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  intending  to  steal, 
stole  a  mango  belonging  to  the  Order  ...  a  rose-apple 
...  a  bread-fruit  ...  a  jack-fruit  ...  a  palm-fruit 
...  a  sugar-cane  .  .  .  intending  to  steal,  stole  a 
cucumber  belonging  to  the  Order.  He  was  remorse- 
ful. ...    "...  defeat."  ||  23  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  going  to  a  flower-garden 
intending  to  steal,  stole  a  flower  worth  five  mdsaJcas  that 
had  been  (already)  plucked  off.  He  was  remorseful,  .  .  . 
"...  defeat." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  going  to  a  flower-garden 
intending  to  steal,  and  picking  a  flower  worth  five 
nidsakas,  stole  it.  He  was  remorseful.  ...  "...  de- 
feat." II  24  II 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  as  he  was  going  to  the 
village  said  to  another  monk:  "  Your  reverence,  do  you 
allow  me  to  take  your  greetings^  to  the  family  which 
supports  you  ?"     Going  (there),  having  had  an  outer 

^  Vulto  vajjemi  ti.  VA.  382  says  that  this  means,  "  being  spoken 
to  by  you,  I  speak  on  your  behalf."  Hence  the  one  who  takes 
the  message  of  greeting  will  be  treated  at  the  house  in  the  same  way 
as  is  the  regular  diner  there.  Thus  vutto  vadeti  means:  to  greet 
somebody  on  the  part  of  somebody.  The  offence  would  seem  to 
lie  in  the  substitution  of  one  monk  for  another.  VA.  382  implies 
that  it  is  allowed  for  one  monk  to  take  greetings  from  another  if 
he  is  going  to  ask  for  something  definite. 


II.  7,  25]  DEFEAT  IO3 

cloak  fetched,  he  enjoyed  it  by  himself.  He,  knowing 
this,  reprimanded  him,  saying:  "  You  are  not  a  (true) 
recluse."  He  was  remorseful;  ..."  Monk,  there  is 
no  offence  involving  defeat.  But,  monks,  you  should 
not  say:  'May  I  take  greetings  (from  you)?'  Who 
should  speak  thus — there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  went  to  the  village.  A 
certain  monk  said  to  this  monk:  "  Your  reverence,  take 
greetings  from  me  to  the  family  which  supports  me." 
Going  (there)  and  having  a  pair  of  outer  cloaks  fetched, 
he  used  one  himself,  one  he  gave  to  that  monk.  He, 
knowing  this,  reprimanded  him,  saying:  "You  are  not 
a  (true)  recluse."  He  was  remorseful.  ...  "  Monk, 
there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat.  But,  monks,  you 
should  not  say:  '  Take  greetings  (from  me).'  Who 
should  speak  thus — there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  as  he  was  going  to  the 
village  [61]  said  to  another  monk:  "Your  reverence, 
may  I  take  greetings  to  the  family  which  supports  you  ?" 
He  spoke  thus:  "  Take  greetings  from  me."  Going 
(there),  he  had  fetched  an  dlliaka  measure^  of  ghee,  a 

1  See  Rhys  Davids,  Ancient  Coins,  etc.,  pp.  18-20.  VA.  702 
gives  a  discussion  on  the  dlhak'tti  from  which  it  appears  that  it  was 
a  very  variable  measure:  "  '  takes  half  an  alhaka  of  gruel '  means: 
takes  the  gruel  made  from  two  ndlis  of  uncooked  rice  according 
to  the  Magadha  ndli.  In  the  Andha  Commentary  a  Magadha  ndli  is 
said  to  be  thirteen  and  a  half  palas  (a  weight).  The  ndli  in  use  in 
the  Island  of  Ceylon  is  larger  than  the  Tamil  ndli.  The  small 
Magadha  ndli  is  the  right  measure.  In  the  Great  Commentary  it 
is  said  that  one  Sinhalese  ndli  is  equal  to  one  and  a  half  of  this 
Magadha  ndli.'' 

At  SnA.  476  it  is  said  that  four  patthas  make  an  alhaka,  reckoning 
by  the  Kosala  patthas,  and  that  four  dlhakas  make  a  dona.  See 
Ancient  Coins,  etc.,  p.  18,  and  cf.  above,  p.  12,  on  pattha. 

This  word  dlhaka  is  the  same  as  that  which  occurs  in  the  name  of 
one  of  the  games,  pattdlhaka,  Vin.  iii.  180,  D.  i.  6,  M.  i.  166.  The 
various  Comys.  always  explain  as  pannanmlika,  a  ndlika  measure 
of  leaves.     Ndlika=ndli. 

At  A.  ii.  55=ii.  337  dlhaka  is  used  in  connection  with  the  "  ocean." 
It  is  therefore  a  liquid  as  well  as  a  dry  measure.  It  is  trans,  as 
"gallon"  at  G.S.  ii.  64,  and  as  "pailful"  at  G.S.  iii.  237.  At 
Vin.  i.  240  it  occurs  in  the  compound  dlhakathdlikd,  trans,  at  Vin. 
Texts  ii.  122,  "  pint  pots."     At  A.  iii.  369  it  occurs  again  in  t<his 


104  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  62 

tula,  measure*  of  sugar  and  a  dona  measure^  of  husked 
rice,  whicli  he  ate  by  himself.  Knowing  this,  he  repri- 
manded him,  saying:  "You  are  not  a  (true)  recluse." 
He  was  remorseful.  ...  "  Monk,  there  is  no  offence 
involving  defeat.     But,   monks,  you  should  not  say: 

*  May  I  take  greetings  from  you  V  nor  should  you  say: 

*  Take  greetings  from  me.'  Who  should  speak  thus — 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||  25  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  man,  taking  a  valuable  jewel, 
was  going  along  the  high  road  in  the  company  of  a 
certain  monk.  Then  the  man,  seeing  the  customs 
house,  put  the  jewel  into  the  monk's  wallet  without  his 
knowing  it,  (and  so)  he  took  it  past  the  customs  house. 
He  was  remorseful.  ...  "  Monk,  of  what  were  you 
thinking  ?" 

"  I  did  not  know,  lord,"  he  said. 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  since  you  did  not  know." 

At  one  time  a  certain  man,  taking  a  valuable  jewel, 
.  .  .  seeing  the  customs  house,  pretended  to  be  ill, 
and  gave  his  own  bundle  to  the  monk.  When  the  man 
had  passed  the  customs  house,  he  said  to  the  monk: 
**  Give  me  my  bundle,  honoured  sir,  I  am  not  indis- 
posed." 

"  Why  did  you  do  that,  your  reverence  ?"  Then  the 
man  told  this  matter  to  the  monk.  He  was  remorse- 
ful. ...  "  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  since  you  did 
not  know." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  going  along  a  high 


same  compound;  trans,  at  G.S.  iii.  262,  "  as  big  as  pipkins,"  with 
commentarial  exegesis,  n.  6,  ianduldlhakassa  bhattapacana-thdlika, 
which  seems  to  mean  "  a  small  bowl  for  cooking  food  to  the  extent 
of  an  dlhaka  of  unboiled  rice."  Same  compound  dlhakathdlikd 
occurs  at  DhA.  iii.  370,  with  v.l.  hhattathdlikd,  as  though  the  bowl 
of  an  dlhaka  a  capacity  were  being  identified  with  a  bowl  of  food. 

^  Tula  is  some  kind  of  measure.  At  S.  ii.  236=^.  i.  88  Khema 
and  Uppalavanna  are  called  the  tuld  pamdna  (measure)  of  the 
disciples  who  are  nuns.  Tuld  at  A  A.  ii.  157  simply  seems  to  mean 
standard  or  weight.  The  Abhidhanappadipika  (a  late  work),  §481, 
says  that  a  tuld  is  a  hundred  palas. 

*  Usually  four  dlhakas  make  a  dona.     See  note  1,  page  103. 


II.  7,  26-29]  DEFEAT  IO5 

road  in  the  company  of  a  caravan.  A  certain  man, 
seeing  the  customs  house  and  bribing^  a  monk,  gave 
tliis  monk  a  vakiable  jewel,  saying:  '*  Honoured  sir,  get 
this  jewel  past  the  customs  house."  So  the  monk  took 
the  jewel  past  the  customs  house.  He  was  remorse- 
ful. ...    "...  defeat."  ||26|| 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  out  of  compassion  re- 
leased a  pig  trapped  in  a  snare.  He  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 
"  Of  what  were  you  thinking,  monk  ?" 

''  I  acted  from  a  compassionate  motive,  lord,"^  he 
said. 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  since  you  acted  from 
a  compassionate  motive." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  released  a  pig  trapped  in 
a  snare,  intending  to  steal  it  ''  before  the  owners  see  it." 
He  was  remorseful.  ...    "...  defeat." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  out  of  compassion  re- 
leased a  deer  trapped  in  a  snare  .  .  .  released  a  deer 
trapped  in  a  snare  intending  to  steal  it  [62]  before  the 
owners  saw  it  .  .  .  out  of  compassion  released  fish 
trapped  in  a  fish-net  .  .  .  released  fish  trapped  in  a 
fish-net  intending  to  steal  them  "  before  the  owners  see 
them."    He  was  remorseful.  ...    "...  defeat."  ||  27  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  seeing  some  goods  in  a 
vehicle,  said:  "  If  I  take  these  from  here  I  shall  become 
one  who  is  defeated."  As  he  was  passing,  he  took  hold 
of  it,  pushing  it  along.  He  was  remorseful.  ...  "... 
defeat."  ||28|| 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  saying:  "  I  will  give  the 
owners  a  piece  of  flesh  taken  up  by  a  hawk,"  took  hold 
of  it.  The  owners  reprimanded  this  monk,  saying: 
"  You  are  not  a  (true)  recluse."  He  was  remorse- 
ful. ...  "  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  since  you  did 
not  intend  to  steal." 


^  dmisena  upaldpetvd,  lit.  cajoling  with  a  reward. 
2  lit.  I  am  one  who  has  a  sense  of  compassion. 


I06  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  63 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  intending  to  steal  a  piece 
of  flesh  taken  up  by  a  hawk  "  before  the  owners  see  it," 
took  hold  of  it.  The  owners  reprimanded  the  monk, 
saying:  "You  are  not  a  (true)  recluse."  He  was  re- 
morseful. ...     "...  defeat."  ||  29  || 

At  one  time  some  men  who  had  put  a  raft  together, 
stowed  it  away  on  the  river  Aciravati.^  As  the  bindings 
were  torn  they  went  away  (leaving  it)  all  strewn  over 
with  sticks.  The  monks,  thinking  that  these  were  rags 
taken  from  the  dust-heap,  got  them  out  of  the  water. 
The  owners  reprimanded  these  monks,  saying:  "You 
are  not  (true)  recluses."  They  were  remorseful.  .  .  . 
"  l^onks,  there  is  no  oifence,  since  you  thought  that  they 
were  rags  taken  from  the  dust-heap." 

At  one  time  some  men  who  had,  put  a  raft  together, 
stowed  it  away  on  the  river  Aciravati.  As  the  bindings 
were  torn  they  went  away  (leaving  it)  all  strewn  over 
with  sticks.  The  monks,  intending  to  steal,  got  them 
out  of  the  water  "  before  the  owners  see  them."  The 
owners  reprimanded  the  monks,  saying:  "  You  are  not 
(true)  recluses."  They  were  remorseful.  ..."  You 
monks,  have  fallen  into  an  offence  involving  defeat." 
II 3011 

At  one  time  a  certain  cowherd,  hanging  his  cloak  on 
a  tree,  went  to  relieve  himself.  A  certain  monk  took  it 
thinking  it  was  a  rag  taken  from  the  dust-heap.  Then 
the  cowherd  reprimanded  that  monk,  saying:  "  You  are 
not  a  (true)  recluse."  He  was  remorseful.  .  .  .  "There 
is  no  offence,  monk,  since  you  thought  it  was  a  rag 
taken  from  the  dust-heap."  ||  31 1| 

At  one  time,  as  a  certain  monk  was  crossing  a  river, 
a  cloak  that  had  escaped  from  the  bleachers'  hands, 
stuck  to  his  foot.  The  monk  took  hold  of  it,  saying: 
"  I  will  give  this  to  the  owners."     The  owners  repri- 

*  B.  C.  Law,  Geography  of  Early  Byddhism,j).  36:  "  Aciravati  is 
the  river  Rapti  in  Oudh,  on  which  the  town  of  Savatthi  was  situated." 


II.  7,  32-35]  DEFEAT  IO7 

manded  that  monk,  saying:  "You  are  not  a  (true) 
recluse."  He  was  remorseful.  ..."  There  is  no 
offence,  monk,  because  you  did  not  intend  to  steal." 

At  one  time,  as  a  certain  monk  was  crossing  a  river, 
a  cloak  that  had  escaped  from  the  bleachers'  hands 
stuck  to  his  foot.  [63]  The  monk  took  hold  of  it,  in- 
tending to  steal  it  "  before  the  owners  see."  The  owners 
reprimanded  the  monk,  saying:  "  You  are  not  a  (true) 
recluse."     He  was  remorseful.  ...     "...  defeat."  ||32|| 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  seeing  a  large  round  pot 
of  ghee,  ate  it  little  by  little.  He  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 
"  Monk,  there  is  no  oifence  involving  defeat,  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||  33  || 

At  one  time  a  company  of  monks,  having  arranged 
together,^  went  away,  saying :  "We  will  steal  these  goods." 
One  (of  them)  stole  the  goods.  The  others  said:  "  We 
are  not  those  who  are  defeated;  the  thief  is  one  who  is 
defeated."  They  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  He  said: 
"You,  monks,  have  fallen  into  an  offence  involving 
defeat." 

At  one  time  a  company  of  monks,  having  arranged 
together,  and  having  stolen  some  goods,  shared  them 
out.  Amongst  those  sharing,  none  had  a  portion 
amounting  to  five  mdsakas.  They  said:  "We  are  not 
those  who  are  defeated."  They  told  this  matter  to 
the  lord.  He  said :  "  You,  monks,  have  fallen  into  an 
offence  involving  defeat."  ||  34  || 

.At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  intending  to  steal, 
stole  a  handful  of  rice  belonging  to  a  shop-keeper  at  a 
time  when  S^vatthi  was  short  of  alms-food.  He  was 
remorseful.  ...     "...  defeat." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  intending  to  steal,  stole 
a  handful  of  kidney-beans  ...  a  handful  of  beans  .  .  . 
a  handful  of  sesamum  belonging  to  a  shop-keeper  at 
a  time  when  Savatthi  was  short  of  alms-food.  He  was 
remorseful.  .  .  .     "...  defeat."  ||35|| 

1  samvidahitvd,  also  above,  Par.  II.  4,  29,  where  the  rule  is  laid 
down. 


I08  BOOK  OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [ITT.  64-65 

At  one  time  thieves  in  the  Dark  Wood  at  Savatthi 
having  killed  a  cow,  eaten  the  flesh  and  tidied  up  the 
remains,  went  away.  The  monks,  thinking  that  these 
were  rags  taken  from  the  dust-heap,  took  them  up  and 
ate  them.  The  thieves  reprimanded  these  monks,  say- 
ing: "  You  are  not  (true)  recluses."  They  were  remorse- 
ful. ...  "  There  is  no  offence,  monks,  since  you 
thought  that  they  were  rags  taken  from  the  dust- 
heap." 

At  one  time  thieves  in  the  Dark  Wood  at  Savatthi 
having  killed  a  pig  .  .  .  "...  since  you  thought  they 
were  rags  taken  from  the  dust-heap."  ||36|| 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  going  to  a  meadow,  in- 
tending to  steal,  stole  some  cut  grass  worth  five  mdsaJcas. 
He  was  remorseful.  ...     "...  defeat." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  going  to  a  meadow,  in- 
tending to  steal,  cutting  grass  worth  five  mdsakas,  stole 
it.     He  was  remorseful.  ...    "...  defeat."  ||37  ||  [64] 

At  one  time  some  in-coming  monks  having  divided 
the  (fruits  of 'a)  mango-tree  belonging  to  the  Order, 
ate  them.  The  resident^  monks  reprimanded  these 
monks,  saying:  "You  are  not  (true)  recluses."  They 
were  remorseful.  They  told  this  matter  to  the  lord. 
"  Of  what  were  you  thinking,  monks  ?"  he  said. 

"  Lord,  it  was  for  the  sake  of  food  for  us,"  they  said. 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monks,  since  it  was  (done)  for 
the  sake  of  food." 

At  one  time  some  in-coming  monks  ...  a  rose- 
apple  tree  belonging  to  the  Order  ...  a  bread-fruit  tree 
belonging  to  the  Order  ...  a  jack-fruit  tree  .  .  . 
palm  fruits  ...  a  sugar-cane  ...  a  cucumber-tree 
belonging  to  the  Order,  had  (the  various  fruits)  shared 
out  and  ate  them.  The  resident  monks  ...  "  There 
is  no  offence,  monks,  since  it  was  (done)  for  the  sake 
of  food."  II 38  II 

At  one  time  keepers  of  a  mango-grove  gave  a  mango- 


^  Avdsika. 


II.  7,  39-42]  DEFEAT  log 

fruit  to  some  monks.  The  monks,  saying:  "  The 
masters^  (are)  to  watch  these,  not  to  give  them  away," 
being  scrupulous,  did  not  accept  them.  They  told  this 
matter  to  the  lord.  He  said:  "There  is  no  offence, 
monks,  since  it  was  a  gift  from  the  guardian." 

At  one  time  keepers  of  a  rose-apple  grove  ...  a 
cucumber-plantation  gave  cucumbers  to  the  monks. 
The  monks,  saying:  "these  masters  .  .  ."  "There  is 
no  offence,  monks,  since  it  was  a  gift  from  the 
guardian."  ||  39  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  having  removed  for  the 
time  being  a  piece  of  wood  belonging  to  the  Order, 
shored  up  the  wattle  and  daub  wall  of  his  own  vihara 
(with  it).  The  monks  reprimanded  this  monk,  saying: 
"  You  are  not  a  (true)  recluse."  He  was  remorseful. 
He  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  He  said:  "Monk,  of 
what  were  you  thinking?" 

"  I  (took  it)  for  the  time  being,  lord,"  he  said. 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  in  taking  for  the  time 
being."2  ||40|| 

At  one  time  a  certain  monlc,  intending  to  steal,  stole 
water  belonging  to  the  Order  .  .  .  clay  belonging  to 
the  Order  .  .  .  intending  to  steal,  stole  ^ma-grass 
belonging  to  the  Order.  He  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 
".  .  .  defeat." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  intending  to  steal,  set 
lire  to  /im-grass  belonging  to  the  Order.  He  was 
remorseful.  ...  "  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  involving 
defeat;  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||41  1| 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  intending  to  steal,  stole 
a  couch  belonging  to  the  Order.  He  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 
"...  defeat." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  intending  to  do  so, 
stole  a  chair  belonging  to  the  Order  .  .  .  stole  a  pillow 
.  .  .  a    bolster    and    pillow  ...  a    door  ...  a    case- 

^  Issara.  '^  Cf.  below,  p.  110. 


no  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  66-86 

ment^  .  .  .  with  intention  to  do  so,  stole  a  rafter^  be- 
longing to  the  Order.  He  was  remorseful.  ...  "  .  .  .  de- 
deat."  II 42  II 

At  one  time  monks  [66]  enjoyed  elsewhere  the  lodging 
and  food  of  a  vihara^  belonging  to  a  Certain  lay-follower.* 
Then  this  lay-follower  was  vexed,  annoyed  and  angry.  ^ 
He  said : 

"  How  can  the  revered  sirs,  enjoy  elsewhere  appur- 
tenances belonging  somewhere  else?"  They  told  this 
matter  to  the  lord.  "  Monks,  one  should  not  enjoy 
elsewhere  appurtenances  belonging  somewhere  else. 
Who  enjoys  himself  (in  this  way) — there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing . "  1 1 43  1 1 

At  one  time  monks,  feeling  remorse  at  having 
taken^  in  to  the  hall  in  which  the  Patimokkha  was  held 
and  the  meeting-place,  sat  down  on  the  ground.  Their 
limbs  and  robes  were  covered  with  dust.  ,  They  told 
this  matter  to  the  lord.*  "  I  allow  you,  monks,  to  take 
(things)  away  temporarily."^  ||44|| 

At  one  time  at  Campa,^  the  nun  who  was  the  pupil 
of  the  nun  Thullananda  went  to  the  family  who  sup- 
ported the  nun  Thullananda,  and  said:  "  The  lady^ 
wants  to  drink^^  rice-gruel  containing  the  three  pungent 

1  dlokasandhi,  cf.  Vin.  i.  48;  ii.  209=218. 

2  gopandsi,  cf.  A.i.  261 ;  M.  i.  80. 

^  Vihdraparibhoga.     See  Vin.  ii.  174. 

*  Thus  he  could  not  give  them  to  senior  monks  coming  in,  VA.  391. 

5  VA .  390,  a  couch  or  chair. 

«  Part  of  the  story  seems  to  be  omitted. 

7  =Vin.  ii.  174.  See  also  above,  p.  109.  Tdvakdlika,  trans,  at 
Vin.  Texts  iii.  217  as  "  for  a  certain  time  only  ";  and  at  Dial.  ii.  195 
=Bvddhist  SiUtas,  second  edition,  p.  241  (trans,  of  Jd.  i.  393),  as 
"  only  for  a  time  ...  as  temporary  "  (word  occurring  twice). 
At  Vi7i.  Texts  ii.  154,  n.  7,  editor  says  tdvakdlika  means  "  only  for 
a  time,  temporary,  on  loan,"  and  translates  it  by  "  on  loan  "  at 
Vin.  Texts  ii.  347  (=  Vin.  ii.  174).  At  Jd.  i.  121  the  word  is  used  of  a 
cart  taken  on  hire.  Cf.  Vin.  iv.  286,  when  it  is  not  considered  an 
offence  to  give  recluses  robes  temporarily. 

®  The  ancient  capital  of  Ahga.  '  ^yy^- 

^<*  Pdtun,  inf.  of  jnvati,  balanced  by  khdditun  in  the  next  story. 


II.  7,  45-46]  DEFEAT  III 

ingredients,"^  and  having  had  this  cooked,  she  took  it 
away  with  her  and  enjoyed  it  herself.  She,  knowing 
this,  reprimanded  her,  saying:  ''You  are  not  a  (true) 
female  recluse."  She  was  remorseful.  Then  this  nun  told 
this  matter  to  the  nuns.  The  nuns  told  this  matter  to 
the  monks.  The  monks  told  this  matter  to  the  lord. 
"  Monks,  there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat;  in  the 
deliberate  lie  there  is  an  offence  involving  expiation." 

At  one  time  in  Rajagaha,  the  nun  who  was  the  pupil 
of  the  nun  Thullananda  went  to  the  family  who  sup- 
ported the  nun  Thullananda,  and  said:  "  The  lady^  wants 
to  eat  a  honey-ball,"^  and  having  had  this  cooked, 
she  took  it  away  with  her  and  enjoyed  it  herself.  She, 
knowing  this  ..."  involving  defeat;  in  the  deliberate 
lie  there  is  an  offence  involving  expiation."  ||45  || 

At  one  time  in  Vesali,  the  householder  who  was  the 
supporter  of  the  venerable  Ajjuka  had  two  children, 
a  son  and  a  nephew.  Then  the  householder  spoke  thus 
to  the  venerable  Ajjuka: 

"  Honoured  sir,  will  you  grant  an  audience'*  to  which- 
ever of  these  two  children  has  faith  and  belief?"  At 
that  time  the  householder's  nephew  had  faith  and  belief. 
So  the  venerable  Ajjuka  granted  an  audience  to  that 
child.     Because  he  was  wealthy  he  set  up  an  estate  and 

^  Tekatulaydgu.  VA.  391  says  "  made  with  either  tila  (sesamu^), 
tandula  (rice-grain),  mugga  (kidney-beans),  or  tila,  tandula,  and 
)ndm  (a  bean),  or  tila,  tandula  and  kulattha  (a  kind  of  vetch),  or  any 
one  prepared  grain  with  tila  and  tandula,  making  three  (ingredients)." 
CJ.  above,  p.  83,  n.  4.  The  word  tekatulaydgu  also  occurs  at  Vin. 
i.  210,  where  Gotama  is  said  to  make  this  gruel  of  tila,  tandula  and 
mugga.  Ed.  at  Vin.  Texts  ii.  68,  n.  2,  says  katu  means  pungent, 
and  that  these  three  substances  are  explained  to  be  ginger  and  two 
kinds  of  pepper.  Apparently  the  gruel  could  be  made  of  three  kinds 
of  grain  and  flavoured  with  three  spices.  But  VA.  391  says:  "  It 
is  said  that  they  make  this  (gruel)  mixing  these  three  (prepared 
grains)  in  milk  and  four  parts  of  water  and  adding  ghee,  honey  and 
molasses." 

2  Ayyd. 

^  Madhugolaka.  P.T.S.  Diet,  gives  only  one  reference  td  golaka 
at  ThigA.  255;  and  under  kild-golaka  to  Vism.  256  {cf.  KhA.  53). 
VA.  391  defines  madhugolaka  as  atirasapdva,  which  seems  to  mean 
a  "  very  tasty  cake."  *  Okdsa. 


112  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  66-67 


made  a  gift.  Then  the  householder '^s  son  said  to  the 
venerable  Ananda : 

"  Honoured  Ananda,  which  is  the  father's  heir,  the 
son  or  the  nephew  ?" 

"  The  son,  your  reverence,  is  the  father's  heir." 

'*  Honoured  sir,  this  master  Ajjuka  has  shown  that 
our  wealth  belongs  to  our  associate." 

"  Your  reverence,  the  venerable  Ajjuka  is  not  a  (true) 
recluse."  Then  the  venerable  Ajjuka  said  to  the 
venerable  Ananda: 

"  Reverend  Ananda,  give  me  a  trial."  [66] 

At  that  time  the  venerable  Upali^  was  an  adherent 
of  the  venerable  Ajjuka.  Then  the  venerable  Upali 
said  to  the  venerable  Ananda: 

"  Reverend  Ananda,  whoever  being  told  by  the 
owner:  '  Grant  this  audience  to  such  and  such  a  person,' 
granted  it— does  he  fall  ?" 

"  Honoured  sir,  he  does  not  fall  at  all,  (not)  even  to 
the  length  of  an  offence  of  wrong-doing,"  he  said. 

"  Your  reverence,  this  venerable  Ajjuka,  being  told 
by  the  owner:  '  Grant  this  audience  to  such  and  such 
a  person,'  granted  it.  Your  reverence,  there  is  no 
offence  for  the  venerable  Ajjuka."  ||46|| 

Now  at  that  time  at  Benares  the  family  which  sup- 
ported the  venerable  Pilindavaccha^  was  pillaged  by 
thieves,  and  two  children  were  kidnapped.  Then  the 
venerable  Pilindavaccha  leading  back  these  children 
by  his  psychic  power  placed  them  on  a  terrace.  People, 
seeing  these  children,  said: 


^  See  above,  p.  60,  n.  4. 

2  Vin.  i.  206  ff.=iii.  248  ff.  recounts  the  feats  lie  did  by  his  mystic 
potency  in  Rajagaha  when  Bimbisara  was  King  of  Magadha.  At 
A.  i.  24  he  is  called  "  chief  among  the  disciples  who  arc  dear  and 
delightful  to  the  devas."  At  Ud.  28  objections  are  raised  to  his 
"  foul  talk."  I  think  he  is  probably  the  same  as  the  Pilinda-Vaccha 
of  Thag.;  see  Pss.  Breth.  ix.  and  loc.  cit.,  p.  14,  n.  4;  p.  15,  n.  2. 
We  learn  from  Corny,  on  Thag.  that  Pilinda  was  his  name,  Vaccha 
the  name  of  his  clan  {cf.  Vana-Vaccha,  Pss.  Breth.  xiii.),  and  that 
he  was  waited  on  by  a  deva  and  acquired  the  Gandhara  charm. 
For  this,  see  D.  i.  213;  Jd.  iv.  498. 


11.  7,  47-49]  DEFEAT  113 


''  This  is  the  majesty  of  the  psychic  power  of  master 
PiUndavaccha,!"  and  they  put  faith  in  the  venerable 
Pilindavaccha.  The  monks  became  vexed,  annoyed 
and  angry,  and  said:  "  How  can  this  venerable  Pilinda- 
vaccha lead  back  children  who  had  been  kidnapped  by 
thieves  ?"  They  told  this  matter'  to  the  lord.  He 
said:  "Monks,  there  is  no  offence  for  one  who  pos- 
sesses psychic  power  in  the  sphere  of  psychic  power." 
1147  II 

At  one  time,  two  monks,  Pandaka  and  Kapila,^  were 
friends.  One  lived  in  a  village  and  one  at  Kosambi. 
Then  as  that  monk  was  going  from  the  village  to 
Kosambi,  crossing  a  river,  in  the  middle  of  the  way  a 
piece  of  fat,  escaped  from  the  hands  of  pork-butchers, 
stuck  to  his  foot.  The  monk  took  hold  of  it,  saying: 
"  I  will  give  it  to  the  owners."  The  owners  repri- 
manded that  monk,  saying:  "  You  are  not  a  (true)  re- 
cluse." A  woman  cowherd  who  saw  him  as  he  had 
crossed,  said: 

"  Come,  honoured  sir,  commit  sexual  intercourse." 
He  said:  "  By  nature  T  am  not  a  (true)  recluse,"  and 
having  committed  sexual  intercourse  with  her  and  gone 
to  Kosambi,  he  told  this  matter  to  the  monks.  The 
monks  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  He  said:  "  Monks, 
there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat  for  taking  what  is 
not  given^;  but  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat 
for  sexual  intercourse  in  conjunction  (with  another)." 
II 48 II 

Now  at  that  time  at  Sagala,^  a  monk  who  shared  a 
cell  with  the  venerable  Dalhika,  being  tormented  by 


^  Mentioned,  I  think,  nowhere  but  here.  Naturally  not  the  Kapila 
to  whom  MA.  i.  91  refers  as  the  depraved  monk  {cf.  Vin.  iii.  107), 
reborn  with  his  sanghdti-iohe  flaming. 

*  For  he  did  not  intend  to  steal  it. 

3  See  Miln,  p.  1,  for  description  of  a  city  of  this  name.  A  Sagalii, 
capital  of  the  kingdom  of  the  Maddas,  is  mentioned  at  Jd.  iv.  230; 
V.  283,  285,  289f.;  vi.  471. 

I.  6 


114  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  67 

chafing,^  took  a  tradesman's  turban,^  and  said  to  the 
venerable  Dalhika:  **  Honoured  sir,  I  am  not  a  (true) 
recluse,  I  will  leave  the  Order."^ 

"  What  was  done  by  you,  your  reverence  ?"  He 
told  him  this  matter. 

"  Having  taken  it,  you  value  it,  but  being  valued  it  is 
not  worth  five  mdsakas.  There  is  no  offence,  your 
reverence,  involving  defeat,"  he  said,  and  gave  dhamma- 
talk.     That  monk  was  delighted.*  ||  49  ||  7 1| 

Told  is  the  second  Offence  involving  Defeat 

^  Anabhiratiyd  pilito.  Vin.  Texts  iii.  77,  n.  3,  says,  "  this  anabhi- 
rati  is  constantly  referred  to,  and  always  as  the  result  of  falling  in 
love,  or  in  connection  with  sexual  desire."  I  think  it  is  then  not 
so  much  the  "  distaste  (for  meditation),"  as  stated  at  Yin.  Texts  iii. 
77,  as  the  actual  dis-ease  of  unsatisfied  sexual  needs.  We  have, 
however,  now  had  the  words  abhirata  and  anabhirata  several  times, 
and  not  always  in  such  a  connection.  Thus  at  pp.  24,  25,  the 
verb  clearly  means  no  more  than  to  enjoy  the  ordinary  and  varied 
delights  of  the  household  life,  such  as  music  and  nautch  girls 
dancing ;  as  at  p.  32  it  siuiply  means  to  be  delighted  with  the  Brahma- 
lifo.  But  at  p.  34  it  might  be  thought  that,  by  implication,  ana- 
bhirata means  dissatisfied,  longing  for  sexual  intercourse.  At  p.  43 
it  might  only  mean  a  vague  fretting,  or  it  might  have  a  more  definite 
and  specialised  sense. 

-  Vethana,  possibly  a  wrap  or  a  cloak,  as  at  Jd.  vi.  12,  taken  as  a 
disguise.  A  wrap  to  put  over  the  "  yellow  robes  "  would  have 
been  a  l)ctter  disguise  than  a  turban,  but  could  a  wrap  possibly 
have  been  worth  less  than  five  mdsakas  ?  A  turban,  on  the  other 
hand,  would  have  hidden  the  shaven  head,  but  that  is  all.  Perhaps 
it  was  meant  symbolically. 

3  Vibhhamissdmi.  On  those  occasions  when  anabhirati  is  in 
connection  with  sexual  desire,  it  would  look  as  if  vibbhamissdmi 
should  then  be  translated,  "  I  will  co-habit,"  and  not  as  "  I  will 
leave  the  Order,"  But  except  for  the  occurrence  oi  anabhirati  in  the 
above  story,  I  see  doubtful  justification  for  such  a  rendering  of  vib- 
bhamissdmi here.  For  the  point  of  the  story  is  that  the  monk  has 
taken  something  worth  less  than  five  mdsakas,  which  does  not  rank 
as  a  theft.  However,  we  must  remember  that  in  the  preceding 
story  the  oiTence  is  shown  to  be  that  of  sexual  intercourse,  and 
not  that  of  taking  what  was  not  given.  Something  of  the  same  sort 
may  have  been  here  originally,  but  left  out  by  a  redactor. 

*  abhirami,  aor.  of  abhiramati.  I  cannot  help  thinking  that 
this  word  in  this  rather  curious  ending  of  the  second  Parajika  is 
meant  to  balance  the  an-abhirati  with  which  this  story  began. 
Abhiramati  and  abhirati  both  derive  from  abhi-\-ram.     It  is  most 


II.  7,  49]  DEFEAT  II5 

rare  to  find  it  said  that  a  monk,  when  told  that  there  is  for  him  no 
offence,  "  was  delighted,"  and  I  more  than  ever  believe  that  there  are 
omissions  in  the  text  as  we  have  it.  I  do  not  believe  that  the  monk 
"  was  delighted  "  that  he  had  committed  no  offence.  I  believe 
that  in  his  appropriated  vetkantty  he  enjoyed  himself  (a  meaning 
of  abhiramati),  or  even  fell  in  love  (another  meaning,  cf.  Sn.  718, 
1085),  which  would  balance  the  anabkirati  of  the  opening  sentence. 
I  think,  in  fact,  that  this  story  was  meant  to  end  up  in  exactly  the 
same  way  as  the  preceding  one.  But  as  the  material  for  this  is 
wanting,  I  have  left  the  phrase  as  "  was  delighted." 


DEFEAT  (PARAJIKA)  III 

At  one  time  the  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  was  staying 
at  Vesali  in  the  pavilion  of  the  Gabled  Hall  in  the  Great 
Wood.  At  that  time  the  lord  talked  in  many  ways  to 
the  monks  on  the  subject  of  the  impure,^  he  spoke 
in  praise  of  the  impure,  he  spoke  in  praise  of  de- 
veloping (contemplation  of)  the  impure,^  he  spoke  thus 
and  thus^  in  praise  of  taking  the  impure  as  a  stage 
in  meditation.  Then  the  lord  addressed  the  monks 
thus: 

"  I  wish,  monks,  to  go  into  solitary  retreat  for  a 
half-month;  I  do  not  wish  anyone  to  come  up  to  me 
except  the  one  who  brings  my  alms-food."* 

"  Very  well,  lord,"  the  monks  answered  the  lord, 
and  accordingly  no  one  went  up  to  the  lord  except  the 
one  to  take  him  alms-food.  Then  the  monks  said:  ''  The 
lord  has  talked  in  many  ways  on  the  subject  of  the 
impure,  he  spoke  in  praise  of  the  impure,  he  spoke  in 
praise  of  developing  (the  contemplation  of)  the  impure, 
he  spoke  in  praise  of  taking  the  impure  as  a  stage  in 
meditation."  These  (monks)  dwelt  intent  upon  the 
practice  of  developing  (contemplation  of)  the  impure  in 
its  many  different  aspects;  (but)  they  were  troubled 
by  their  own  bodies,^  ashamed  of  them,  loathing  them. 

1  VA.  393  f.     Cf.  Bud.  Psych.  Ethics,  2nd  edition,  63,  n.  2. 

2  asubhabhdvand,  VA.  394  says,  pavatassa  cittassa  hhdvand  vad- 
dham  phdtikammay,  and  goes  on  to  say  that  the  monk  intent  upon 
the  impure  attains  the  first  musing,  and  then  making  insight  to 
grow,  he  roaches  the  highest  goal  (uttamattha),  arahanship. 

^  ddissa  ddissa,  expl.  at  VA.  394:  evam  pi  ittham  piti  punappuna 
vavatthdnam  katvd. 

*  As  at  S.  V.  320,  where  the  subject  of  asubha,  the  impure  or  "  the 
unlovely,"  also  occurs,  but  with  some  omissions  and  variations.  • 

5  sakena  kdyena,  trans,  at  K.S.  v.  284  "  as  to  this  body." 

116 


III.  1,  1]  DEFEAT  117 

It  is  as  if  a  woman  or  a  man  when  young  and  of  tender 
years  and  fond  of  ornaments,^  having  washed  (himself 
and  his)  head,^  should  be  troubled,  ashamed,  full  of 
loathing  because  of  the  carcase  of  a  snake  or  of  a  dog 
or  of  a  man  hanging  round  the  neck — even  so,  those 
monks  who  are  troubled  by  their  own  bodies,  ashamed 
of  them  and  loathing  them,  both  by  themselves  deprive 
themselves  of  life,^  and  (also)  deprive  one  another  of 
life.*  Having  come  up  to  Migalandika,^  a  sham  re- 
cluse,®  they  said: 

''  Be  so  good,  your  reverence,  as  to  deprive  us  of  life; 
this  bowl  and  robe  will  become  yours."  Then  Migalan- 
dika,  the  sham  recluse,  a  hireling'  for  a  bowl  and  robe, 

1  =Z>.  i.  80=Ftn.  ii.  255=  ilf.  ii.  19;  this  simile  omitted  at 
S.  V.  320. 

2  VA.  399,  "  washed,  together  with  the  head." 

^  attandpi  attdnam  jwitd  voropenfi.  VA.  399  says,  "  like  that 
man,  having  no  desire  for  the  carcase,  the  monks  being  desirous  of 
quitting  (pariccajati)  their  own  bodies,  taking  the  knife  attandpi 

.  .  vowpentiy  This  is  probably  a  way  of  saying  that  they  com- 
mitted suicide,  cf.  S.  v,  320,  satthahdrakam  pariyesanti  .  .  .  sattham 
dharanti.  Or  the  phrase  might  possibly  mean  that  "  the  self 
deprives  the  Self  of  life  " — i.e.,  there  may  be  some  notion  lingering 
on  from  the  Upanisad  philosophy  that  this  kind  of  slaying  affects 
the  Atman,  the  All-Real,  the  Self.  Some  other  attd  couples  of 
sayings  occur  in  the  Ang. — e.g.,  at  A.  i.  57,  149;  iv.  405;  v.  182,  and 
at  S.  ii.  68,  and  seem  to  have  this  implication. 

*  VA.  399,  "  '  You  deprive  me  of  life,  I  you,'  thus  they  deprived 
one  other  of  life." 

*  VA.  399  calls  him  Migaladdhika,  with  v. I.  as  in  the  text.  He 
is  not  mentioned  at  S.  v.  320,  nor  as  far  as  I  know  at  any  other 
passage. 

*  VA.  399,  samanakuttaka=samanavesadhdraka,  one  who  wears  a 
recluse's  dress.  "  Having  shaved  his  head  and  put  on  one  yellow 
robe  and  another  over  his  shoulder,  depending  on  the  vihara,  he 
lived  on  a  substance  of  broken-meats." 

'  bhata.  Corny,  is  silent.  If  bhata  means  soldier,  cf.  S.B.E.  trans, 
of  Miln.  234,  240,  the  sense  would  be  that  he  hit  about  him  with  a 
knife,  and  perhaps  stifled  the  monks  with  his  robe.  But  bhata  can 
also  mean  "  hireling,  servant."  There  seems  to  be  no  verb  in 
Pali  of  which  it  is  the  p.p.  It  is  connected  with  the  Epic  and 
Class.  Sanskrit  bhata,  which  is  connected  with  bhrta.  Monier 
Williams,  Sanskrit- English  Dictionary,  gives  for  this:  "hired,  kept 
in  pay,  paid;  possessed  of,  endowed  with,  having  earned,  acquired, 
gained  ..." 


Il8  BOOK  OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  68-69 

deprived  the  company  of  monks  of  life,  and  taking  a 
blood-stained  knife  came  up  to  the  banks  of  the  river 
Vaggumuda.^  Then  while  Migalandika,  the  sham  re- 
cluse, was  washing  the  large  blood-stained  knife,  he 
became  remorseful,  he  became  repentant.  "  That  is 
bad  for  me,  that  is  not  good  for  me,  that  was  wrongly- 
gotten  by  me,  that  was  not  [68]  rightly  gotten  by  me, 
indeed  much  demerit  attaches  to  me  because  I  deprived 
of  life  monks  who  were  virtuous  and  of  good  conduct." 
Then  a  certain  devata^  of  the  retinue  of  Mara,  coming 
on  unbroken  water^  said  to  Migalandika,  the  sham 
recluse:  ''  It  is  good,  very  man,*  it  is  good;  very  man, 
it  is  good  for  you;  very  man,  it  is  rightly  gotten  by  you; 
very  man,  much  merit  attaches  to  you  because  you 
bring  those  across  who  had  not  crossed."^ 

1  VA.  399  says,  "  a  river  considered  by  people  to  be  lovely 
{vaggu-matd,  mata  from  mannati),  renowned  for  merit.  He  went 
there  saying,  '  There  I  will  wash  away  this  evil.'  " 

2  VA.  400  says,  "  not  a  well-known  earth-devata,  a  holder  of 
false  views,  on  the  side  of  Mara,  taking  Mara's  part." 

3  abhijjanidne  udake  gantvd.  VA.  400  says,  "  coming  as  though 
walking  on  the  earth's  surface."  This  power  of  walking  on  the 
water  is  one  of  the  forms  of  iddhi,  see  D.  i.  78.  Bhijjamdna  is  pres. 
part,  of  bhijjati,  passive  of  bhindati-{-a,  not  being  broken,  or  divided, 
therefore  firm,  unruffled,  undivided,  unbroken,  undisturbed.  But 
the  reading  at  D.  i.  78=^4.  i.  170  is  udake  pi  abhijjamdno  gac- 
chati,  he  goes  on  the  water  without  breaking  it  {Dial.  i.  88  and  cf. 
A.  i.  255),  but  this  loses  the  passive  aspect  of  the  verb.  At  D.  i.  212 
we  get  udake  abhijjamdnam  gacchantam.  However  at  M.  i.  34=494 
the  reading  is  (as  at  Vin.  iii.  above)  tidake  pi  abhijjamdne,  trans. 
Fur.  Dial.  i.  24,  "  on  the  water's  unbroken  surface."  Thus,  there 
is  a  good  deal  of  variation  in  the  reading  of  abhijj°.  See  Pts.  ii.  208 
which  reads  °mdne,  and  says  that  as  ordinary  people  walk  on  the 
earth,  so  the  psychic  person  (iddhimd)  walks  on  the  unbroken 
water,  having  first  reflected  on  it.  Vis7n.  396,  in  explaining  how 
by  will-power  such  a  person  transforms  the  water  to  earth,  quotes 
this  Pts.  passage. 

*  sappurisa.     On  prefix  sa-  see  G.S.  1.  ix. 

*  atinne  idresi,  VA.  401,  "  You  free  them  from  samsara  .  .  .  those 
who  are  not  dead  are  not  freed  from  samsara,  those  who  are  dead 
are  freed."  Tarati,  to  cross,  was  frequently  used  in  connection 
with  ogha,  the  flood,  7nah6gha,  the  great  flood.  The  flood  was  later 
broken  up  into  four  floods,  which  became  identified  with  the  four 
asavas.  But  the  commentarial  exegesis,  as  above,  which  is  not 
rare,  shows  the  view  that  to  be  across  was  to  be  across  nothing 


III.  1,  1-2]  DEFEAT  IIQ 

Then  Migalandika,  the  sham  recluse,  said:  "  It  is  said 
that  it  is  good  for  me,  it  is  said  that  it  is  rightly  gotten 
by  me,  it  is  said  that  much  merit  attaches  to  me,  it 
is  said  that  I  bring  those  across  who  had  not  crossed," 
and  taking  a  sharp  knife  and  going  from  vihara  to 
vihara  and  from  cell  to  cell,^  he  said:  "  Who  has  not 
crossed  ?  Whom  do  I  bring  across  ?"  Then  those 
monks  who  were  not  devoid  'of  passion  were  frightened 
at  that  time, 2  in  a  state  of  consternation,^  their  hair 
standing  on  end;  but  those  monks  who  were  devoid  of 
passion  were  not  frightened  at  that  time,  nor  were  they 
in  a  state  of  consternation,  nor  did  their  hair  stand  on 
end.  Then  Migalandika,  the  sham  recluse,  on  a  single 
day  deprived  one  monk  of  life,  on  a  single  day  he  de- 
prived two  monks  of  life,  on  a  single  day  .  .  .  three 
.  .  .,  on  a  single  day  .  .  .  four  .  .  .,  on  a  single  day  .  .  . 
five  .  .  .,  on  a  single  day  .  .  .  ten  .  .  .,  on  a  single 
day  .  .  .  twenty  .  .  .,  on  a  single  day  .  .  .  thirty 
.  .  .,  on  a  single  day  .  .  .  forty  .  .  .,  on  a  single  day 
.  .  .  fiftv  .  .  .,  on  a  single  day  he  deprived  sixty  monks 
of  life.  II 1 II 

Now  the  lord,  at  the  end  of  the  half-month,  arising 
from  his  retreat  for  meditation,  addressed  the  venerable 
Ananda:  "  Ananda,  how  is  it  that  the  company  of  monks 
is  so  diminished  as  it  is  ?" 

more  nor  les^  than  samsdra,  the  round  of  death  and  rebirth.  This 
is  what,  in  the  monkish  outlook  of  the  commentator,  it  was  highly 
desirable  to  stop.     Cf.  Sn.  571,  tiniw  tares'  imam  pajam. 

1  =Vin.  i.  216—247.  On  farivena,  cell,  see  Vin.  Texts  iii.  109, 
n.  3,  where  editor  says  that  it  is  here  doubtless  a  cell  used  as  a  cooling 
room,  after  the  steam  bath.  But  at  Vin.  Texts  iii.  203  editor  takes 
parivena  to  mean  "  a  number  of  buildings,"  in  n.  1  saying  that 
"  here  it  evidently  included  several  viharas." 

2  Tasmitn  samaye. 

3  Chamb'hitafta.  Cf.  D.  i.  49.  P.T.S.  Did.  says  that  here 
DA.  i.  50  wrongly  explains  it  by  sakala-sarira-calanam.  VA.  401 
reads,  "  beginning  with  the  flesh  of  the  heart,  the  body  trembled 
{sanracalanamY' ;  it  speaks  of  those  being  devoid  of  passion  as 
being  khindsava.  It  also  gives  thamhhilatta  as  a  synonym  of  chambhi- 
tatta.  P.T.S.  Diet,  says  that  this  meaning  oU-hambhitatta  as  fluctua- 
tion, unsteadiness,  is  late,  and  is  caused  by  misinterpretation  of 
chambhitatia. 


120  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  69-70 


"  It  is  because,  lord,  the  lord  talked  to  the  monks 
in  many  ways  on  the  subject  of  the  impure:  he  spoke  in 
praise  of  the  impure,  he  spoke  in  praise  of  increasing  (con- 
templation of)  the  impure,  he  spoke  in  praise  of  taking 
the  impure  as  a  stage  in  meditation.  And,  lord,  those 
monks  said :  '  The  lord  has  talked  in  many  ways  on  the 
subject  of  the  impure,  he  spoke  in  praise  of  the  impure, 
spoke  in  praise  of  increasing  (contemplation  of)  the 
impure,  he  spoke  in  praise  of  taking  the  impure  as  a 
stage  in  meditation ' — (so)  those  (monks)  dwelt  intent 
upon  the  practice  of  contemplating  the  impure  in  its 
many  different  aspects.  (But)  they  were  troubled  by 
their  own  bodies,  ashamed  of  them,  loathing  them.  It 
is  as  if  a  woman  or  a  man,  when  young  and  of  tender 
years  and  fond  of  ornaments,  having  washed  (himself 
and  his)  head  should  be  troubled,  ashamed,  full  of 
loathing  because  of  a  carcase  of  a  snake,  of  a  dog  or 
of  a  man  hanging  round  the  neck — even  so,  these  monks 
who  are  troubled  by  their  own  bodies,  [69]  ashamed  of 
them  and  loathing  them,  both  by  themselves  deprive 
themselves  of  life,  and  (also)  deprive  one  another  of 
life.  (For)  having  come  up  to  Migalandika,  the  sham 
recluse,  they  said :  '  Be  so  good,  your  reverence,  as  to 
deprive  us  of  life;  this  bowl  and  robe  will  become  yours.' 
Then,  lord,  Migalandika,  the  sham  recluse,  a  hireling 
for  a  bowl  and  robe,  on  a  single  day  deprived  one  monk 
of  life  ...  on  a  single  day  deprived  sixty  monks  of 
life.  It  were  good,  lord,  if  the  lord  were  to  give  another 
instruction,^  so  that  the  company  of  monks  might  be 
established  in  profound  knowledge."^ 

(The  lord)  said:  "  Then,  Ananda,  call  together  in  the 
assembly-hall  as  many  monks  as  dwell  near  Vesali." 

^  Pariydya.  VA.  402  explains  it  by  kammatthdna,  basis  for 
meditation. 

^  Annd.  See  Pss.  Breth.,  Intr.,  p.  xxxiii,  and  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids, 
Birth  of  Indian  Psychology,  etc.,  p.  225,  where  she  says  "  anna — i.e., 
the  having-come-to-know  .  .  .  had  taken  the  place  of  the  older 
Sakyan  term  for  the  summum  bonum:  attha,  the  thing  needed,  the 
t^ing  sought;'*  and  ibid.,  p.  264,  "  coming-to-know  or  learning  .  .  . 
as  what  might  be  rendered  as  gnosis  or  saving  knowledge." 


III.  1,  2-3]  DEFEAT  121 

"  Very  well,  lord,"  he  said.  And  when  the  venerable 
Ananda  had  answered  the  lord,  and  had  called  together 
in  the  assembly-hall  as  many  monks  as  lived  near 
Vesalf,  he  came  up  to  the  lord,  and  having  come  up  to 
him,  he  said:  "  Lord,  the  company  of  monks  is  assembled. 
Lord,  does  the  lord  think^  that  it  is  now  the  right  time 
for  this?" 

Then  the  lord  came  up  to  the  assembly-hall,  and  having 
come  up  he  sat  down  on  the  appointed  seat.  Sitting 
down,  the  lord  addressed  the  monks,  saying:  ||2|| 

"  This,2  monks,  is  the  concentration  with  mindfulness 
on  in-breathing  and  out-breathing,  which  if  developed 
and  made  much  of^  is  good  and  excellent  and  pure*  and 
is  a  happy  way  of  living,  and  it  immediately^  destroys 
and  allays  the  evil,  wrong  states  which  have  arisen. 
If  is  as  if,  monks,  in  the  last  month  of  the  hot  weather® 
a  big  storm,  arising  out  of  season,''  destroys  and  allays 
the  dust  and  dirt  that  have  formed — -even  so,  monks, 
concentration  with  mindfulness  on  in-breathing  and 
out-breathing,  if  developed  and  made  much  of  is  good 
and  excellent  and  pure  and  is  a  happy  way  of  living, 
and  it  immediately  destroys  and  allays  the  evil,  wrong 
states  which  have  arisen.  And  how,  monks,  if  concen- 
tration with  mindfulness  on  in-breathing  and  out- 
breathing  be  developed  and  made  much  of,  does  what 
is  good  and  excellent  and  pure  and  a  happy  way  of 
living,  immediately  destroy  and  allay  the  evil,  wrong 
states  which  arise  ? 

Herein,  monks,  a  monk  going  to  the  jungle,  going 

1  Mannasi.     At.  S.  v.  321,  mannati. 

2  From  here  to  end  of  ||3||  below=>S.  v.  321  f.  exactly. 

3  Cf.  M.  i.  421. 

*  Asecanaka.  VA.  403  f.  says,  ndssa  secananti  (adulterating, 
mixing,  sprinkling),  andsittako  (iinsprinkled)  ahhokinno  pdtekko 
dveniko.     Cf.  Thig.  ver.  55. 

^  Thdnaso.     VA.  404  khatmi  eva. 

^  Called  dsdlhamdsa  at  VA.  404. 

'  VA.  404  says:  having  arisen,  the  whole  sky  is  covered,  and  for 
the  whole  half-month  of  the  bright  moon  in  this  dsdlha  month  there 
are  clouds  shedding  rain. 


122  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  70-71 

to  the  foot  of  a  tree,  going  to  a  lonely  place,  sits  down 
cross-legged  with  back  erect,  having  caused  mindful- 
ness to  be  present  in  front  of  him.^  Mindful,  he 
breathes  out;^  mindful,  he  breathes  in;  breathing  out 
a  long  breath  he  knows,  '  I  am  breathing  out  a  long 
breath ' ;  breathing  in  a  long  breath,  he  knows,  '  I  am 
breathing  in  a  long  breath';  breathing  out  a  short 
breath,  he  knows,  ^  I  am  breathing  out  a  short  breath  ' ; 
breathing  in  a  short  breath,  he  knows,  '  I  am  breathing 
in  a  short  breath  ' ;  he  trains  himself,^  saying,  '  I  will 
breathe  out,  conscious  of  the  whole  body  ' ;  [70]  he  trains 
himself,  saying,  *  I  will  breathe  in,  conscious  of  the  whole 
body  ' ;  he  trains  himself,  saying,  '  I  will  breathe  out, 
quieting  the  body's  constituents ' ;  he  trains  himself, 
saying,  '  I  will  breathe  in,  quieting  the  body's  consti- 
tuents ' ;  he  trains  himself,  saying,  '  I  will  breathe  out 
...  I  will  breathe  in,  conscious  of  zest ' ;  he  trains  himself, 
saying,  '  I  will  breathe  out  ...  I  will  breathe  in, 
conscious  of  ease ' ;  he  trains  himself,  saying,  '  I  will 
breathe  out  ...  I  will  breathe  in,  conscious  of  the 
mind's  constituents ' ;  he  trains  himself,  saying,  '  I  will 
breathe  out  ...  I  will  breathe  in,  quieting  the  mind's 
constituents  ' ;  he  trains  himself,  saying,  '  I  will  breathe 
out  ...  I  will  breathe  in,  conscious  of  the  mind  ' ; 
he  trains  himself,  saying,  '  .  .  .  satisfying  the  mind 
.  .  .  composing  the  mind  .  .  .  detaching  the  mind 
.  .  .  realising  impermanence  .  .  .  realising  passionless- 
ness  .  .  .  realising  stopping  .  .  .  realising  renuncia- 
tion.' Thus,  monks,  developing  and  making  much  of 
concentration  with  mindfulness  on  in-breathing  and 
out-breathing,  is  good  and  excellent  and  pure,  and  is 
a  happy  way  of  living,  and  it  immediately  destroys  and 
allays  the  evil,  wrong  states  which  have  arisen."  ||  3  || 

Then  the  lord,  for  this  reason,  in  this  connection, 

1  parimukham.     Or,  *'  round  the  face." 

2  Cf.  D.  ii.  291=ilf .  i.  56  for  this  passage,  also  M.  iii.  82,  89,  and 
Pts.  i.  177,  quoted  Vism.  272. 

3  Sikkhati,  VA.  411,  ghatati  vdyamati,  and  goes  on  to  say  he  trains 
himself  in  the  three  trainings :  the  higher  morality,  the  higher  thought, 
the  higher  wisdom. 


III.  1,  4_2]  DEFEAT  1 23 

having  had  the  company  of  monks  convened,  asked  the 
monks : 

"  Monks,  is  it  true,  as  is  said,  that  monks  by  them- 
selves deprived  themselves  of  life,  and  (also)  deprived 
one  another  of  life,  and  having  approached  Migalandika, 
the  sham  recluse,  spoke  thus:  '  Be  so  good,  your  rever- 
ence, as  to  deprive  us  of  life;  this  bowl  and  robe  will 
become  yours.'  " 

"  It  is  true,  lord/' 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  them,  saying: 
'*  Monks,  it  is  not  becoming  for  these  monks,  it  is  not 
seemly,  it  is  not  fit,  it  is  not  worthy  of  a  recluse,  it  is 
not  right,  it  should  not  be  done.  How  can  those  monks 
by  themselves  deprive  themselves  of  life  .  .  .  how  can 
they  say  .  .  .  '  this  will  become  your  bowl  and  robe  V 
Monks,  this  is  not  for  the  benefit  of  non-believers  .  .  . 
and  thus,  monks,  this  course  of  training  should  be  set 
forth: 

Whatever  monk  should  intentionally  deprive  a  human 
being  of  life,  or  should  look  about  so  as  to  be  his  knife- 
bringer,  he  is  also  one  who  is  defeated,  he  is  not  in  com- 
munion." 

Thus  this  course  of  training  for  monks  was  made 
known  by  the  lord.  ||  4  ||  1 1| 


At  one  time  a  certain  lay-follower  was  ill.  His  wife 
was  beautiful,  comely  and  pleasant.  The  group  of  six 
monks  were  enamoured  of  this  woman.  Then  the 
group  of  six  monks  thought:  "  If  this  [71]  lay-follower 
lives,  your  reverences,  we  cannot  take  this  woman; 
come,  your  reverences,  let  us  praise  the  beauty  of  death 
to  this  lay-follower."  So  the  group  of  six  monks  came 
up  to  the  lay-follower,  and  having  come  up  they  said 
to  the  lay-follower: 

"  Lay-follower,  you  are  one  who  has  done  what  is 
good,^  who  has  done  what  is  profitable,  who  has  won  the 

1  C/.  ^.ii.  174,  175;  /^.,  p.  25. 


124  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  72 


shelter  of  the  timid^ ;  you  have  not  done  evil,  you  have 
not  been  cruel,  you  have  not  been  violent;  what  is  good 
has  been  done  by  you,  what  is  evil  has  not  been  done 
by  you.  What  need  have  you  of  this  evil,  difficult 
life  ?  Death  would  be  better  for  you  than  life.  Hence, 
when  you  have  done  your  time,  at  the  breaking  up  of 
the  body  after  death,  you  will  pass  to  a  happy  bourn, 
to  a  heaven-world^ ;  there,^  possessed  of  and  provided 
with  five  deva-like  qualities  of  sensual  pleasures,*  you 
will  amuse  yourself." 

Then  the  lay-follower  said,  "  Masters,  you  spoke  the 
truth,  for  I  have  done  what  is  good,  I  have  done  what 
is  profitable,  I  have  won  the  shelter  of  the  timid;  I  have 
not  done  evil,  I  have  not  been  cruel,  I  have  not  been 
violent:  what  is  good  has  been  done  by  me,  what  is  evil 
has  not  been  done  by  me.  What  need  have  I  of  this 
evil,  difficult  life  ?  Death  would  be  better  for  me  than 
life.  Hence  when  I  have  done  my  time,  at  the  breaking 
up  of  the  body  after  death,  I  will  pass  to  a  happy  bourn, 
a  heaven- world,  then  possessed  of  and  provided  with  the 
five  deva-like  qualities  of  sensual  pleasures,  I  will  amuse 
myself." 

He  ate  detrimental  soft  foods  and  detrimental  hard 
foods,  he  tasted  detrimental  savoury  foods,  he  drank 
detrimental  drinks,^  and  because  he  had  eaten  detrimental 
soft  foods  .  .  .  detrimental  drinks,  a  sore  affliction 
arose,^  on  account  of  which  he  died. 

His  wife  was  grieved,  vexed,  angry,  and  said,  "  These 

1  katabhlruttdna,  YA.  436  says  that  he  has  gained  protection 
against  the  dread  beings  have  at  the  time  of  dying,  possibly  by 
means  of  a  charm  (parittd)  as  is  suggested  by  Corny,  on  A.  ii.  174. 

2  J.  Przyluski,  Le  Concile  de  Rdjagrha,  p.  368,  where  he  says 
that  in  the  oldest  (Buddhist)  period  svarga  (Pali,  sagga)  and  brahma- 
loka  are  synonymous  terms.  This  seems  here  borne  out  by  next 
sentence  in  text.  It  has  been  suggested,  and  confuted  by  Przyluski, 
ibid.,  p.  371,  that  Asoka  spoke  only  of  svarga,  and  not  of  nirvana, 
because  he  addressed  the  laity,  and  not  monks. 

3  I.e.,  in  a  deva-world,  VA.  436. 

4  Cf.  A.  V.  273. 

^  Cf.  Vin.  i.  44  for  these  four  items. 
*  Kharo  dbddho  uppajji=D.  ii.  127. 


III.  2]  DEFEAT  125 

recluses,  sons  of  the  Sakyans/  are  shameless,  of  low 
morality,  liars.  And  they  pretend  to  be  dhamma- 
followers,  walking  by  right,  those  leading  the  Brahma- 
life,  speakers  of  truth,  virtuous,  of  good  character.  There 
is  no  recluseship  among  these,  there  is  no  brahmanhood 
among  these;  destroyed  is  recluseship  among  these, 
destroyed  is  brahmanhood  among  these ;  where  is  recluse- 
ship among  these,  where  is  brahmanhood  among  these  ? 
Fallen  from  recluseship  are  these,  fallen  from  brahman- 
hood are  these.  These  praised  the  beauty  of  death  to  my 
husband;  by  these  my  husband  has  been  killed." 

And  some  people  were  angry  and  said,  "...  these 
have  departed  from  brahmanhood.  These  praised  the 
beauty  of  death  to  the  lay-follower;  by  these  the  lay- 
follower  has  been  killed." 

The  monks  heard  these  people  who  were  annoyed, 
vexed  and  angry.  Those  who  were  modest  monks  were 
annoyed,  vexed,  angry,  and  said:  "How  could  the 
group  of  six  monks  praise  the  beauty  of  death  to  the 
lay-follower  ?"  Then  [72]  these  monks  told  this  matter 
to  the  lord  ... 

"Is  it  true,  as  is  said,  monks,  that  you  praised  the 
beauty  of  death  to  the  lay-follower  ?"  he  said. 

"  It  is  true,  lord,"  they  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  them,  saying: 
"  Foolish  men,  it  is  not  becoming,  it  is  not  seemly,  it  is 
not  suitable,  it  is  not  worthy  of  a  recluse,  it  is  not 
right,  it  should  not  be  done.  Why  did  you,  foolish  men, 
praise  the  beauty  of  death  to  the  lay-follower  ?  Foolish 
men,  this  is  not  for  the  benefit  of  non-believers  .  .  . 
And  thus,  monks,  this  course  of  training  should  be  set 
forth: 

"  Whatever  monk  should  intentionally  deprive  a  human 
being  of  life  or  should  look  about  so  as  to  be  his  knife- 
bringer,^  or  should  praise  the  beauty  of  death,  or  should 


1  As  below,  pp.  200,  223.  . 

2  satthahdrakam  vdssa  pariyeseyya.  For  lack  of  any  better  inter- 
pretation, explanation  of  VA.  441  is  followed  here.  Cf.  S.  iv.  62; 
M.  iii.  269. 


126  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  78 

incite  (anyone)  to  death,  saying,  *  Hullo  there,  my  man, 
of  what  use  to  you  is  this  evil,  difficult  life  ?  Death  is 
better  for  you  than  life,'  or  who  should  deliberately^  and 
purposefully^  in  various  ways  praise  the  beauty  of  death 
or  should  incite  (anyone)  to  death:  he  also  is  one  who  is 
defeated,  he  is  not  in  communion."  ||2|| 


Whatever  means:  he  who  .  .  . 

Monk  means:  .  .  .  thus  in  this^  sense  is  monk  to  be 
understood. 

Intentionally  means :  a  transgression  committed  know- 
ingly, consciously,  deliberately.^ 

Human  being^  means:  from  the  mind's  first  arising,^ 
from  (the  time  of)  consciousness  becoming  first  manifest 
in  a  mother's  womb  until  the  time  of  death,  here  mean- 
while he  is  called  a  human  being. 

Should  dejyrive  of  life  means :  he  cuts  off  the  faculty  of 
life,®  destroys  it,  harms  its  duration. 

Or  shmdd  look  about  so  as  to  be  his  knife-brvnger  means : 
a  knife  or  a  dagger  or  an  arrow  or  a  cudgel  or  a  stone  or 
a  sword  or  poison  or  a  rope.'' 

1  iticittamano,  so  the  mind  and  thought;  VA.  442  says,  "  so  the 
mind,  (or  heart,  citta)^  so  the  thought;  *  death  is  better  for  you  than 
life  '  here  means:  the  mind  set  on  death,  thought  set  on  death, 
wherefore  tliought  is  called  the  illustration  of  mind.  From  this 
meaning  the  two  are  as  if  one,  therefore,  no  division  is  to  be  seen; 
as  the  mind  so  the  thought,  as  the  thought  so  the  mind."  This 
last  phrase=p.  127  below,  the  old  Corny,  on  this  passage. 

2  cittasamJcappa,  intention  of  mind.  On  samkappa,  as  a  term 
of  "  awareness,  thought,  reflection,  purpose,"  see  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids, 
Birth  of  Indian  Psychology,  etc.,  pp.  55  ff.,  273  ff. 

3  =Fm.  iv.  290,  and  =Vin.  iii.  112  in  expl.  of  sancetanika.  At 
Vin.  ii.  91  it  is  said  that  whatever  transgression  is  committed  like 
this,  is  called  a  legal  question  whether  an  offence  be  wrong. 

*  Manussaviggaha. 

^  VA.  437  paraphrases  by  pathamam  patisandhicittam,  the  mind 
being  first  reinstated. 

«  Cf.  Vbh.  123. 

'  Satthahdraka  as  we  have  seen  is  lit.  "  sword-carrier,"  so  that  this 
definition  probably  implies  "  carrying  a  knife  .  .  .  carrying  a  rope." 
Cf.  below,  p.  133,  where  these  items  are  grouped  together  under  "  a 
trap." 


III.  3]  DEFEAT  127 

Or  should  'praise  the  beauty  of  death  means :  he  shows 
danger  in  living,  and  speaks  praise  of  death. 

Or  should  incite  {one)  to  death  means:  he  says,  '  take 
a  sword  or  eat  poison  or  do  your  time,  having  hanged 
yourself  with  a  rope.' 

Hullo  there,  my  man,  means:  this  is  a  form  of  address. 

Of  tvhat  use  to  you  is  this  evil,  difficult  life  means :  life 
is  called  evil:  the  life  of  the  poor  is  evil  compared  to 
the  life  of  the  rich,  the  life  of  the  unwealthy  is  evil 
compared  to  the  life  of  the  wealthy ;  the  life  of  mankind 
is  evil  compared  to  the  life  of  devas.  [73]  Dijfficult  life^ 
means :  when  the  hands  are  cut  off,  when  the  feet  are  cut 
off,  when  (both)  the  hands  and  feet  are  cut  off,  when  the 
ears  are  cut  off,  when  the  nose  is  cut  off,  when  (both) 
the  ears  and  the  nose  are  cut  off.  Because  of  this  evil 
and  because  of  this  difficult  life  he  says,  '  Death  is  better 
for  you  than  life.' 

Deliberately  means:  as  the  mind  so  the  thought,  as 
the  thought  so  the  mind. 

Purposefidly  means:  conscious  of  death,  thinking  of 
death,  intending  death. 

In  many  ways  means:  in  manifold  manners. 

Or  should  praise  the  beauty  of  death  means:  he  shows 
danger  in  living  and  speaks  of  the  beauty  of  death, 
saying,  "You,  deceasing  hence,  at  the  breaking  up  of 
the  body  after  death,  will  pass  to  a  happy  bourn,  a 
hea ven- world ;  there,  possessed  of  and  provided  with 
five  deva-like  qualities  of  sensual  pleasures,  you  will 
amuse  yourself." 

Or  should  incite  (one)  to  death  means:  he  says,  "  take 
a  sword,  or  eat  poison,  or  do  your  time  having  hanged 
yourself  with  a  rope,  or  falling  into  a  deep  ravine,  or 
into  a  pit,  or  down  a  steep  precipice.^ 

He  also  means:  is  called  so,  referring  to  the  preceding.^ 

Is  one  ivho  is  defeated  means:   just  as  a  flat  stone 

^  dujjwita. 

2  VA.  443,  papdtd  ti  pabbatantare  vd  thalanlare. 

^  VA.  443  says,  "  like  the  blameworthy  man  who  has  fallen  into 
defeat,  having  committed  sexual  intercourse,  and  having  taken 
what  was  not  given." 


128  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [111.  74 

which  has  been  broken  in  half  cannot  be  put  together 
again,^  so  the  monk  who  has  intentionally  deprived  a 
human,  being  of  life  is  not  a  (true)  recluse,  not  a  (true) 
son  of  the  Sakyans,^  and  is  therefdre  called  one  who  is 
defeated. 

Is  not  m  comynunion  means:  communion  is  called  one 
work,  one  rule,  an  equal  training,  this  is  called  com- 
munion; he  who  is  not  together  with  this  is  therefore 
called  not  in  communion.  11 3 II 


Himself,  by  volitional  force,'  by  a  messenger,  by  a 
series  of  messengers,  by  a  special  kind  of  messenger,  by 
a  messenger  gone  and  returned  again. 

Not  in  secret  thinking  to  be  in  secret ;  in  secret  think- 
ing to  be  not  in  secret;  not  in  secret  thinking  to  be  not 
in  secret;  in  secret  thinking  to  be  in  secret. 

He  praises  by  means  of  the  body,  he  praises  by  means 
of  the  voice,  he  praises  by  means  of  (both)  the  body 
and  the  voice,  he  praises  by  means  of  a  messenger,  he 
praises  by  means  of  a  writing.* 

A  pitfall,  a  support,^  a  trap,  medicine,  offering  a 
sight,  offering  a  sound,  offering  a  smell,  offering  a  taste, 
offering  a  touch,  offering  dhamma,  announcement, 
instruction,  making  a  rendezvous,®  making  a  sign. 
Hill 


1  This  is  the  only  Parajika  where,  in  the  simile,  the  word  abhabba 
does  not  occur. 

2  Cf.  Vin.  i.  97,  where  it  is  said  that  a  monk  who  has  received  the 
upasampada  ordination  should  not  deprive  any  living  being  (pdna) 
of  life,  even  down  to  an  ant  or  a  worm. 

3  Adhitthdya.  Adhititthati  or  adhitthahati,  adhitthdti,  adhittheti 
is  a  word  of  wide  meaning.  Tr.  Crit.  Pali  Diet,  includes  above 
passage  under  "  to  determine,  resolve,  wish."  VA.  445  explains 
adhitthahitvd  by  samipe  thatvd.  On  the  "  volitional  force  "  of 
adhitthdna  consult  Mrs.  Ehys  Davids,  Birth  of  Indian  Psychology, 
etc.,  p.  112.  Adhitthita  used  in  connection  with  robes  at  Vin.  iii. 
196. 

^  Lekhdya.     Lekhd  means  lit.  a  scratching,  therefore  a  writing. 
See  below,  p.  131,  n,  1. 
^  Apasfsena. 
•  Samkefakamma,  see  above,  p.  88. 


III.  4,  2]  DEFEAT  I29 

Himself  means :  he  himself  kills  by  means  of  the  body 
or  by  something  attached  to  the  body  or  by  something 
that  may  be  cast. 

By  volitional  force  means:  exerting  volitional  force, 
he  commands:  hit  thus,  strike  thus,  kill  thus.  [74] 

A  monk  commands  a  monk,  saying,  "  Deprive  so- 
and-so  of  life,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  He, 
thinking  this  is  the  person/  deprives  him  of  life,  there 
is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  both. 

A  monk  commands  a  monk,  saying,  "  Deprive  so- 
and-so  of  life,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  He, 
thinking  this  is  the  person,  deprives  another  of  life,  there 
is  no  offence  for  the  instigator,  there  is  an  offence  in- 
volving defeat  for  the  murderer. 

A  monk  commands  a  monk,  saying  .  .  .  He,  thinking 
of  another,  deprives  a  certain  person  of  life,  there  is 
an  offence  involving  defeat  for  both. 

A  monk  commands  a  monk,  saying  .  .  .  He,  thinking 
of  another,  deprives  that  other  of  life,  there  is  no  offence 
for  the  instigator,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat 
for  the  murderer. 

A  monk  commands  a  monk  saying,  "  Tell  so-and-so, 
let  so-and-so  tell  so-and-so,  let  so-and-so  deprive  so- 
and-so  of  life,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  The 
murderer  accepts  .  .  .  there  is  a  grave  offence  for 
the  instigator.  He  deprives  him  of  life  .  .  .  there  is 
an  offence  involving  defeat. 

A  monk  commands  a  monk,  saying,  "  Tell  so-and-so, 
let  so-and-so  tell  so-and-so,  let  so-and-so  deprive  so- 
and-so  of  life,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 
He  commands  another,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. The  murderer  accepts,  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing.  He  deprives  him  of  life,  there  is  no 
offence  for  the  instigator,  there  is  an  offence  involving 
defeat  for  the  one  who  gives  the  orders  and  for  the 
murderer. 

A  monk  commands  a  monk,  saying,  "  Deprive  so- 
and-so   of  life,"   there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

1  Tam. 


130  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  75-76 

Going,  he  comes  back  again,  saying,  "  I  am  not  able 
to  deprive  liim  of  life."  He  commands  him  again, 
saying,  "  If  you  can,  then  deprive  him  of  life,"  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  He  deprives  him  of  life, 
there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  both. 

A  monk  commands  a  monk,  saying,  '*  Deprive  so- 
and-so  of  life,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 
Having  commanded,  he  is  remorseful,  but  does  not 
declare,  "  Do  not  kill  him."  He  deprives  him  of  life, 
there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  both. 

A  monk  commands  a  monk,  saying,  "  Deprive  so- 
and-so  of  life,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 
Having  commanded,  he  is  remorseful  and  declares, 
"  Do  not  kill  him."  He  says,  '*  I  am  commanded  by 
you,"  and  deprives  him  of  life,  there  is  no  offence  for 
the  instigator,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for 
the  murderer. 

A  monk  commands  a  monk,  saying  .  .  .  Having 
commanded,  he  is  remorseful  and  declares,  "  Do  not 
kill  him."  He  says,  "  Very  well,"  and  desists,  there 
is  no  offence  for  either.  ||  2 1! 

Not  in  secret  thinking  to  be  in  secret,  he  calls  out, 
"  If  only  so-and-so  were  killed,"  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing,  hi  secret  thinking  to  he  not  in  secret  .  .  . 
Not  in  secret  thinking  to  be  not  in  secret  .  .  .  [75]  In 
secret  thinking  to  be  in  secret  .  .  .  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  ||  3  || 

He  praises  by  means  of  the  body  means:  he  makes  a 
gesture  with  the  body,^  saying,  "  Whoever  dies  thus^ 
receives  wealtli  or  receives  glory  or  goes  to  heaven," 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  He  says,  "  On 
account  of  this  praise  I  will  die,"  (and)  produces  a  pain- 
ful feeling,  there  is  a  grave  offence;  if  he  dies,  there  is 
an  offence  involving  defeat. 

^  Kdyena  vikdram  karoti  {dasseti,  YA.  452,  with  v. I.  karoti),  lit. 
he  makes  an  (expressive)  gesture. 

2  According  to  VA,  452,  by  taking  a  sword  or  by  drinking  poison, 
as  at  p.  127  above. 


Ill,  4,  4]  DEFEAT  I3I 

He  praises  hy  means  of  the  voice  means :  he  proclaims 
by  the  voice,  "Whoever  dies  thus  ..."...;  if  he 
dies,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat. 

He  praises  by  means  of  the  body  and  the  voice  means : 
he  makes  a  gesture  with  the  body  and  proclaims  by 
the  voice,  "Whoever  dies  thus  ..."...;  if  he  dies, 
there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat. 

He  praises  by  means  of  a  messenger  means :  He  gives 
instruction  to  a  messenger,  saying:  "  Whoever  dies  thus 
receives  wealth,  or  receives  glory  or  goes  to  heaven  " 
— there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  Having  heard 
the  messenger's  instruction,  one  says:  "I  will  die,"  and, 
produces  a  painful  feeling,  there  is  a  grave  offence;  if 
he  dies,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat. 

He  praises  by  means  of  a  writing  means:  he  cuts  a 
writing^  saying,  "  Whoever  dies   thus  receives  wealth 


1  lekham  chindati,  VA.  452,  "  lie  cuts  syllables  (akkhardni)  on  a 
leaf  or  a  book  {potthake,  cf.  Sk.  pustaka).  Cf.  J  a.  ii.  90,  akkhardni 
chinditvd,  here  on  a  kayida,  a  stalk  or  cane.  Lekham  chindati  could 
not  therefore  here  mean  "  destroys  the  letter  "  as  P.T.S.  Diet. 
says.  Cf.  rupam  chindati  at  VA.  690  in  connection  with  cutting 
a  figure  on  the  wooden  mdsaka.  Lekhd  therefore  does  not  neces- 
sarily mean  writing  as  we  have  it  to-day.  At  Vin.  iv.  7  lekhd 
is  one  of  the  three  "high  crafts"  (or  occupations,  sippa).  At 
Vin.  i.  77=iv.  128  Upali's  parents  decide  against  letting  him 
learn  /eMa  on  the  grounds  that  his  fingers  will  become  painful. 
At  Vin.  iv.  305  it  is  said  to  be  no  ofience  for  a  nun  to  learn  writing 
{lekham  pariydpundti).  Lekha  is  the  writing,  the  letter;  lekhd  the 
line,  the  tracing  {cf.  Jd.  vi.  56).  VA.  867  explains  by  akkhardni 
Ukhantassa.  Cf.  VA.  739  lekhd  ti  akkharalekhd,  letters:  syllables 
or  letters;  see  next  n.  for  akkhara. 

At  Vin.  ii.  110  the  context  seems  to  demand  another  meaning  for 
lekhd:  it  is  to  be  something  that  can  be  separated  from  the  bowl; 
this  can  be  given  away,  whereas  lekhan  ca  me  paribhogarn  bhavissati, 
"  so  that  the  chips  shall  remain  my  property  "  {Vin.  Texts  iii.  78),  or 
"  the  chips  will  come  to  be  for  my  personal  use,"  or  "  the  chips  will 
be  of  use  to  me."  {Paribhoga  is  that  which  one  uses,  of  usfe,  rather 
than  property.)  At  this  passage  lekharn  (which  has  faulty  variant 
reading  likharn;  cf  likhdpanna  for  lekhd°  at  PvA.  20)  is  almost 
certainly  to  be  taken  in  its  meaning  of  "  chips,  shavings." 

At  ^.  i.  2S3=Piig.  32  three  kinds  of  individuals  are  described: 
pdsdnalekhdpama,  pathavilekhapama,  udakalekhupama.  Here  lekJid 
is  trans,  at  G.S.  i.  262  by  "  carving."  Neither  Comy.  remarks  on 
lekhd. 


132  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  76 


or  receives  glory  or  goes  to  heaven,"  there  is  an 
offence  of  wrong-doing  for  each  syllable.^  Having 
seen  the  writing  he  says,  "I  will  die";  he  produces 
a  painful,  feeling,  there  is  a  grave  offence;  if  he  dies, 
there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  ||  4  || 

A  pitfall  means:  he  digs  a  pitfall  for  a  man,  saying: 
"  Falling  into  it  he  will  die,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. The  man  falls  down  into  it,  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing.  In  falling  down  a  painful  feeling 
arises,  there  is  a  grave  offence;  if  he  dies,  there  is  an 
offence  involving  defeat.  He  digs  a  pitfall  without  a 
purpose,  and  says  of  whoever  falls  into  it,  "  He  will 
die,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  A  man  falls 
down  into  it,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  In 
falling  down  a  painful  feeling  arises,  there  is  a  grave 
offence;  if  he  dies,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat. 
A  yakkha  or  a  departed  one  or  an  animal  in  human 
form^  falls  down  into  it,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing.^  In  falling  dow^n  a  painful  feeling  arises,  there 
is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing;  if  he  dies,  there  is  a  grave 
offence.  An  animal  falls  down  into  it,  there  is  an 
offence    of   wrong-doing.     In   falling    down   a   painful 

^  akkharakkhardya,  or  "for  the  syllables  and  syllables"  so  "for 
each  syllable."  Tr.  Crit.  Pali  Did.  says  that  akkhara  is  opposed 
to  pada,  word.  Akkhara  seems  to  be  connected  with  aksara  of  the 
Upanisads,  the  Imperishable — perhaps  because  the  letters  when 
engraved  could  faintly  emulate  the  Imperishable  (Veda). 

2  Tiracchdnagata7nanussaviggaha,  lit.  a  man  taking  up  the  form 
of  one  going  as  an  animal.  This  is  obviously  meant  to  be  something 
different  from  tiracchdnagata,  going  as  an  animal,  just  below.  The 
former  probably  refers  to  an  animal  who  has  the  power  to  put  on 
human  form  in  this  life;  for  this  is  a  belief  which  existed  at  that  time. 
Cf.  the  rule  which  forbids  an  animal  in  human  form  to  be  ordained, 
Vin.  i.  86,  87.  The  latter,  going  as  an  animal,  or  just  an  animal, 
is  a  fairly  forceful  expression  in  connection  with  the  belief  in  rebirth, 
meaning  that  someone  is  going  as  an  animal  in  this  rebirth. 

^  VA.  4.55  says,  "  It  was  dug  for  a  man,  (therefore)  he  is  not 
guilty  of  the  death  of  yakkhas  and  so  forth  who  fall  into  it."  In 
the  Vinaya,  yakkhas  constantly  appear  as  the  denizens  of  some 
sphere  or  other,  not  far  removed  from  the  realm  of  mankind.  The 
same  is  true  of  the  petas,  or  departed  ones. 


III.  4,  5-9]  DEFEAT  I33 

feeling  arises,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing;  if  he 
dies  there  is  an  offence  requiring  expiation.  ||  5  || 

A  support  means:  he  puts  a  dagger  in  a  support,  or 
smears  it  with  poison;  or  makes  it  weak,  or  he  arranges 
it  in  a  deep  ravine,  or  a  pit,  or  a  steep  precipice,  and  says : 
"  FalHng  down,  he  will  die,"  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  A  painful  feeling  arises  on  account  of 
the  dagger  or  the  poison  or  the  fall,  there  is  a  grave 
offence;  [76]  if  he  dies,  there  is  an  offence  involving 
defeat.  ||  6  || 

A  trap  means:  he  secretly  deposits  a  knife  or  a  dagger 
or  an  arrow  or  a  cudgel  or  a  stone  or  a  sword  or  poison 
or  a  rope,^  saying,  "Because  of  this,  he  will  die,"  there 
is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  He  says,  "I  will  die 
on  account  of  this,"  and  produces  a  painful  feeling, 
there  is  a  grave  offence;  if  he  dies,  there  is  an  offence 
involving  defeat.  ||  7  || 

Medicine  means:  he  gives  ghee  or  fresh  butter  or  oil 
or  honey  or  molasses,^  saying,  "  Having  tasted  this, 
he  will  die,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  In 
tasting  it  a  painful  feeling  arises,  there  is  a  grave  offence; 
if  he  dies,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  ||  8  || 

Offering  a  sight^  means:  he  arranges  a  dreadful  sight, 
saying,  "  Seeing  this  frightful,  horrible  thing,  and  being 
terrified  he  will  die,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 
Seeing  it  he  is  terrified,  there  is  an  offence;  if  he  dies, 
there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  He  arranges  a 
lovely  sight,  saying,  ''  Seeing  this  and  if  it  fades  with- 

^  Cf.  above,  p.  126,  where  these  items  are  grouped  together  under 
''  should  look  about  so  as  to  be  his  knife-bringer." 
^  These  are  the  five  kinds  of  medicine,  cf.  Vin.  iii.  251, 
^  It  is  curious  that  the  five  senses  are  all  equally  powerful  here, 
and  that  the  last  three  are  not  grouped  together  under  nmta,  sensed, 
felt,  thought  or  imagined,  as  sometimes  occurs  in  the  older  literature, 
e.g.  Vin.  iv.  2.  It  is  also  curious  that  these  five  senses  have  the 
power  to  cause  death.  Was  it  really  believed  that  people  died 
because  of  a  bad  smell  or  loud  noise  ? 


134  BOOK  OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  77 

out  his  getting  it,  he  will  die,"  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  Seeing  this,  it  fades  without  his  getting 
it,  there  is  a  grave  offence ;  if  he  dies,  there  is  an  offence 
involving  defeat. 

Offering  a  sound  means:  he  arranges  a  dreadful  sound, 
saying,  "  Hearing  this  frightening,  horrible  thing,  and 
being  terrified,  lie  will  die,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. Hearing  it,  he  is  terrified,  there  is  a  grave 
offence;  if  he  dies,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat. 
He  arranges  a  lovely  sound,  saying,  "  Hearing  this 
lovely,  heart-stirringi  thing,  and  if  it  fades  without  his 
getting  it,  he  will  die,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. Hearing  this,  it  fades  without  his  getting  it, 
there  is  a  grave  offence;  if  he  dies,  there  is  an  offence 
involving  defeat. 

Offering  a  smell  means:  he  arranges  a  dreadful  smell, 
saying,  "  Smelling  this  loathsome,  objectionable  thing, 
he  will  die  because  it  is  loathsome  and  objectionable," 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  In  smelling  it  a 
painful  feeling  arises  because  it  is  loathsome  and  ob- 
jectionable, there  is  a  grave  offence;  if  he  dies,  there  is 
an  offence  involving  defeat.  He  arranges  a  lovely 
smell,  saying,  "  Smelling  this  and  if  it  fades  without 
his  getting  it,  he  will  die,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. Smelling  this,  it  fades  without  his  getting  it, 
there  is  a  grave  offence;  if  he.  dies,  there  is  an  offence 
involving  defeat. 

Offering  a  taste  means:  he  arranges  a  dreadful  taste, 
saying,  "  Tasting  this  loathsome,  objectionable  thing, 
he  will  die  because  it  is  loathsome  and  objectionable," 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  In  tasting  it  a 
painful  feeling  arises  because  it  is  loathsome  and  objec- 
tionable, there  is  a  grave  offence;  if  he  dies,  there  is  an 
offence  involving  defeat.  He  arranges  a  lovely  taste, 
saying,  *'  Tasting  this,  if  it  fades  without  his  getting 
it,  he  will  die,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 
Tasting  this,  it  fades  without  his  getting  it,  there  is  a 
grave  offence;  if  he  dies,  there  is  an  offence  involving 
defeat. 

*  Hadayamga7na,  cf.  D.  i.  4. 


111.4,9-10]  DEFEAT  135 

Offering  a  touch  means:  [77]  he  arranges  a  dreadful 
touch,  saying,^  "  This  is  contact  with  pain,  this  is  a 
hard  contact,  touched  by  which  he  will  die,"  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  In  touching  it  a  painful 
feeling  arises,  there  is  a  grave  offence;  if  he  dies,  there 
is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  He  arranges  a  lovely 
touch,  saying,  "  This  is  a  pleasant  contact,  a  soft  con- 
tact, if  touched  by  this  it  fades  without  his  getting  it, 
he  will  die,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  Touched 
by  this,  it  fades  without  his  getting  it,  there  is  a  grave 
offence;  if  he  dies,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat. 

Offering  dhamma  means:  he  gives  talk  about  hell^  to 
one  doomed  to  suffering  in  hell,  saying,  "  Hearing  this, 
and  being  terrified,  he  will  die,"  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  Hearing  this,  he  is  terrified,  there  is 
a  grave  offence;  if  he  dies,  there  is  an  offence  involving 
defeat.  He  gives  talk  about  heaven  to  a  man  of  good 
behaviour ,2  saying,  "  Hearing  this,  and  set  upon  it,^ 
he  will  die,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  Hearing 
this  and  set  upon  it,  he  says,  *'  I  will  die,"  and  produces 
a  painful  feehng,  there  is  a  grave  offence;  if  he  dies, 
there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat.  ||  9  || 

Announcement  means:  asked  (about  it)  he  says:  "  Die 
thus,*  he  who  dies  thus  receives  wealth  or  he  receives 
glory  or  he  goes  to  heaven,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. He  says,  "  On  account  of  this  announcement 
I  will  die,"  and  produces  a  painful  feeling,  there  is  a 
grave  offence;  if  he  dies,  there  is  an  offence  involving 
defeat. 

Instruction  means:  not  asked  (about  it)  he  says:  "  Die 
thus,  he  who  dies  thus  receives  wealth,  or  he  receives 
glory  or  he  goes  to  heaven,"  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. He  says,  "On  account  of  this  instruction  I 
will  die,"  and  produces  a  painful  feeling,  there  is  a  grave 
offence;  if  he.  dies,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat. 

The  making  of  a  rendezvous  means :  he  makes  a  ren- 
dezvous, saying:    "Before  the  meal  or  after  the  meal 

1  Niraya.  ^  Kalydnakamma. 

^  Adhimutta.     Of.  below,  p.  148.  *  Evam  marassu. 


136  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  7&-79 

or  in  the  night  or  in  the  day,  on  aecount  of  this  ren- 
dezvous deprive  him  of  life,"  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  On  account  of  this  rendezvous  he  de- 
prives him  of  life,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat 
for  both.  He  deprives  him  of  life  before  or  after  the 
rendezvous,  there  is  no  offence  for  the  instigator,  but 
there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  the  murderer. 

The  making  of  a  sign  means :  he  makes  a  sign,  saying : 
*^  I  will  cover  the  eye  or  I  will  raise  the  eyebrow  or  I 
will  raise  the  head;  at  that  sign^  deprive  him  of  life,'' 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  deprives  him 
of  life  before  or  after  that  sign,  there  is  no  offence  for 
the  instigator,  there  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for 
the  murderer.  ||  10 1| 

There  is  no  offence  if  it  was  unintentional,  if  he  did 
not  know,  if  he  were  not  meaning  death,  if  he  was  out 
of  his  mind,  a  beginner.  ||  11 1|  4 1| 

Told  is  the  First  Recital :  that  on  Defeat  connected  with 
human  beings  [78] 


Praising,  sitting  down,  and  about  pestles  and  mortars. 
Gone  forth  when  old,^  a  falling  out,^  first  (-taste),"* 
experimental  poison,/ 


1  — ^,  89,  above. 

2  vuddhapabbajitd,  usually  "  those  long  gone  forth,  old  monks." 

3  Oldenberg,  fin.  iii.  271  f.  gives  v. II.  vuddhapabbajitd  ca  bhisanno, 
°jitd  sinnoy  and  "  °jjitassa  no  corrected  to  °jjitdbhisanno,"  and 
he  says,  "  I  do  not  know  how  to  correct  bhisanno  or  sinno.''  The  final 
a  of  °jjitd  may  possibly  belong  to  bhissanno,  ihen=abhisanno, 
meaning  ''  full  of,  overflowing  with  "  (old  monks,  5,  4),  or  a  "  falling 
out "  (of  meat,  5,  5).  Sinna  as  p.p.  of  sijjati  usually  means  "  wet 
with  perspiration,  boiled,"  but  it  cannot  mean  that  here.  The  word 
does  not  appear  again  in  the  stories  below.  Possibly  one  group  has 
been  omitted. 

*  Text  reads  aggam.  Oldenberg  proposed  an  emendation  to  lag- 
gam,  doubtless  thinking  of  vilagya  in  5»  5,  but  aggam  refers  to  agga 
{-kdrila'j  of  5,  6. 


III.  5,  1-2]  DEFEAT  137 

Three  about  making  sites,  then  three  on  bricks, 

An  adze,  and  then  a  beam,  a  platform,  descent,  he 

fell,/ 
And  heating,  nose  (-treatment),  rubbing,  on  bathing 

and  about  oil, 
Making  get  up,  making  lie  down,^  dying  because  of 

food  and  drink,/ 
Child  by  a  lover,  and  co-wives,  he  killed  both  mother 

and  child, 
Neither  die,^  destroying,  scorching,  barren,  fruitful,/ 
Nudging,  restraints,  a  yakkha,  and  he  sent  to  a  pre- 
datory yakkha. 
Thinking  about  him,  he  dealt  a  blow,^  and  heaven,  a 

talk  on  hell,/ 
Three  on  trees  at  Alavi,  then  three  about  fires. 
Do  not  keep  in  misery,  not  yours,  and  on  buttermilk 

and  sour  gruel./ 


Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill.  Out  of 
compassion  the  monks  praised  the  beauty  of  death  to 
him,  and  that  monk  died.  They  were  remorseful,  and 
said:  "  What  now  if  we  have  fallen  into  an  offence  in- 
volving defeat  ?"  Then  these  monks  told  this  matter 
to  the  lord.  He  said:  *' You,  monks,  have  fallen  into 
an  offence  involving  defeat."  ||  1  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  who  was  going  for  alms, 
sat  down  on  a  boy  who  was  on  a  chair  concealed  by  a 
rag,  and  sitting  (hard)*  on  him,  killed  him.     He  was 

1  Text,  maranam. 

2  ubho  na  miyyare.     Cf.  na  miyyare  at  Sn.  575. 
^  fohari. 

*  ottharitvd',  this  word  occurs  again  below  in  the  next  par.  and 
also  at  p.  146,  below.  VA.  475  on  this  latter  passage  explains  by 
akkamitvd,  and  goes  on  to  say  that  a  monk  having  fallen  down  was 
dragged  along  by  some  others,  and  one  having  got  on  to  his  stomach 
sat  there.  But  cf.  p.  59,  n.  1,  above  for  akkamitvd,  meaning 
"  kicking,  making  a  kick  at."  At  Miln.  121  ottharaii  is  used  in 
connection  with  the  waves  of  the  sea:  they  "flow"  (so  trans. 
S.B.E.  xxxi.  182),  meaning  they  flow  again  over  the  spot  whence 


138  BOOK   OF  THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  79 

remorseful.  ...  "  Monks,  there  is  no  offence  involving 
defeat.  But  monks  should  not  sit  down  on  a  seat 
without  noticing  (what  they  are  doing).  Whoever  shall 
so  sit  down — there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||2  || 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  who  was  preparing 
a  seat  in  the  refectory  inside  a  house,  took  hold  of  a 
pestle,  the  pestles  being  high  up,  when  a  second  pestle 
falling  down,  hit^  the  head  of  a  certain  boy  (hard) ;  he 
died.  The  monk  was  remorseful.  ...  "Of  what  were 
you  thinking,  monk  ?"  he  said. 

"  I  did  not  intend  it,  lord,"  he  said. 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  as  it  was  not  inten- 
tional," he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  who  was  preparing  a  seat 
in  a  refectory  inside  a  house,  treading  on  the  mortar- 
requisites,^  knocked    it   over^;   hitting*  a  certain  boy 

(hard),  it  killed  him.     He  was  remorseful *' There 

is  no  offence,  monk,  as  it  was  not  intentional."  ||  3  || 

Now  at  that  time  a  father  and  son  were  going  forth 
among  the  monks.  When  the  time  was  announced^  the 
son  said  to  his  father:  ''Go,  honoured  sir,  the  Order 

they  had  rolled  back.  It  there  has  the  sense  of  covering  over  or 
covering  up.  P.T.S.  Diet,  under  ottharati  s&ys,  "see  also  avattha- 
rati  "  for  both  of  which  it  gives  much  the  same  meanings.  I  think 
it  possible  that  ottharati  (as  here  and  in  next  par.  below,  and  again 
below  at  p.  146)  and  avattharati  as  at  next  note  below,  have  the 
sense  of  dealing  roughly  with  someone,  even  by  mistake.  Avatthdsi 
occurs,  again,  p.  140,  where  it  also  seems  as  if  it  means  "hit" 
(with  loc).  Both  words  certainly  seem  to  include  the  sense  of 
hardy  sitting  hard  enough  or  hitting  hard  enough  to  cause  death. 

^  avatthdsi. 

^  bhandikd.  This  is  a  comprehensive  word  meaning  a  heap  of 
goods,  a  collection.  At  Jd.  iii.  41  it  is  v.l.  for  gandikd,  which  as 
"executioner's  block"  could  not  make  sense  here.  ."Mortar- 
requisites  "  would  include  the  pestle. 

^  akkamitvd  pavattesi.  Akkamitvd  here  seems  to  be  in  its  meaning 
of  "  to  tread  on."  We  get  the  same  expression  in  Vin.  iii.  38,  above, 
p.  59,  where  it  seems  to  mean  "  rising,  he  knocked  her  over,"  and 
I  should  like  to  add  hardy  rising  hard  or  suddenly.  See  above, 
p.  137,  n.  4. 

*  ottharitvdy  see  above,  p.  137,  n.  4.  *  kale  drodte. 


III.  6,  4-5]  DEFEAT  139 

waits  for  you,"  and  seizing  him  by  the  back,  he  pushed 
him  away.  FaUing  down,  he  died.  He  was  remorse- 
ful. .  .  .  [79]  "  Of  what  were  you  thinlcing,  monk  V 
he  said. 

"  I  did  not  mean  (to  cause  his)  death,  lord,"  he  said. 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  since  you  did  not  mean 
(to  cause  his)  death,"  he  said. 

Now  at  that  time  a  father  and  son  were  going  forth 
among  the  monks.  When  the  time  was  announced^  the 
son  said  to  his  father:  "Go,  honoured  sir,  the  Order 
waits  for  you,"  and  meaning  to  cause  his  death  he  seized 
him  by  the  back  and  pushed  him  away.  Falling  down, 
he  died.  He  was  remorseful.  ...  "...  defeat,"  he 
said. 

Now  at  one  time  a  father  and  son  were  going  forth 
among  the  monks.  When  the  time  was  announced  the 
son  said  to  his  father:  "Go,  honoured  sir,  the  Order 
waits  for  you,"  and  meaning  to  cause  his  death  he 
seized  him  by  the  back  and  pushed  him  away.  Falling 
down,  he  did  not  die.  He  was  remorseful.  ...  "  There 
is  no  offence,  monk,  involving  defeat,  there  is  a  grave 
offence."  ||4|| 

At  one  time  while  a  certain  monk  was  eating,  some 
meat^  stuck  in  his  throat.  A  certain  monk  gave  a  blow 
to  that  monk's  neck;  the  meat  fell  out  with  blood,  and 
that  monk  died.  He  was  remorseful.  ...  "  There  is 
no  offence,  monk,  as  you  did  not  mean  to  cause  his 
death." 

At  one  time  while  a  certain  monk  was  eating,  some 
meat  stuck  in  his  throat.  A  certain  moiik,  meaning 
to  cause  his  death,  gave  a  blow  to  that  monk's  neck; 
the  meat  fell  out  with  blood,  and  that  monk  died.  He 
was  remorseful.  ...     "...  defeat." 

At  one  time  while  a  certain  monk  was  eating,  some 
meat  stuck  in  his  throat.  A  certain  monk,  meaning 
to  cause  his  death,  gave  a  blow  to  that  monk's  neck. 

1  kale  drocite. 

2  mafjsa;  again  showing  that  the  monks  were  not  vegetarians. 
Cf.  above,  p.  98. 


140  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  80-81 

The  meat  fell  out  with  blood,  but  that  monk  did  not 
die.  He  was  remorseful.  ...  '^  There  is  no  offence 
involving  defeat,  monk;  there  is  a  grave  offence."  ||  5  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  who  was  on  his  alms- 
round,  receiving  poisoned  alms-food  and  bringing  it 
back,  on  his  return  gave  a  first-taste  to  the  monks. 
These  died.  He  was  remorseful.  ...  "Of  what  were 
you  thinking,  monk  ?"  he  said. 

"  I  did  not  know,  lord,"  he  said. 

''  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  since  you  did  not  know," 
he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  gave  poison  to  a  certain 
monk,  intending  to  test  it.  This  monk  died.  He  was 
remorseful.  ...  "  Of  what  were  you  thinking,  monk  ?" 
he  said. 

''  I  intended  to  test  it,  lord,"  he  said. 

"  There  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  monk;  there  is 
a  grave  offence,"  he  said.  ||  6 1| 

At  one  time  the  monks  of  Alavi  were  making  a  site 
for  a  vihara.  [80]  A  certain  monk  being  below,  lifted 
up  his  head,  and  a  stone  badly  held  by  a  monk  who 
was  above,  hit^  the  monk  who  was  below  on  the  head, 
and  that  monk  died.  He  was  remorseful.  .  .  .  "There 
is  no  offence,  monk,  as  it  was  unintentional,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  the  monks  of  Alavi  were  making  a  site 
for  a  vihara.  A  certain  monk  being  below,  lifted  up 
a  stone.  A  monk  who  was  above,  intending  to  kill 
the  one  who  was  below,  let  loose  the  stone  at  his  head. 
That  monk  died  .  .  .  that  monk  did  not  die.  He 
was  remorseful.  ...  "  There  is  no  offence  involving 
defeat,  monk;  there  is  a  grave  offence,"  he  said.  ||7  || 

At  one  time  the  monks  of  Alavi  were  erecting  a  walP 
for  the  vihara.     A  certain  monk,  being  below,  lifted 

1  avatthdsi,  cf.  above,  p.  137,  n.  4. 

^  Kudda.  At  Vin.  iv.  266  three  kinds  of  walls  are  mentioned: 
itthakd°  (of  tiles  or  bricks,  as  here),  sild°  (of  stones),  ddru°  (of  wood). 


III.  6,  8-11]  DEFEAT  I4I 

up  a  burnt  brick,  and  the  burnt  brick  being  badly  held 
by  a  monk  who  was  above,  fell  on  the  head  of  the  monk 
who  was  below.  He  died.  He  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 
"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  since  it  was  uninten- 
tional." 

At  one  time  the  monks  of  Alavi  were  erecting  a  wall 
for  the  vihara.  A  certain  monk,  being  below,  lifted 
up  a  burnt  brick.  A  monk  who  was  above,  intending 
to  cause  the  death  of  the  monk  who  was  below,  let  loose 
the  burnt  brick  at  his  head.  That  monk  died  .  .  . 
that  monk  did  not  die.  He  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 
"  There  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  monk,  but  there 
is  a  grave  offence."  ||  8  || 

At  one  time  the  monks  of  Alavi  were  making  repairs. 
A  certain  monk,  being  below,  lifted  up  an  adze.  The 
adze  being  badly  held  by  a  monk  who  was  above, 
fell  on  the  head  of  the  monk  who  was  below.  That 
monk  died.  He  was  remorseful.  ...  '*  There  is  no 
offence,  monk,  since  it  was  unintentional,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  the  monks  of  Alavi  were  making  repairs 
.  .  .  lifted  up  an  adze.  A  monk  who  was  above, 
meaning  to  cause  the  death  of  the  monk  who  was 
below,  let  loose  the  adze  at  his  head.  That  monk  died 
.  .  .  that  monk  did  not  die.  ...  He  was  remorse- 
ful. ...    "...  grave  offence,"  he  said.  ||  9  || 

At  one  time  the  monks  of  Alavi  were  making  repairs. 
A  certain  monk,  being  below,  lifted  up  a  beam.  The 
beam  being  badly  held  by  a  monk  who  was  above  .  .  . 
[three  cases  as  above)  ...  "...  grave  offence,"  he 
said.  II 10 II 

At  one  time  the  monks  of  Alavi,  making  repairs, 
were  fixing  up  a  platform.^  A  certain  monk  said  to 
another  monk:  "  Your  reverence,  fix  it  standing  here." 
He  stood  there  and,  in  fixing  it,  he  fell  down  and  died. 


^  Attaka.  VA.  466  calls  it  vehdsmnanca,  lit.  a  bed  above  the 
ground,  probably  a  platform  or  scaffold  up  a  tree,  such  as  hunters 
use.     It  is  the  diminutive  of  attay  a  watch-tower,  Vin.  iii.  200. 


142  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  82 

[81]  He  was  remorseful.  ...  "Of  what  were  you 
thinking,  monk  ?"  he  said. 

"  I  did  not  mean  to  cause  his  death,  lord,"  he  said. 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  since  you  did  not  mean 
to  cause  his  death,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  the  monks  of  Alavi,  making  repairs, 
were  fixing  up  a  platform:  A  certain  monk,  meaning 
to  cause  (his)  death,  said  to  another  monk:  "Your 
reverence,  fix  it  standing  here."  He  stood  there  and, 
in  fixing  it,  fell  down  and  died  .  .  .  fell  down  and  did 
not  die.  He  was  remorseful.  .  .  .  "  There  is  no  offence 
involving  defeat,  monk,  there  is  a  grave  offence,"  he 
said.  II 11 II 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  having  thatched  a 
vihara,  was  coming  down.  A  certain  monk  said  to 
that  monk:  "  Your  reverence,  come  down  here." 
Coming  down  at  that  place  and  faUing  down,  he  died. 
He  was  remorseful.  ...  "  There  is  no  offence,  monk, 
since  you  did  not  mean  to  cause  his  death,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  having  thatched  a 
vihara,  was  coming  down.  A  certain  monk,  meaning 
to  cause  his  death,  said  to  that  mpnk:  "  Your  reverence, 
come  down  here."  Coming  down  at  that  place,  he 
fell  down  and  died  .  .  .  fell  down  and  did  not  die.  .  .  . 
"  There  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  monk,  there  is 
a  grave  offence,"  he  said.  ||  12  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  tormented  by  chafing, 
having  scaled  the  Vulture's  Peak,  falling  down  the 
precipice,  and  hitting  a  certain  basket-maker  hard, 
killed  him.  He  was  remorseful.  ...  "  There  is  no 
offence  involving  defeat,  monk.  But,  monks,  one  should 
not  throw  oneself  off.  Whoever  shall  throw  (himself) 
off,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  the  group  of  six  monks,  having  scaled  the 
Vulture's  Peak,  threw  down  a  stone  in  fun.  Hitting  a 
certain    cowherd    (hard),  it^    killed   him.     They  were 

^  mdresum.  We  should  say  "  it  "  (the  stone),  but  the  Pali  regards 
the  men  as  the  agents  of  the  cowherd's  death. 


III.  6,  13-16]  DEFEAT  I43 

remorseful.  ...  "  There  is  no  offence  involving  defeat, 
monks.  But,  monks,  you  should  not  throw  down  a 
stone  in  fun.  Whoever  shall  so  throw  one  down,  there 
is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing,"  he  said.  ||  13  || 

At  one  time  a  Certain  monk  was  ill.  The  monks 
heated  him,  and  he  died.  They  were  remorseful.  .  .  . 
"  There  is  no  offence,  monks,  since  you  did  not  mean  to 
cause  his  death,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill.  The  monks 
heated  him,  meaning  to  cause  his  death.  This  monk 
died  .  .  .  this  monk  did  not  die.  They  were  remorse- 
ful. ...  "  There  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  monks, 
there  is  a  grave  offence,"  he  said.  ||  14 1| 

At  one  [82]  time  a  certain  monk  had  a  headache.^ 
The  monks  gave  him  medical  treatment  through  the 
nose.2  This  monk  died.  They  were  remorseful.  .  .  . 
"  There  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  monks,  since  you 
did  not  mean  to  cause  his  death,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  had  a  headache.  The 
monks,  meaning  to  cause  his  death,  gave  him  medical 
treatment  through  the  nose.  This  monk  died  .  .  .  did 
not  die.  They  were  remorseful.  ...  "  There  is  no 
offence  involving  defeat,  monks,  there  is  a  grave  offence," 
he  said.  ||  15  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill.  The  monks 
rubbed  him.  This  monk  died  .  .  .  {three  cases  as 
above).  ...     "  There  is  a  grave  offence,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill.  The  monks 
bathed  him.  This  monk  died  ...  "  There  is  a  grave 
offence,"  he  said. 


lit.   "  heat  in  the  head,"  cf.   Vin.  i.  204,  where 
Pilindavaccha  is  mentioned  as  suffering  this  aihnent. 

^  natthum  adamsu=naUhukamma  as  at  Vin.  i.  204.  DA.  i.  98, 
expl.  telam  yojetvd  n°  karanam.  At  D.  i.  12  this  treatment  is  in- 
cluded among  the  low  arts  by  which  some  samanas  and  brahmins 
earn  a  wrong  livelihood,  but  at  Vin.  i.  204  it  is  allowed  by  Gotama, 
with  details  of  how  best  to  apply  the  drug  to  be  taken  through  the 
nose.     Cf,  DhA.  i.  12. 


144  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  83-84 


At  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill.  The  monks 
anointed  him  with  oil.  This  monk  died.  ...  "  There 
is  a  grave  ojRFence,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill.  The  -monks 
made  him  get  up.^  This  monk  died.  ..."  There  is 
a  grave  offence,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill.  The  monks 
made  him  lie  down.  This  monk  died.  ...  "  There  is 
a  grave  offence,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill.  The  monks  gave 
him  food  .  .  .  they  gave  him  drink.  This  monk 
died.  ...     "  There  is  a  grave  offence,"  he  said.  ||16|| 

At  one  time  a  certain  woman  whose  husband  was 
living  away  from  home  became  with  child  by  a  lover. 
She  said  to  a  monk  who  was  dependent  for  alms  on 
(her)  family:  "  Look  here,  master,  find  me  an  abortive 
preparation." 

"  All  right,  sister,"  he  said,  and  he  gave  her  an 
abortive  preparation.  The  child  died.  He  was  re- 
morseful. .  .  .  "  You,  monk,  have  fallen  into  an  offence 
involving  defeat,"  he  said.  ||  17  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  man  had  two  wives:  one  was 
barren,  and  one  was  fertile.  The  barren  woman  said 
to  the  monk  who  was  dependent  for  alms  on  (her) 
family:  "If  she  should  bring  forth  (a  child),  honoured 
sir,  she  will  become  mistress  of  the  whole  establishment. 
Look  here,  master,  find  an  abortive  preparation  for 
her." 

"  All  right,  sister,"  he  said,  and  he  gave  her  an  abortive 
preparation.  The  child  died,  but  the  mother  did  not 
die.    He  was  remorseful.  ..."...  defeat,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  man  had  two  wives  ...  he 
gave  her  an  abortive  preparation.  The  mother  died, 
but  the  child  did  not  die.  He  was  remorseful  .  .  . 
"  There  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  monk,  [83]  there 
is  a  grave  offence,"  he  said. 

^  Or,  "  raised  him  "  (to  a  sitting  position). 


III.  6,  18-22]  DEFEAT  145 

At  one  time  a  certain  man  had  two  wives  ...  he 
gave  her  an  abortive  preparation.  Both  died  .  .  . 
neither  died.  He  was  remorseful.  ...  "  There  is  no 
offence  involving  defeat,  monk;  there  is  a  grave  offence," 
he  said.  ||  18  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  woman  who  was  pregnant, 
said  to  a  monk  who  was  dependent  for  alms  on  (her) 
family:  *'  Look  here,  master,  find  me  an  abortive  prepara- 
tion." 

"  Well  then,  destroy^  it,  sister,"  he  said.  She,  having 
destroyed  it,  caused  abortion.  He  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 
"...  defeat,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  woman  who  was  pregnant  .  .  . 
"  Well  then,  scorch  yourself,  sister,"  he  said.  She, 
scorching  herself,  caused  abortion.  He  was  remorse- 
ful. ...     ''  ,  .  ,  defeat,"  he  said.  ||  19  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  barren  woman  said  to  a  monk 
who  was  dependent  for  alms  on  (her)  family:  "  Look 
here,  master,  find  some  medicine  by  which  I  may  become 
fertile." 

"  All  right,  sister,"  he  said,  and  gave  her  some 
medicine.  She  died.  He  was  remorseful.  .  .  .  "There 
is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  monk;  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing,"  he  said.  ||  20  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  fertile  woman  said  to  a  monk 
who  was  dependent  for  alms  on  (her)  family:  "  Look 
here,  master,  find  some  medicine  by  which  I  may  not 
become  fertile." 

"  All  right,  sister,"  he  said  ..."  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing,"  he  said.  ||  21 1| 

At  one  time  the  group  of  six  monks  made  one  of  the 
group  of  seventeen  monks^  laugh  by  tickling  him  with 

^  maddassUy  crush,  bruise.     Cf.  J  a.  iii.  121. 

2  Cf.  Vin.  iv.  110,  where  this  story  also  appears;  tickling  with 
the  fingers  is  there  said  to  be  a  pacittiya  offence.  The  seventeen 
monks  are  also  mentioned  at  Fm.  iv.  41.  At  Vin,  i.  77=iv.  128,  the 
boy  Upali  is  said  to  have  seventeen  friends.     See  Intr.  p.  xxxvi,  n.  2. 

I.  10 


146  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  84 

their  fingers.  This  monk,  faint  and  unable  to  get  his 
breath,  died.  They  were  remorseful.  ...  *'  There  is 
no  offence  involving  defeat,  monks,"  he  said.  ||  22 1| 

At  one  time  the  group  of  seventeen  monks  said  to 
one  of  the  group  of  six  monks:  "  We  will  do  some  work,"^ 
and  treading  on  him,^  they  killed  him.  They  were  re- 
morseful. ...  ''  There  is  no  offence  involving  defeat, 
monks,"  he  said.  |i23|| 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  who  was  an  exorcist^ 
deprived  a  yakkha  of  life.  He  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 
'"  There  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  monk,  there  is 
a  grave  offence,"*  he  said.  ||  24 1| 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  sent  a  certain  monk  to 
a  vihara  inhabited  by  a  predatory  yakkha.^  The 
yakkhas  deprived  him  of  life.  He  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 
"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  as  you  did  not  mean  to 
cause  his  death,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  meaning  to  cause  his 
death,  sent  a  certain  monk  to  a  vihara  inhabited  by  a 
predatory    yakkha.     The    yakkhas    deprived    him    of 


1  kammam  karissdwa,  possibly  idiomatic,  '*  we  will  do  (for  him)," 
"  wc  will  have  some  fun." 

2  ottharitv(l~~alkan)itvcl,  VA.  475.     See  above,  p.  137. 

3  bhutavejjaka;  bhufavijjd  mentioned  at  D.  i.  9  as  a  "  low  art." 
Bhutavidyd  (trans,  by  R.  E.  Hume  as  "  Demonology  ")  also  occurs 
at  Chand.  7.2.1.==7.7.1. 

*  The  monk  learned  in  exorcism,  in  freeing  a  person  possessed  by 
a  yakkha  may  cut  off  a  clay  doll's  head;  then  the  yakkha  dies, 
killed  by  him.  But  he  may  kill  not  only  the  yakkha  but  Sakka, 
king  of  the  Devas;  therefore  it  is  a  grave  offence.  VA.  475.  At 
S.  i.  206  some  Sakka  is  called  a  yakkha.  K,S.  i.  263,  n.  3  says, 
*'  there  is  no  tradition,  revealed  in  the  Corny,  that  Sakka,  ruler 
of  the  Thirtyl -three]  Gods,  is  meant."  He  was  a  {eko)  yakkha 
belonging  to  Mara's  faction,  SA.  i.  302. 

^  vdUiyakkha.  VA.  475,  "  In  this  vihara  a  predatory  {vdla), 
fierce  yakkha  dwelt;  it  was  his  vihfira."  At  A.  iii.  256  vdlayakkhas 
are  said  to  l^e  one  of  the  five  dangers  of  Madhura.  Sec  G.S.  iii.  188, 
n.  3.  Mr.  E.  M.  Hare  translates  vdlayakkhd  as  "  bestial  yakkhas." 
Cf.  yakkha  eating  men  and  cattle  at  D.  ii.  346.  Term  may  mean 
"  yakkha  in  form  of  a  beast  of  prey." 


III.  5,  25-28]  DEFEAT  I47 

life  .  .  .  the  yakkhas  did  not  deprive  him  of  life.  .  .  . 
"  There  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  monk,  (but) 
there  is  a,grave  offence,"  he  said.  ||  25  ||  [84] 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  sent  a  certain  monk  to 
wilds  inhabited  by  beasts  of  prey^  ...  to  wilds  in- 
habited by  robbers.  The  beasts  of  prey  .  .  .  the 
robbers  .  .  .  deprived  him  of  life.  He  was  remorse- 
ful ..  .  {three  cases  each  time  as  above).  ...  "  There 
is  a  grave  offence,"  he  said.  ||  26  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  thinking  of  a  certain 
person,  deprived  him  of  life  .  .  .  thinking  of  a  certain 
person,  deprived  another  of  life  .  .  .  thinking  of  another, 
deprived  a  certain  person  of  life,  thinking  of  another, 
deprived  (that)  other  of  life.  He  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 
"...  defeat,"  he  said.  ||  27  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  seized  by  a  non- 
human  being. 2  A  certain  monk  gave  that  monk  a 
blow.*  He  died.  He  was  remorseful.  ...  "  There  is 
no  offence,  monk,  since  you  did  not  mean  to  cause  his 
death,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  seized  by  a  non- 
human  being.  A  certain  monk,  meaning  to  cause  his 
death,  gave  that  monk  a  blow.  That  monk  died  .  .  . 
that  monk  did  not  die.  He  was  remorseful.  .  .  . 
"  There  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  monk,  there  is 
a  grave  offence,"  he  said.  ||  28  || 


^  VA.  476:  "  In  all  of  these  wilds  there  are  beasts  of  prey  and 
snakes  ...  in  all  of  those  there  are  robbers."  Five  kinds  of 
wilds  (kantdra)  mentioned  at  J  a.  i.  99,  SA.  i.  324;  four  kinds  at 
Nd.  ii.  630. 

2  amanussena:  amanussa  is  a  yakkha,  a  spirit,  a  ghost.  At 
Vm.  i.  277  it  is  said  that  Kaka,  a  slave,  was  born  anuanussena. 
Word  occurs  at  D.  i.  116,  S.  i.  91,  and  also  above,  p.  74.  VA. 
298  says,  they  are  either  yakkhas  or  men  who,  having  departed, 
desire  to  return. 

3  VA,  476  "  saying,  *  I  will  drive  the  yakkha  away,'  he  gives  him 
(i.e.,  the  monk)  a  blow.  One  should  not  give  a  person  possessed 
by  a  yakkha  a  blow,  but  should  bind  a  palm-leaf  or  protecting 
thread  on  his  arm  or  leg." 


148  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  86-«6 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  gave  a  talk  about  heaven 
to  a  man  of  good  actions.  He  was  set  on  it/  and  died. 
He  was  remorseful.  ...  ''  There  is  no  offence,  monk, 
since  you  did  not  mean  to  cause  his  death,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  meaning  to  cause  his 
death,  gave  a  talk  about  heaven  to  a  man  of  good 
actions.  He  was  set  on  it,  and  died  ...  he  was  set  on 
it,  but  did  not  die.  ...  "  There  is  no  offence  involving 
defeat,  monk,  there  is  a  grave  offence,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  gave  a  talk  about  hell  to 
a  man  doomed  to  suffering  in  hell.  Being  terrified,  he 
died  .  .  .  (the  smne  three  cases)  ...  "  There  is  a  grave 
offence,"  he  said.  ||  29  || 

At  one  time  the  monks  of  Alavi  were  making  repairs 
and  felling  a  tree.  A  certain  monk  said  to  another 
monk:  "  Your  reverence,  fell  it  standing  here."  While 
he  was  standing  there  and  cutting  it,  the  tree  falling 
(over  him)  killed  him  .  .  .  {three  cases)  ..."  There 
is  a  grave  offence,"  he  said.  ||  30 1| 

At  one  time  the  group  of  six  monks  set  fire  to  a 
forest.  Some  men  were  burnt  and  died  .  .  .  (three 
cases)  ..."  There  is  a  grave  offence,"  he  said.  ||31 1|  [85] 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  having  gone  to  the  place 
of  execution,  said  to  the  executioner:  "  Reverend  sir, 
do  not  keep  him  in  misery.^  By  one  blow  deprive  him 
of  life."  .  . 

"  All  right,  honoured  sir,"  he  said,  and  by  one  blow 
he  deprived  him  of  life.  He  was  remorseful.  "  You, 
monk,  have  fallen  into  an  offence  involving  defeat," 
he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  having  gone  to  the  place 
of  execution,  said  to  the  executioner:  "  Reverend  sir, 
do  not  keep  him  in  misery.  By  one  blow  deprive  him 
of  life." 

^  adhimutto.     Tr.  Crit.  Pali  Diet.,  referring  to  this  passage  says, 
*'  impressed  with  the  idea."     Cf.  above,  p.  135. 
2  nid  yimam  kilatnesi. 


III.  5,  32-33]  DEFEAT  I49 

"  I  will  not  do  your  bidding,"  lie  said,  (but)  deprived 
him  of  life.  He  was  remorseful.  ...  "  Monk,  there 
is  no  oifence  involving  defeat,  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing,"^  he  said.  ||32|| 


At  one  time  a  certain  man  whose  hands  and  feet  had 
been  cut  off,  was  in  the  paternal  home  surrounded  by 
relations.  A  certain  monk  said  to  these  people, 
"  Reverend  sirs,  do  you  desire  his  death  V 

"  Indeed,  honoured  sir,  we  do  desire  it,"  they 
said. 

'*  Then  you  should  make  him  drink  buttermilk,"* 
he  said.  They  made  him  drink  buttermilk,  and  he  died. 
He  was  remorseful.  ...  "  You,  monk,  have  fallen 
into  an  offence  involving  defeat,"  he  said. 

At  one  time  a  certain  man  whose  hands  and  feet 
had  been  cut  off  was  in  a  clansman's  house,  surrounded 
by  relations.  A  certain  nun  said  to  these  people, 
"  Reverend  sirs,  do  you  desire  his  death  ?" 

"  Indeed,  madam,  we  do  desire  it,"  they  said. 

"  Then  you  should  make  him  drink  salted  sour 
gruel,"^  she  said.  They  made  him  drink  salted  sour 
gruel,  and  he  died.     She  was  remorseful.     Then  this 


*  Apparently  not  a  grave  offence  because  the  executioner  was  not 
influenced  by  the  monk's  words.  The  monk  only  transgressed  in 
uttering  the  words,  attempting  to  hasten  the  man's  death. 

*  takka.  VA.  478,  "  buttermilk  of  a  cow,  a  buffalo,  a  goat,  hot, 
cold,  flavoured  or  unflavoured."  At  Vin.  i.  244  it  is  included  in 
the  five  products  of  the  cow  {panca  gorasd). 

^  lonasumraka.  VA.  478,  "  a  medicine  made  of  all  tastes."  Bu. 
gives  a  long  description  of  the  things  mixed  together  to  form  it: 
various  kinds  of  myrobalan  (astringent  and  intoxicant),  all  the  seven 
grains  and  pulses,  gruel,  the  fruit  of  the  plantain,  and  all  fruits, 
the  jungle  creeper,  sprouts  of  various  trees,  fish  and  meat,  honey 
and  molasses,  rock-salt,  alkaline  and  bitter  medicines.  Then, 
letting  it  mature  for  two  or  three  years,  it  is  the  colour  of  the  juice 
of  the  rose-apple  and  is  good  for  various  diseases  (mentioned  here, 
cf.  also  A.  V.  110),  but  further  than  that  (ca  uttaram)  if  decaying,  it 
is  no  longer  a  medicine.  At  Vin.  i.  210  it  is  called  somraka:  here  the 
lord  allows  the  use  of  it  to  one  who  is  sick,  and  to  one  who  is  not  sick 
the  use  of  it  mixed  with  water  as  a  medicine. 


150  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  86 

nun  told  this  matter  to  the  nuns,  the  nuns  told  this 
matter  to  the  monks,  and  the  monks  told  this  matter 
to  the  lord.  He  said,  *'  Monks,  this  nun  has  fallen  into 
an  offence  involving  defeat."  ||  33  ||  5 1| 

Told  is  the  Third  Offence  involving  Defeat  [86] 


DEFEAT  (PARAJIKA)  IV 

At  one  time^  the  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  was  staying 
in  Vesali  in  the  pavilion  of  the  Gabled  Hall  in  the  Great 
Wood.  Now  at  that  time  many  monks  who  were  friends 
and  companions  went  for  the  rains  to  the  banks  of  the 
river  Vaggumuda.^  At  that  time  Vajji  was  short  of 
alms-food^  which  was  difficult  to  obtain;  it  was  suffering 
from  a  famine,  and  food-tickets  were  being  issued. 
Nor  was  it  easy  to  keep  oneself  going  by  gleaning  or  by 
favour.     Then  these  monks  said  to  one  another: 

"  At  present  Vajji  is  short  of  alms-food,  which  is 
difficult  to  obtain;  it  is  suffering  from  a  famine,  and 
food-tickets  are  being  issued.  Nor  is  it  easy  to  keep 
oneself  going  by  gleaning  or  by  favour.  What  now  if 
we,  by  some  stratagem,  and  all  together,  being  on 
friendly  terms  and  hannonious,  should  spend  a  com- 
fortable rainy  season  and  should  not  go  short  of  alms- 
food  ?" 

Some  spoke  thus:  "  Look,  your  reverences,  we  could 
superintend  the  business  of  householders,  thus  they  will 
think  to  give  to  us;  thus  we,  all  together,  being  on 
friendly  terms  and  harmonious,  will  spend  a  comfort- 
able rainy  season  and  will  not  go  short  of  alms-food." 

Some  spoke  thus:  "Enough,  your  reverences,  of 
superintending  the  business  of  householders.  Look, 
your  reverences,  we  will  execute  householders'  commis- 

^  From  here  to  towards  the  end  of  j|  2  |j  below,  cf.  Vin.  iv.  23-25, 
where  it  is  a  pacittiya  for  a  monk  to  tell  of  his  knowledge  of  condi- 
tions belonging  to  the  further-men,  even  if  he  possessed  this  know- 
ledge. If  he  does  not  }K)ssess  it,  it  is  a  parajika  offence  to  speak 
of  it,  as  here  at  Defeat  IV. 

2  Mentioned  at  Ud.  25;  it  is  also  here  said  that  some  monks  spent 
vassa  on  its  banks. 

3  Cf.  above,  Defeat  I.  2,  1 ;  5,  5. 

151 


152  BOOK  OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  87-88 

sions,^  thus  they  will  think  to  give  to  us;  thus  we, 
all  together,  being  on  friendly  terms  and  harmonious, 
will  spend  a  comfortable  rains  and  will  not  go  short  of 
alms-food." 

Some  spoke  .thus:  "Enough,  your  reverences,  of 
superintending  the  business  of  householders  and  ''of 
executing  householders'  commissions.  Look,  your 
reverences,  we  will  speak  praise  to  householders 
concerning  this  or  that  state  of  further-men,^  saying: 
'  Such  a  monk  is  possessed  of  the  first  musing,  such 
a  monk  is  possessed  of  the  second  musing,  such  a 
monk  is  possessed  of  the  third  musing,  such  a  monk  is 
possessed  of  the  fourth  musing,  such  a  monk  is  a  stream- 
attainer,  such  a  monk  is  a  once-returner,  such  a  monk  is 
a  non-returner,  such  a  monk  is  man  perfected,  such  a 
monk  is  a  three-fold  wisdom  man,^  such  a  monk  is  a 
sixfold  super-knowledge  man.'*  Thus  these  (house- 
holders) will  think  to  give  to  us;  thus  we,  all  together, 
[87]  being  on  friendly  terms  and  harmonious,  will  spend 
a  comfortable  rains  and  will  not  go  short  of  alms-food. 
Just  this  is  better,  your  reverences:  the  praise  spoken 
by  us  to  the  householders  concerning  this  or  that  state 
of  further-men." 

Then  these  monks  spoke  praise  to  the  householders 
concerning  this  or  that  state  of  further-men,  saying: 
"  Such  a  monk  is  possessed  of  the  first  musing  .  .  . 
such  a  monk  is  a  sixfold  super-knowledge  man." 
These  men  thought:  "We  have  gained,  surely  there  is 
a  profit  for  us  that  such  monks  have  come  for  the 
rains;   surely   such   monks   as   these  monks,   virtuous 

^  duteyyam  hardma. 

2  uttarimanussadhammuy  on  this  term,  see  Intr.,  xxiv/. 

3  tevijjo — i.e.f  he  has  knowledge  of  his  own  previous  rebirths,  of 
the  arising  and  passing  away  of  beings,  and  of  the  destruction  of 
the  cankers.  It  is  a  term  handed  down  from  the  Upanisads,  where 
it  meant  knowledge  of  the  three  Vedas. 

*  chalahhinno — i.e.,  psychic  power,  clairaudience,  knowledge  of 
the  thoughts  of  other  beings,  knowledge  of  previous  rebirths,  clair- 
voyance, and  knowledge  of  destruction  of  the  cankers.  Cf.  A,  iii. 
15;  D.  i.  77  £f.;  and  see  G.S.  iii.  Intr.  viii  for  these  being  originally 
five. 


IV.  1,  1-2]  DEFEAT  153 

and  of  good  character,  never  came  to  us  for  the  rains 
before."  Accordingly  these  did  not  on  their  own 
account  eat  soft  food — they  gave  not  to  parents,  they 
gave  not  to  wife  and  children,  they  gave  not  to  slave 
or  servant,  they  gave  not  to  friend  or  colleague,  they 
gave  not  to  blood-relations,  as  they  gave  to  the  monks. 
Accordingly  these  did  not  on  their  own  account  take^ 
savoury  hard  foods  or  drinks — they  gave  not  to 
parents,  they  gave  not  to  wife  and  children,  they  gave 
not  to  slave  or  servant,  they  gave  not  to  friend  or 
colleague,  they  gave  not  to  blood-relations,  as  they  gave 
to  the  monks.  Thus  these  monks  were  handsome,  of 
rounded  features,  their  complexions  bright,  their  skins 
clear.2  ||  1 1| 

Now  it  was  the  custom  for^  monks  who  had  finished 
keeping  the  rains  to  go  and  see  the  lord.  Then  these 
monks  who  had  finished  keeping  the  rains,  the  three 
months  having  elapsed,  packed  away  their  bedding,*  and 
taking  their  bowls  and  robes,  went  up  to  Vesali.  In 
the  course  of  time  they  came  up  to  Vesali,  the  Great 
Wood,  the  pavilion  of  the  Gabled  Hall,  and  to  the 
lord,  and  having  approached  the  lord  they  greeted  him 
and  sat  down  to  one  side.  At  that  time  the  monks 
who  had  spent  the  rains  in  those  regions  were  lean, 
wretched,    of    a    bad    colour,^    having    become    very 

*  khddaniydni  sdyaniydni  pdridni  attand  pivanti.  Vin.  iii.  272 
gives  v.l.  which  before  pivanti  inserts  khadanti  sdyantiy  so  that 
trans,  might  run  "  eat  hard  foods,  taste  savoury  foods  or  take  (drink) 
drinks." 

*  A  stock  phrase. 

3  For  the  beginning  of  this  par.  cf.  Vin.  i.  158. 

*  sendsanam  satnsdmetvd,  trans,  at  Vin.  Texts  i.  326,  "  set  their 
places  of  rest  in  order."  I  closely  follow  Chalmers'  "  packed  away 
their  bedding  "  at  Fur.  Di<il.  i.  104,  because  I  prefer  "  away  "  rather 
than  "  up  "  which  suggests  the  possibility  of  their  taking  their 
bedding  with  them  when  vassa  was  over.  "  Places  of  rest "  is,  I 
think,  misleading:  much  teaching  of  the  laity  went  on  during  vassa, 
which  could  therefore  only  be  regarded  as  a  time  of  leisure  in  so  far 
as  there  was  no  travelling  from  vihara  to  vihara. 

^  This  is  all  stock-phrase.  Dubbanna:  Chalmers  at  Fur.  Dial.  ii. 
65  trans.  "  ill-looking,"  while  at  Vin,  Texts  i.  186  it  is  trans. 
"  discoloured." 


154  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  88-89 

yellow,^  their  veins  standing  out  all  over  their  bodies,^ 
but  the  monks  from  the  banks  of  the  Vaggumuda  were 
handsome,  of  rounded  features,  their  complexions 
bright,  their  skins  clear.  It  was  the  custom  for  en- 
lightened ones,  for  lords,  to  exchange  friendly  greetings 
with  incoming  monks. ^  So  the  lord  said  to  the  monks 
from  the  banks  of  the  Vaggumuda: 

"  I  hope,  monks,  that  things  went  well  with  you,* 
I  hope  that  you  had  enough  to  support  your  life,  I  hope 
that,,  in  unity,  being  on  friendly  terms  and  harmonious, 
you  spent  a  comfortable  rainy  season  and  did  not  go 
short  of  alms-food  ?" 

"  Things  did  go  well  with  us,  lord,^  we  had  sufficient 
to  support  life,  lord,^  and  in  unity  we,  lord,^  being  on 
friendly  terms  and  harmonious,  spent  a  comfortable 
rainy  season  and  did  not  go  short  of  alms-food." 

Tathagatas  knowing  (sometimes)  ask;  [88]  knowing 
(sometimes)  do  not  ask  .  .  .  enlightened  ones,  lords, 
put  questions ,  to  the  monks  for  two  purposes,  saying : 
"  Shall  we  give  ^dhamma,  or  shall  we  make  known  the 
course  of  training  for  disciples  V"^  Then  the  lord  said 
to  the  monks  from  the  banks  of  the  Vaggumuda: 

"  In  what  way  did  you,  monks,  being  in  unity  and 
on  friendly  terms  and  harmonious,  spend  a  comfortable 
rainy  season  and  not  go  short  of  alms-food  ?"  Then 
these  monks  told  this  matter  to  the  lord. 

"  Indeed,  monks,  I  wonder  if  that  is  true  ?"^ 

"It  is  a  falsehood,  lord,"  they  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  them,  saying: 

"  It  is  unsuitable,  foolish  men,  it  is  not  becoming. 


1  uppand'^P'Pandukajdta,  Chalmers,  loc.  nit.,  "  jaundiced,"  and 
Vin.  Texts  i.  186,  "(  .  .  .  his  complexion  has  become)  more  and 
more  yellow." 

2  dhamanisanthatagatta,  Chalmers,  loc.  cit.,  "  their  veins  standing 
out  like  whipcord." 

3  =7*n.i.  59=212=253. 

4  =Vin.  i.  59=212=253.  Kacci  khamaniyam,  cf.  Vin.  i.  204-, 
205,  where  na  kkhamamyo  hoti  is  used  of  a  disease  which  had  not 
become  better. 

*  Bhagavd.  ®  Bhante. 

7  =Fiw.  i.  158=iii.  6.  ^  Kacci  pana  vo  bhfitan  ti. 


IV.  1,  2-3]  DEFEAT  155 

it  is  not  proper,  it  is  not  fitting  for  a  recluse,  it  is  un- 
lawful, it  is  not  to  be  done.  How  can  you,  foolish 
men,  for  the  sake  of  your  stomachs,  speak  praise  to 
householders  concerning  this  or  that  state  of  further- 
men  ?  It  would  be  better  for  you,  foolish  men,  that 
your  bellies  should  be  cut  open  with  a  sharp  butcher's 
knife,  than  that  you,  for  the  sake  of  your  stomachs, 
should  speak  praise  to  householders  concerning  this 
or  that  state  of  further-men.  What  is  the  cause  of 
this  ?  For  that  reason,  foolish  men,  you  may  incur 
death,  or  suffering  like  unto  death,  but  not  on  that 
account  would  you,  at  the  breaking  up  of  the  body  after 
death,  pass  to  the  waste,  the  bad  bourn,  the  abyss,  hell. 
But  for  this  reason,  foolish  men,  at  the  breaking  up 
of  the  body  after  death,  you  would  pass  to  the  waste, 
the  bad  bourn,  the  abyss,  hell.^  Foolish  men,  this  is 
not  for  the  benefit  of  non-believers  ..."  and  having 
thus  rebuked  them  and  given  dhamma  talk,  he  addressed 
the  monks:  ||2|| 

"  Monks,  there  are  these  five  great  thieves  to  be  found 
in  the  world. ^  What  are  the  five  ?  Monks,  here^  a 
certain  one  of  the  great  thieves  thought :  '  To  be  sure, 
will  I,  surrounded  by  a  hundred  or  by  a  thousand, 
wander  about  among  villages,  towns,  and  the  possessions 
of  kings,  slaying  and  causing  to  be  slain,  destroying 
and  causing  destruction,  tormenting  and  causing  tor- 
ment.' He,  in  the  course  of  time,  surrounded  by  a 
hundred  or  by  a  thousand  wanders  about  among 
villages,  towns,  and  the  possessions  of  kings,  slaying 
and  causing  to  be  slain,  destroying  and  causing  destruc- 
tion, tormenting  and  causing  torment.  Now  indeed, 
monks,  a  certain  depraved  monk  thought:  '  To  be  sure, 
I,  surrounded  by  a  hundred  or  by  a  thousand,  will 
make  an  alms-tour  among  villages,  towns  and  the  pos- 
sessions of  kings,  honoured,  respected,  revered,  wor- 
shipped, esteemed,  supported  by  householders,  by  those 

1  Of,  above,  p.  36.  2  cy  ^4  ^  153.  -  jgS. 


uj.  above,  p.  3D. 

idhd  ti  imasmiy  sattaloke,  VA.  482. 


156  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  8^-90 

who  have  gone  forth  into  homelessness,  and  by  the 
requisites  of  robes,  alms,  bedding  and  medicine.'  He, 
in  the  course  of  time,  surrounded  by  a  hundred,  by  a 
thousand,  made  an  alms-tour  among  villages,  towns  and 
the  possessions  of  kings,  honoured,  respected,  revered, 
worshipped,  [89]  esteemed,  supported  by  householders 
and  receiving  the  requisites  of  robes,  alms,  bedding 
and  medicine  for  those  who  go  forth  into  homelessness. 
This,  monks,  is  the  first  great  thief  found  existing  in 
the  world. 

Again,  monks,  here  a  certain  depraved  monk,  having 
mastered  thoroughly  dhamma  and  the  discipline  made 
known  by  the  tathagata,  takes  it  for  his  own.  This, 
monks,  is  the  second  great  thief  found  existing  in  the 
world. 

Again,  monks,  here  a  certain  depraved  monk,  blames 
a  follower  of  the  pure  Brahma-life,  one  leading  the 
absolutely  pure  Brahma-life,  for  an  unfounded  breach 
of  the  Brahma-life.^  This,  monks,  is  the  third  great 
thief  found  existing  in  the  world. 

Again,  monks,  a  certain  depraved  monk  favours 
and  cajoles  a  householder  on  account  of  those  things 
which  are  important  possessions  of  the  Order,  on  account 
of  those  things  which  are  its  important  requisites, 
that  is  to  say,  a  park,  a  site  for  a  park,  a  vihara,  a  site 
for  a  vihara,  a  couch,  a  chair,  a  bolster,  a  pillow,  a  brass 
vessel,  a  brass  jar,  a  brass  pot,  a  brass  receptacle,  a 
razor,  an  axe,  a  hatchet,  a  hoe,  a  spade,  a  creeper, 
bamboo,  muiija-grass,  babbaja-grass,  tina;:grass,  clay, 
woodeii  articles,  earthenware  articles.^  This,  monks, 
is  the  fourth  great  thief  found  existing  in  the  world. 

*  VA.  484  says,  suddhan  ca  hrahmacdrim  is  a  monk  whose  cankers 
are  destroyed.  Parisuddham  brahmacariyam  carantan  means  lead- 
the  best  (highest)  life  free  from  the  kilesas.  .  .  .  Amulakena 
abrahmacariyena  anuddhamseti,  means  he  censures  and  blames  this 
man  for  a  parajika  offence. 

2  At  Vin.  ii.  170  all  these  items  are  grouped  into  five  categories 
of  things  which  are  not  transferable  by  the  Order  or  by  a  group  or 
by  an  individual.  At  Vin.  ii.  122  a  brass  pot  is  one  of  the  three 
kinds  of  water- vessels  allowed.  At  Fm.  ii.  143  all  kinds  of  brass- 
ware  are  allowed  to  the  Order  except  weapons,  all  kinds  of  wooden 


IV.  1,  3]  DEFEAT  157 

Monks,  in  the  world  with  the  devas  and  including 
Mara,  including  the  Brahma- world,  including  recluses 
and  brahmins,  including  breathing  things,  including 
devas  and  men,  this  is  the  chief  great  thief:  he  who 
claims  a  non-existent^  state  of  further-men,  which  has 
not  become.2  What  is  the  reason  for  this?  Monks, 
you  have  eaten  the  country's  almsfood  by  theft." 

Whoever  should  declare  himself  otherwise,  otherwise 

than  he  is, 
Has  eaten  this  by  theft,  as  a  gambler  by  cheating, 
Many'  about  whose  neck  is  yellow  robe. 
Of  evil  qualities  and  uncontrolled. 
Wicked,  by  wicked  deeds,  in  hell  they're  born. 
Better  it  were  to  eat  an  iron  ball. 
Heated  and  like  a  (very)  sheaf  of  fire, 
Than  were  a  man  immoral,  uncontrolled. 
To  make  his  meals  off  (the  whole)  country's  alms. 

Then  the  lord  having  rebuked  in  various  ways  the 
monks  from  the  banks  of  the  Vaggumuda  that  they 
were  difficult  to  maintain,  difficult  to  support  .  .  . 
"...  And  thus,  monks,  this  course  of  training  should 
be  set  forth: 

Whatever  monk  should  boast,  with  reference  to  him- 
self, of  a  state  of  further-men,  sufficient  ariyan  knowledge 


articles  except  divans  {Vin.  i.  192),  long-armed  chairs  (Fm.  i. 
192),  bowls  {Vin.  ii.  112)  and  shoes  {Vin.  i.  188);  all  kinds  of 
earthenware  excej^t  katakas  (foot  scrubbers,  see  Vin.  Texts  iii. 
130,  n.  3),  and  large  earthen  vessels  to  be  used  as  huts  to  live  in. 
See  Vin.  Texts  iii.  156  for  these  references.  This  last  item  is  the 
only  one  not  mentioned  in  previous  rules.  At  Vin.  ii.  211  injunc- 
tions are  given  to  monks  setting  out  on  a  journey  as  to  what  to 
do  with  their  wooden  and  earthenware  articles.  At  Vin.  i.  190  it  is 
a  dukkata  offence  for  monks  to  make  foot  coverings  of  tina-,  munja- 
or  babbaja-grass. 

^  Asanta.  *  Ahhuta. 

3  From  here  to  end  of  vcTscs=Dhp.  307,  308=/^.,  p.  43=p.  90 
(last  three  lines  only  at  It.  90).  I  follow  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids'  trans, 
at  S.B.B.  vii. 


158  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  90-91 

and  insight,^  though  not  knowing  it  fully,  saying :  '  this 
I  know,  this  I  see  ' ;  then  not  long  afterwards,  he,  being 
pressed  or  not  being  pressed,  fallen,^  should  desire  to 
be  purified  and  should  say :  '  Your  reverence,  I  said  that 
I  know  what  I  do  not  know,  [90]  see  what  I  do  not  see, 
I  spoke  idly,  falsely,  vainly,'  then  he  also  is  one  who  is 
defeated,  he  is  not  in  communion." 

Thus  this  course  of  training  for  monks  was  made 
known  by  the  lord.  ||  3  fl  1 1| 


Now  at  that  time  a  great  company  of  monks,  thinking 
they  had  seen  what  they  had  not  seen,  attained  what 
they  had  not  attained,  found  what  they  had  not  found, 
realised  what  they  had  not  realised,  spoke  of  profound 
knowledge^  with  undue  estimate  of  themselves.*  Their 
heart,  not  long  afterwards,  yielded^  to  passion,  their 
heart  yielded  to  hatred,  their  heart  yielded  to  con- 
fusion. On  account  of  this  they  were  remorseful  and 
said : 

"  The  course  of  training  has  been  made  known  by 
the  lord,  and  we  thought  to  have  seen  what  we  did  not 
see  ...  and  spoke  with  undue  estimate  of  ourselves. 
What  now  if  we  have  fallen  into  an  offence  involving 
defeat  ?"  They  told  this  matter  to  the  venerable 
Ananda.  The  venerable  Ananda  told  this  matter  to 
the  lord.     He  said: 

"  Ananda,  these  are  monks  who  are  aware  of  the  seen 
in  the  unseen  ...  and  speak  of  profound  knowledge 

1  Alamariyandnadassana.  VA.  489  says  that  the  highest  ariyan 
purity  is  knowledge  and  insight.  Alay  is  expl.  pariyattay,  sufficient, 
enough,  so  that  alay  means  "  intent  on  enough  ariyan  knowledge  and 
insight  for  the  destruction  of  the  kilesas." 

2  A'panna,  cf.  below,  Old  Corny,  explanation,  p.  160,  and  VA.  492, 
"  because  he  has  fallen  (dfannto)  into  defeat,  therefore,  putting 
monkdom  to  one  side,  he  cannot  become  one  to  arrive  at  musing 
and  so  forth  " — musing,  etc.,  being  given  in  explanation  of  states 
of  further-men,  see  below,  p.  159. 

3  Anna.     Cf.  above,  p.  120,  n.  2. 

*  Adhimdna,  pride,  arrogance. 

*  Namatiy  intrans. ;  dttam  is  the  subject.     Cf.  S.  i.  137. 


IV.  2-3]  DEFEAT  159 

through  undue  estimate  of  themselves;  but  this  is 
negligible.^  And  thus,  monks,  this  course  of  training 
should  be  set  forth : 

Whatever  monk  should  boast,  with  reference  to  him- 
self of  a  state  of  further-men,  sufficient  ariyan  knowledge 
and  insight,  though  not  knowing  it  fully,  and  saying: 
'  This  I  know,  this  I  see,'  then  if  later  on,  he,  being 
pressed  or  not  being  pressed,  fallen,  should  desire  to 
be  purified,  and  should  say:  *  Your  reverence,  I  said  that 
I  know  what  I  do  not  know,  see  what  I  do  not  see,  I 
spoke  idly,  falsely,  vainly,'  apart  from  the  undue  estimate 
of  himself,  he  also  is  one  who  is  defeated,  he  is  not  in 
communion."  ||  2|| 

Not  knowing  fully  means:  not  knowing,  not  seeing  a 
good  state  in  the  self  as  non-existent,  not  fact,  not  to  be 
found  (yet)  he  says:  *  For  me  there  is  a  good  state.' 

A  state  of  further-men  means:  musing,  freedom,  con- 
centration, attainment,  knowledge  and  insight,  making 
the  Way  to  become,^  realisation  of  the  fruits,  destruc- 
tion of  the  corruptions,  delight  in  solitude  for  the  mind 
devoid  of  the  hindrances. 

With  reference  to  himself  means:  either  he  presents 
these  good  states  in  the  self,  or  he  presents  the  self 
among  these  good  states. 

Knowledge  means :  the  three  knowledges. 

Insight  means:  what  is  knowledge,  that  is  insight; 
what  is  insight,  that  is  knowledge.^  [91] 

Should  boast  of  means:  should  proclaim  to  a  woman 
or  to  a  man  or  to  a  householder  or  to  one  who  has  gone 
forth  into  homelessness. 

This  I  know,  this  I  see  means:  I  know  these  states, 

^  Tan  ca  kho  etam  ahhohdrikan  ti.  Same  phrase  occurs  again 
below,  p.  196.  Because  VA.  488  says  that  the  phrase  means  that 
"it  does  not  belong  to  the  business  and  is  not  a  form  of  offence", 
I  take  the  ti  after  abbohdrika  to  mean  that  the  phrase  was  uttered  by 
Gotama  and  not  by  the  monks.  The  word  seems  to  mean  "  not  to 
the  point,  irrelevant."     See  Pts.  Contr.,  p.  361,  n.  4. 

2  Maggabhdvand,  or  making  the  (four)  ways  (to  arahanship) 
become.     But  see  Old  Corny 's  definition,  below,  p.  161. 

3  Repeated  at  VA.  489. 


l6o  BOOK  OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  92 

I  see  these  states,  and  there  are  in  me  these  states, 
and  I  live  conformably  to  these  states. 

If  later  on  means:  in  the  moment  in  which  there  is 
an  occurrence,  at  that  moment,  that  second,  that  frac- 
tion of  time,  it  has  passed. 

Being  pressed  means:  when  a  matter  is  acknowledged, 
then  being  pressed  in  this  matter,  one  says:  '  What  was 
attained  by  you,  how  was  it  attained  by  you,  when  wab 
it  attained  by  you,  where  was  it  attained  by  you  ? 
How  many  corruptions  are  destroyed  by  you  ?  Of 
how  many  states  are  you  possessed  V 

Not  being  pressed  means:  nothing  being  said. 

Fallen  means:  one  who  has  evil  desires,  evil  longings, 
laying  claim  to  a  non-existent  state  of  further  men 
which  is  not  a  fact,  is  one  who  has  fallen  into  an 
offence  entailing  defeat. 

Should  desire  to  be  purified  means:  he  is  desirous  of 
being  a  householder  or  he  is  desirous  of  being  a  lay- 
follower  or  he  is  desirous  of  being  a  park-keeper  or  he 
is  desirous  of  being  a  probationer.^ 

Your  reverence,  I  said  that  I  know  what  I  do  not  know, 
see  what  I  do  not  see,  (but)  I  do  not  know  these  states, 
I  do  not  see  these  states,  and  in  me  there  are  not  these 
states,  nor  do  I  live  conformably  with  these  states. 

/  spoke  idly,  falsely,  vainly,  means:  emptiness  was 
spoken  by  me,  a  lie  was  spoken  by  me,  a  falsehood^  was 
spoken  by  me,  it  was  spoken  by  me  not  knowing. 

Apart  from  an  undue  estimate  of  himself  raesms:  setting 
aside  an  undue  estimate  of  oneself. 

He  also  means:  is  called  so,  referring  to  the 
preceding. 

Is  one  who  is  defeated  means:  just  as  a  palmyra  tree 
cut  off  at  the  crown  cannot  become  one^  for  new  growth, 

^  VA.  492  says,  "  Inasmuch  as  being  a  house-man,  a  lay-follower, 
a  park-keeper,  or  a  probationer  he  is  able  (hhabha)  to  set  going  the 
way  to  heaven  through  giving,  the  refuges,  morality  and  the 
restraints,  or  the  way  to  freedom  through  musing  and  freedom, 
therefore  the  state  of  a  householder  and  so  on  is  called  pure ;  therefore 
desiring  this  purity,  he  is  said  to  be  one  desiring  purity." 

*  Abhuta,  something  that  has  not  become.  '  abhabba. 


IV.  3—4,  1]  DEFEAT  l6l 

SO  a  monk  with  evil  intentions,  claiming  a  non-existent 
state  of  further-men  which  is  not  a  fact,  is  not  a  (true) 
recluse,  not  a  (true)  son  of  the  Sakyans^ — therefore  he 
is  called  one  who  is  defeated. 

He  is  not  in  comn  union  means:  communion  is  called 
one  work,  one  rule,  an  equal  training — this  is  called 
conMnunion.  He*  who  is  not  together  with  this  is  there- 
fore called  not  in  communion.  ||3|| 

A  state  of  further-men^  means:  musing,  freedom,  con- 
centration, attainment,  knowledge  and  insight,  making 
the  Way  to  become,  realisation  of  the  fruits,  destruction 
of  the  corruptions,  delight  in  solitude  for  the  mind 
devoid  of  the  hindrances. 

Musing  means:  the  first  musing,  the  second  musing, 
the  third  musing,  the  fourth  musing. 

Freedom  means:  void  freedom,  signless  freedom, 
freedom  in  which  there  is  no  hankering.^  [92] 

Concentration  means:  void  concentration,  signless 
concentration,  concentration  in  which  there  is  no 
hankering.* 

Attainment  means:  void  attainment,  signless  attain- 
ment, attainment  in  which  there  is  no  hankering. 

Knotvledge  means:  the  three  knowledges.^ 

Making  the  Way  to  become  means:  the  four  presences 
of  mindfulness,  the  four  right  efforts,  the  four  bases  of 

1  Cf.  Vin.  i.  97,  where  it  is  also  said  that  the  mouk  is  not  eveu 
to  say  that  he  delights  in  solitude, 

2  This  definition^that  given  above,  p.  159.  From  here  to  end  of 
i!l|!  below=Fm.  iv.  25-26. 

3  VA,  493  says  that  void  means  void  of  passion,  hatred  and 
confusion.  "  Signless  "  and  "  in  which  there  is  no  hankering  "  are 
also  explained  with  reference  to  these  three.  At  Pts.  ii.  35  the 
long  homily  begins:  "  Monks,  there  are  these  three  kinds  of  freedom: 
that  of  the  void,  that  of  the  signless,  that  in  which  there  is  no 
hankering."  Cf.  S.  iv.  295  (where  appanihita  is  trans,  "aimless  ") 
Cf.  Vism.  658,  Asl.  223,  where  in  the  trans,  appanihita  is 
rendered  "  unhankered  "  and  "  undesired "  respectively.  At 
Miln.  333,  337  the  trans,  is  given  as  "  the  freedom  (or  concentration) 
in  which  no  low  aspirations  remain."  In  trans,  of  Dhs.  351,  507  ff. 
aptpanihita  is  rendered  "  unaimed  at." 

*  Cf.  S.  iv.  360.  5  .=above,  p.  159. 

I.  11 


l62  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  98 

psychic  potencies,  the  five  faculties,  the  five  powers, 
tlie  seven  things  helpful  to  enlightenment,  the  noble 
eightfold  Way.i 

Realisation  of  the  fruits  means:  realisation  of  the  fruit 
of  stream-attainment,  realisation  of  the  fruit  of  once- 
returning,  realisation  of  the  fruit  of  no-return,  realisa- 
tion of  the  fruit  of  perfection. 

Destruction  of  the  corrwptimis  means:  the  destruct'on 
of  passion,  the  destruction  of  hatred,  the  destruction 
of  confusion. 2 

For  the  mind  devoid  of  hindrances  means:  the  mind 
devoid  of  the  hindrance  of  passion,  the  mind  devoid  of 
the  hindrance  of  hatred,  the  mind  devoid  of  the  hindrance 
of  confusion. 

Delight  in  solitude  means:  during  the  first  musing 
there  is  delight  in  solitude,  during  the  second  musing 
.  .  .  during  the  third  musing  .  .  .  during  the  fourth 
musing  there  is  delight  in  solitude.  ||  1 1| 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  that,  "  In  three  ways  may  I  enter  upon 
the  first  musing  ":  before  he  has  lied  he  knows,  "  I  am 
going  to  lie";  while  lying  he  knows,  "  I  am  lying"; 
having  lied  he  knows,  "  I  lied."^ 

There  is  an  oifence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  that,  "In  four  ways  may  I  enter  upon 
the  first  musing":  before  he  has  lied  he  knows,  ''I 
am  going  to  lie  ";  while  lying  he  knows,  "  I  am  lying  "; 

1  This  is  the  usual  order  in  which  these  thirty-seven  things 
helpful  to  enlightenment,  as  they  are  called  in  the  Corny s.,  appear. 
But  another  order  is  sometimes  given.  See  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids, 
Sahja  395  and  K.S.  V.,  vi.  ff. 

2  Cf.  S.  iv.  251,  where  the  definition  of  nibbdna  is  rdgaJckhaya, 
dosakkhaya,  mohakkhaya  (instead  of  pahdna,  as  above)=/S.  iv.  252 
in  definition  of  arahatta.  VA.  494  says,  "  passion  and  hatred  are 
destroyed  by  the  third  Way,  confusion  by  the  fourth  Way." 

3  Here  arc  three  tenses  of  the  verb  bhanati :  bhanissam,  bhandmi, 
bhamlam.  Cf.  Vin.  iv.  2  if.  to  end  of  j|  2  ||  below.  Cf.  M.  i.  414 
where  Gotama  speaks  to  Rahula  on  "  conscious  lying."  This 
Rahulovada  is  famous  as  being  alluded  to  in  an  Asoka  Edict;  see 
Hultzsch,  Corpus  Jnscriptionuni  Indicarum,  vol.  i.,  1925,  pp.  172, 173. 


IV.  4,  2-4]  DEFEAT  163 

having  lied  he  knows,  "  I  lied,"  so  misrepresenting  his 
opinion. 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  that,  "  In  five  ways  may  I  enter  upon  the 
first  musing  ":  before  he  has  lied  ...  so  misrepresent- 
ing his  opinion,  so  misrepresenting  his  approval. 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  that,  "  In  six  ways  may  I  enter  upon  the 
first  musing  ":  before  he  has  lied  ...  so  misrepresent- 
ing his  opinion,  so  misrepresenting  his  approval,  so  mis- 
representing his  pleasure. 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  that,  "  In  seven  ways  may  I  enter  upon 
the  first  musing  "  .  .  .so  misrepresenting  his  opinion, 
so  misrepresenting  his  approval,  so  misrepresenting  his 
pleasure,  so  misrepresenting  his  intention.^  ||  2  || 

There  is  an  offence  .  .  .  "In  three  ways  do  I  enter  upon  the 
first  musing  "...  wrongly  representing  his  intention. 

There  is  an  offence  .  .  .  "In  three  ways  did  I  enter  upon 
the  first  musing  "...  wrongly  representing  his  intention. 

There  is  an  offence  ...  'In  three  ways  am  I  possessed  of  the 
first  musing  "...  wrongly  representing  his  intention. 

There  is  an  offence  .  .  .  "In  three  ways  am  I  master  of  the 
first  musing  "...  wrongly  representing  his  intention.     [93] 

There  is  an  offence  ,  .  .  "In  three  ways  is  the  first  musing 
realised  by  me  "  .  .  .  wrongly  representing  his  intention.  ||  3  |! 

There  is  an  offence  .  .  .  "In  three  ways  will  I  enter  upon  the 
second  .  .  .  the  third  .  .  .  the  fourth  musing  ...     In  three 

1  These  four  psychological  modalities  are  added  to  the  three 
tenses  of  the  verb  bhanati.  They  are  ditthiy  khanti,  ruci,  bhdva, 
which  I  have  trans,  as  opinion,  approval,  pleasure,  intention,  re- 
spectively. They  are,  as  it  were,  added  on  to  the  three  modes  of 
the  verb,  thus  making  seven  constituents.  Bu.  at  VA.  400  points 
out  a  contradiction  in  the  Parivara  {Vin.  v.  136),  which  attributes 
eight  arigd  (lit.  limbs,  thus  constituents)  to  a  lie,  for  it  adds  {vini- 
dhdya-)  sannam,  knowledge,  to  the  above  seven.  These  expressions 
also  occur  at  Vm.  ii.  295;  iv.  2  ff.  Cf.  also  Vbh.  245  where  these 
with  dddya,  a  casually  taken-up  belief  {cf.  Vin.  i.  70),  instead  of 
bhdva  are  given  in  definition  of  idha,  here,  now.  And  cf.  Nd.  i.  64  f. 
where  laddki,  a  religious  belief,  view,  especially  an  heretical  view, 
is  substituted  for  bhdva.  Three  of  these  terms  occur  below  at 
p.  305. 


164  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  04 

ways  do  I  enter  upon  .  .  .  did  I  enter  upon  ...  am  I  possessed 
of  the  fourth  musing  .  .  .  am  I  master  of  the  fourth  musing 
...  is  the  fourth  musing  realised  by  me."  ...  As  this  first 
musing  has  been  explained  in  detail  so  should  they  all  be  explained 
in  detail.  ||  4  i| 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  He  that,  "  In  three  ways  will  I  enter  upon  the 
void  freedom,  the  signless  freedom,^  the  freedom  in 
which  there  is  no  hankering."  ...  "In  three  ways  do 
I  .  .  .  did  I  enter  upon  .  .  .  am  I  possessed  of  .  .  . 
am  I  master  of  ...  is  the  freedom  in  which  there  is 
no  hankering  realised  by  me."  .  .  . 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  that,  ''  In  three  ways  will  I  enter  upon  the 
void  concentration,  the  signless  concentration,  the  con- 
centration in  which  there  is  no  hankering  ...  do  I 
enter  upon  .  .  .  did  I  enter  upon  .  .  .  am  I  possessed 
of  .  .  .  am  I  master  of  ...  is  the  concentration  in 
which  there  is  no  hankering  realised  by  me."  .  .  . 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  that,  ''  In  three  ways  will  I  enter  upon 
the  void  attainment^  .  .  .  the  signless  attainment  .  .  . 
the  attainment  in  which  there  is  no  hankering  ...  do 
I  enter  .  .  .  did  I  enter  .  .  .  am  I  possessed  of  .  .  . 
am  I  master  of  ...  is  the  attainment  in  which  there 
is  no  hankering  realised  by  me." 

.  .  .  "In  three  ways  will  I  enter  upon  the  threefold 
knowledge  ...  is  the  threefold  knowledge  realised  by 
me."  .  .  . 

.  .  .  "In  three  ways  will  I  enter  upon  the  four 
presences  of  mindfulness  .  .  .  the  four  right  efforts  .  .  . 
the  four  bases  of  psychic  potency  .  .  .  the  five  faculties 
.  .  .  the  five  powers  .  .  .  the  seven  things  helpful  to 
enlightenment  .  .  .  the  noble  eightfold  Way  ...  is 
the  noble  eightfold  Way  realised  by  me." 

.  .  .  "In  three  ways  will  I  enter  upon  the  fruit  of 
stream-attainment  .  .  .  the  fruit  of  once-returning  .  .  . 


1  See  above,  p.  161. 

2  0/  Fm.  iv.  26  ff. 


IV.  4,  5-6]  DEFEAT  165 

the  fruit  of  non-return  .  .  .  perfection  ...  is  perfec- 
tion realised  by  me."  [94] 

.  .  .  "In  three  ways  is  passion  given  up  by  me,  is 
passion  renounced  by  me,  is  passion  sacrificed  by  me, 
is  passion  destroyed  by  me,  is  passion  forsaken  by  me, 
is  passion  thrown  aside  by  me,  is  passion  rejected  by 
me." 

.  .  .  *'  In  three  ways  is  my  heart  devoid  of  the 
hindrance  of  passion  ...  of  the  hindrance  of  hatred 
...  of  the  hindrance  of  confusion  ..."  before  he  has 
lied  he  knows  ...  so  wrongly  representing  his  inten- 
tion. 

Told  is  that  connected  with  purity  ||  5  || 

There  is  an  oiFence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the  conscious 
lie  that,  "  In  three  ways  will  I  attain  the  first  musing  and  the 
second  musing  .  .  .  have  been  realised  by  me." 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the  conscious 
lie  that,  "  In  three  ways  will  I  attain  the  first  musing  and  the 
third  musing  .  .  .  will  I  attain  the  first  musing  and  the  fourth 
musing  .  .  .  will  I  attain  the  first  musing  and  the  void  freedom 
.  .  .  the  first  musing  and  the  signless  freedom  .  .  .  the  first 
musing  and  the  freedom  which  is  without  hankering  .  .  .  the 
first  musing  and  the  void  concentration  .  .  .  the  first  musing 
and  the  signless  concentration  .  .  .  the  first  musing  and  the 
concentration  which  is  without  hankering  .  .  .  the  first  musing 
and  the  void  attainment  .  .  .  the  first  musing  and  the  signless 
attainment  .  .  .  the  first  musing  and  the  attainment  which  is 
without  hankering  .  .  .  the  first  musing  and  the  threefold 
wisdom  .  .  .  the  first  musing  and  the  four  presences  of  mind- 
fulness .  .  .  the  first  musing  and  the  four  right  efforts  .  .  . 
the  first  musing  and  the  four  bases  of  psychic  potency  .  .  .  the 
first  musing  and  the  five  faculties  .  .  .  the  first  musing  and  the 
five  [95]  powers  .  .  .  the  first  musing  and  the  seven  things 
helpful  to  enlightenment  .  .  .  the  first  musing  and  the  noble 
eightfold  way  .  .  .  the  first  musing  and  the  fruit  of  stream- 
attainment  .  .  .  the  first  musing  and  the  fruit  of  once-returning 
.  .  .  the  first  musing  and  the  fruit  of  no-return  .  .  .  the  first 
musing  and  perfection  .  .  .  will  I  enter  upon  the  first  musing 
'with  passion  given  up  by  me  .  .  .  with  passion  renounced  by 
me  .  .  .  sacrificed  .  .  .  destroyed  .  .  .  forsaken  .  .  .  thrown 
aside  .  .  .  rejected  by  me." 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the  conscious 
lie  that,  "  In  three  ways  do  I  enter  upon  .  .  .  did  I  enter  upon 


l66  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  96-97 

the  first  musing  .  .  .  and  I  am  possessed  of  the  first  musing 
...  I  am  master  of  the  first  musing  ...  is  the  first  musing 
realised  by  me  and  passion  is  given  up  by  me  .  .  .  and  hatred 
is  given  up  by  me  .  .  .  and  confusion  is  given  up  by  me  .  .  . 
and  the  first  musing  is  realised  by  me  and  my  heart  is  devoid 
of  the  hindrance  of  passion  .  .  .  my  heart  is  devoid  of  the 
hindrance  of  hatred  .  .  .  my  heart  is  devoid  of  the  hindrance 
of  confusion." 

Told  is  a  portion  of  tbe  series  ||  6  || 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the  conscious 
lie  that,  "  In  three  ways  will  I  enter  upon  the  second  musing 
and  the  third  musing  .  .  .  upon  the  second  musing  and  upon 
the  fourth  musing  .  .  .  and  my  heart  is  devoid  of  the  hindrance 
of  confusion." 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the  conscious 
lie  that,  "  In  three  ways  will  I  enter  upon  the  second  musing  and 
the  first  musing  .  .  .  is  it  realised  by  me.  ..." 

Told  is  the  contracted  series  ||  7  || 

So  one  by  one  with  the  exception  of  the  first  members 
should  the  contracted  series  which  has  been  recited  be 
treated. 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  that,  *'  In  three  ways  is  my  heart  devoid 
of  the  hindrance  of  confusion  and  I  will  enter  upon  the 
first  musing  .  .  .  and  the  second  musing  .  .  .  and  the 
third  musing  .  .  .  and  the  fourth  musing  .  .  .  has  been 
realised  by  me  ...  in  three  ways  is  my  heart  devoid 
of  the  hindrance  of  confusion  [96]  and  I  will  enter  upon 
the  void  freedom  ...  is  my  heart  devoid  of  the 
hindrance  of  confusion  and  is  my  heart  devoid  of  the 
hindrance  of  hatred  ... 

Beginning  with  one  ||  8  || 

Beginning  with  two  and  beginning  with  three  and  be- 
ginning with  four  and  beginning  with  five  and  beginning 
with  six  and  beginning  with  seven  and  beginning  with 
eight  and  beginning  with  nine  and  beginning  with  ten 
should  be  explained  in  detail  like  that  beginning  with 
one.     This  is  that  beginning  with  all: 


IV.  4,  9-5,  1]  DEFEAT  167 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  that,  "  In  three  ways  will  I  ...  do  I 
.  .  .  did  I  enter  upon  the  first  musing  and  the  second 
musing  and  the  third  musing  and  the  fourth  musing 
and  the  void  freedom  and  the  signless  freedom  and  the 
freedom  in  which  there  is  no  hankering  and  the  void 
concentration  and  the  signless  concentration  and  the 
concentration  in  which  there  is  no  hankering  and  the 
void  attainment  and  the  signless  attainment  and  the 
attainment  in  which  there  is  no  hankering  and  the 
threefold  knowledge  and  the  four  presences  of  mind- 
fulness and  the  four  right  efforts  and  the  four  bases  of 
psychic  potency  and  the  five .  faculties  and  the  five 
powers  and  the  seven  things  helpful  to  enlightenment 
and  the  noble  eightfold  Way  and  the  fruit  of  stream- 
attainment  and  the  fruit  of  once-returning  and  the  fruit 
of  non-return  and  perfection,  and  with  passion  given 
up  by  me  .  .  .  hatred  given  up  by  me  .  .  .  confusion 
given  up  by  me,  renounced,  sacrificed,  destroyed,  for- 
saken, thrown  aside,  rejected,  and  my  heart  devoid  of 
the  hindrance  of  passion  and  .  .  .  devoid  of  the 
hindrance  of  hatred  and  .  .  .  devoid  of  the  hindrance 
of  confusion,"  if  before  he  has  lied  he  knows,  "  I  am 
going  to  lie";  while  lying  he  knows,  '*  I  am  lying"; 
having  lied  he  knows,  "I  lied,"  so  giving  a  misrepre- 
sentation of  his  opinion,  a  misrepresentation  of  his 
approval,  a  misrepresentation  of  his  pleasure,  a  misrepre- 
sentation of  his  intention. 

Told  is  that  beginning  with  all  ||  9  !|  4  || 


There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  that,  "  In  three  ways  may  I  enter  upon 
the  first  musing,"  and  for  acknowledging  this,  if  he  is 
desirous  of  saying,^  "  I  may  attain  the  second  musing  " 

^  vattukdma,  cf.  Vism.  622=VbhA.  130.  Oldenberg  says,  Vin.  iii. 
272,  "  the  MSS.  constantly  read  vatthukamo,  vatthuvisarakaa^a  " 
(below).  "  I  have  no  doubt  that  I  was  right  in  correcting  vattnk**, 
vattuv°."     This  is  borne  out  by  VA.  500  f. 


l68  BOOK   OF  THE    DISCIPLINE  [97-98 

— but  if  he  docs  not  acknowledge  it  there  is  a  grave 
offence. 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  that,  "  In  three  ways  may  I  enter  upon 
the  first  musing,"  and  for  acknowledging  this  if  he  is 
desirous  of  saying,  "  I  may  enter  upon  the  third  musing 
.  .  .  the  fourth  musing  " — but  if  he  does  not  acknow- 
ledge it  there  is  a  grave  offence. 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  that,  "  In  three  ways  may  I  enter  upon 
the  first  musing  "  and  for  acknowledging  this,  if  he  is 
desirous  of  saying,  "  My  mind  is  devoid  of  the  hindrance 
of  confusion " — but  if  he  does  not  acknowledge  it 
there  is  a  grave  offence:  before  he  has  lied  he  knows, 
"  I  am  going  to  lie  "  .  .  .  having  lied  he  knows,  "  I 
lied,"  so  misrepresenting  his  opinion  ...  his  intention. 

Portion  of  the  series  of  the  expanded  talk  on  that 
beginning  with  one  ||  1 1|  [97] 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telHng  the  conscious 
lie  that,  "  In  three  ways  may  I  enter  upon  the  second  musing," 
and  for  acknowledging  this,  if  he  is  desirous  of  saying,  "  I  may 
enter  upon  the  third  musing  .  .  .  the  first  musing  .  .  .  "  .  .  . 
but  if  he  does  not  acknowledge  it  there  is  a  grave  offence  .  .  . 

Concise  statement  of  the  contracted  series  of  the 
expanded  talk  for  that  beginning  with  one  ||  2 1| 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  that,  "  In  three  ways  is  my  heart  devoid 
of  the  hindrance  of  confusion  "  and  for  acknowledging 
it,  if  he  is  desirous  of  saying,  "  I  may  enter  upon  the 
first  musing  ..."  .  .  .  a  grave  offence  .  .  . 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  that,  '*  In  three  ways  will  my  heart  be 
devoid  of  the  hindrance  of  hatred,"  and  for  acknowledging 
it,  if  he  is  desirous  of  saying,  ''  .  .  .  but  if  he  does  not 
acknowledge  it  there  is  a  grave  offence." 

Told  is  the  expanded  talk  on  that  beginning  with 

one  II 3  II 


IV.  5,  4]  DEFEAT  169 

That  beginning  with  two  and  that  beginning  with 
three  and  .  •  •  that  beginning  with  ten  should  be 
treated  in  the  same  way.  This  is  that  beginning  with 
all : 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  and  acknowledging  it,  that,  "In  three 
ways  may  I  enter  upon  the  first  musing,"  if  he  is  desirous 
of  saying,  "...  my  heart  is  devoid  of  the  hindrance 
of  confusion  " — ^there  is  a  grave  offence  for  not  acknow- 
ledging it. 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the 
conscious  lie  and  acknowledging  it,  that,  "  In  three 
ways  may  I  enter  upon  the  second  musing  and  the  third 
musing  and  the  fourth  musing  and  the  freedom  which 
is  void  .  .  .  and  perfection,  with  passion  given  up  by 
me,  renounced  by  me,  sacrificed,  destroyed,  forsaken, 
thrown  aside,  rejected,  and  with  hatred  given  up  by 
me  .  .  .  and  with  confusion  given  up  by  me  .  .  .  and 
with  my  heart  devoid  of  the  hindrance  of  passion  .  .  . 
and  of  the  hindrance  of  hatred  .  .  .  and  of  the  hindrance 
of  confusion,"  if  he  is  desirous  of  saying,  "  I  may  enter 
upon  the  first  musing  " — ^but  there  is  a  grave  offence  if 
he  does  not  acknowledge  it  .  .  . 

There  is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telling  the  conscious 
lie  and  acknowledging  it,  that,  "  In  three  ways  may  I  enter 
upon  the  third  musing  and  the  fourth  musing  .  .  .  with  my 
heart  devoid  of  the  hindrance  of  confusion  and  I  may  enter  upon 
the  first  musing,"  if  he  is  desirous  of  saying,  "  I  may  enter 
upon  the  second  musing  "...  a  grave  offence.  .  .  .  There 
is  an  offence  involving  defeat  for  telHng  the  conscious  lie  and 
acknowledging  it,  that,  "  In  three  ways  is  my  heart  devoid  of 
the  hindrance  of  confusion  and  I  may  enter  upon  the  first  musing 
and  the  second  musing  and  the  third  musing  and  the  fourth 
musing  .  .  .  andmy  heart  is  devoid  of  the  hindrance  of  passion," 
if  he  is  desirous  of  saying,  "  My  heart  is  devoid  of  the  hindrance 
of  hatred  " — but  if  he  does  not  acknowledge  it  there  is  a  grave 
offence.  ... 

The  expanded  talk  on  that  beginning  with  all.     Told 
is  the  abbreviated  series  of  the  expanded  talk 
II 4 II 5 11  [98] 


170  BOOK   OF  THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  99 

There  is  a  grave  offence  for  telling  the  conscious  lie 
that,  "  In  three  ways  may  the  monk  who  lives  in  a 
vihSra  enter  upon  the  first  musing  .  .  .  does  he  enter 
upon  .  .  .  did  he  enter  upon  .  .  .  that  monk  is  pos- 
sessed of  the  first  musing  ...  is  master  of  the  first 
musing  .  .  .  the  first  musing  has  been  realised  by  that 
monk  "  and  for  acknowledging  this — but  there  is  an 
offence  of  wrong-doing  for  not  acknowledging  it.  It  is 
that:  before  he  Tied  he  knew,  "  I  am  going  to  lie  ";  .  .  . 
misrepresenting  his  intention. 

There  is  a  grave  offence  ..."  The  monk  who  lives 
in  this  vihara  may  enter  upon  the  second  musing  ... 
the  third  musing  .  .  .  the  fourth  musing  .  .  .  perfec- 
tion .  .  .  does  enter  upon  ...  is  realised  by  him '' 
...  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

There  is  a  grave  offence  ..."  Passion  is  given  up 
by  that  monk  .  .  .  hatred  is  given  up  by  that  monk 
.  .  ..confusion  is  given  up  by  that  monk  .  .  .  that 
monk's  hear,t  is  devoid  of  the  hindrance  of  passion  .  .  . 
of  hatred  ...  of  confusion  ..."...  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing. 

There  is  a  grave  offence  ..."  The  monk  who  lives 
in  that  vihara  may  enter  upon  the  first  musing  in  soli- 
tude .  .  .  the  second  musing  in  solitude  .  .  .  the  third 
musing  in  solitude  .  .  .  the  fourth  musing  in  solitude 
.  .  .  does  enter  upon  .  .  .  entered  upon  .  .  .  that  monk 
is  possessed  of  the  fourth  musing  in  solitude  ...  is 
masjber  of  .  .  .  the  fourth  musing  has  been  realised  by 
that  monk  in  solitude  ..."...  an  offence  of  \^rong- 
doing.  (These  are  the  three  ways) :  Before  he  lied  .  .  . 
misrepresenting  his  intention. 

Thus  should  there  be  set  out  in  detail  the  progression 
of  the  abridged  fifteen  ||  1 1| 

There  is  a  grave  offence  for  telling  the  conscious  lie 
that,  "In  three  ways  may  a  monk  make  use  of  your 
vihara  .  .  .  may  make  use  of  your  robe  .  .  .  may  make 
use  of  your  alms-food  .  .  .  may  make  use  of  your 
lodgings  .  .  .  may  make  use  of  your  medicine  for  the 


IV.  6,  2-^,  1]  DEFEAT  I7I 

sick  .  .  .  your  vihara  has  been  made  use  of  by  him 
.  .  .  your  robe  has  been  made  use  of  by  him  .  .  .  your 
alms-food  has  been  made  use  of  by  him  .  .  .  your 
lodgings  have  been  made  use  of  by  him  .  .  .  your 
medicine  for  the  sick  has  been  made  use  of  by  him 
.  .  .  thanks  to  you  he  gave  a  vihara  .  .  .  thanks  to 
you  he  gave  a  robe  ...  he  gave  alms-food  ...  he 
gave  lodgings  ...  he  gave  medicine  for  the  sick, 
that  monk  may  enter  upon  the  fourth  musing  in 
solitude  .  .  .  the  fourth  musing  has  been  realised  by 
that  monk  in  solitude  "...  but  if  he  does  not  acknow- 
ledge it  [99]  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  (These 
are  the  three  ways):  Before  he  has  lied  he  knows,  ''I 
am  going  to  lie  ";  while  lying  he  knows,  "  I  am  lying  "; 
after  he  has  lied  he  knows,  "  I  lied,"  misrepresenting 
his  opinion,  misrepresenting  his  approval,  misrepre- 
senting, his  pleasure,  misrepresenting  his  intention. 

Told  are  the  abridged  fifteen  ||  2 1|  6 1| 


There  is  no  offence  if  there  is  an  undue  estimate 
of  oneself,  if  he  is  not  intentionally  putting  forward 
a  claim,  if  he  is  mad,  if  he  is  unbalanced,  if  he  is  afflicted 
by  pain,  if  he  is  a  beginner. ^  ||  7  || 

About  undue  estimate  of  oneself,  in  the  jungle,  alms, 

a  teacher,^  behaviour. 
Fetters,  being  in  private,  a  vihara,  attended,/ 
Not  difficult,   energy,  and  then  the  fear  of  death, 

remorse  your  reverence,^  rightness, 

^  VA,  502  says  that  the  monks  from  the  banks  of  the  Vaggumuda 
were  beginners,  therefore  there  was  no  offence  for  them. 

2  U^ajjhd,  a  short  form  of  upajjhdya,  found  in  Vin. — e.g.y  i.  94; 
iii.  35;  at  Vin.  iv.  326  upajjhd  is  feminine. 

^  Vipjyatisdn:  *'  strongly  remembering  something  against  (oneself), 
so  generally  '  remorse,'  "  thus  G.S.  iii.  125,  n.  2  (on  A.  iii.  lQ6=Pug. 
61).  Cf.  Vin.  ii.  249=^.  iii.  197  for  the  refrain:  "there's  no 
need  for  remorse  in  thee,"  which  is  the  result  of  being  exhorted  on 
five  scores  on  which  no  remorse  ought  to  be  set  up.  See  G.S.  iii. 
145.    The  word  is  also  sometimes  translated  "  regret,  repentance." 


172  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  100 

By   energy,   by  being   intent,   by  accomplishment,^ 

then  on  feeling,^  two  on  giving  in,/ 
Five  stories  of  a  brahmin,  tliree  on  uttering  profound 

knowledge. 
Houses,  rejected  sense-pleasure,  then  delights,  setting 

forth,/ 
The  cattle  butchers  are  either^  bones  (or)  a  lump  of 

flesh,  the  morsel  was  a  fowler,  the  sheep-butcher 

is  flayed. 
The  pig-butcher  has  swords,  a  deer-hunter  knives,  a 

fletcher  arrows,  an  animal-tamer  needles,/ 
He  was  a  slanderer  who  was  sewn,  the  bearer  of  his 

private  organs  was  a  village  fraud, 
An  adulterer  is  fallen  into  a  pit,  the  eater  of  dung  was 

a  wicked  brahmin,/ 
The  flayed  woman  was  an  adulteress,  the  ill-fayoured 

woman  was  a  woman  fortune-teller. 
The  dried-up  woman  scattered  coals  on  the  co-wife, 

*the  beheaded  one  was  an  executioner,  / 
A  monk,  a  nun,  a  female  probationer,  a  novice,  a 

female  novice, 
These  having  gone  forth  in  the  discipline  of  Kassapa 

did  evil  deeds  at  once,^/ 
The  Tapoda  in  Rajagaha,  a  fight,  and  on  the  plunging 

of  elephants, 
The  monk  Sobhita,  perfected  one,  remembers  five 

hundred  kalpas. 

Although  I  have  translated  kuJckuccam  hoti  as  "  was  remorseful  " 
and  although  kukkucca  and  vippatisdn  are  often  found  together, 
I  keep  "  remorseful  "  also  for  vippatisdri,  for  *'  regret  "  seems  not 
forceful  enough,  and  "  repentance  "  is  now  by  Westerners  associated 
with  "  repenting  of  a  sin  " — an  idea  foreign  to  Buddhism.  Vippa- 
tisdri comes  near  to  "  bad  conscience,"  which  is  also  remembering 
something  against  oneself.  Words  for  conscience  are  sadly  lacking 
in  Pali,  but  this  may  be  an  attempt  to  express  the  idea  of  it,  emerging 
in  the  sixth  century  B.C. 

^  These  two  on  feeling,  if  that  means  physical  pain,  seem  to  be 
included  in  the  next,  "  on  giving  in."  Or,  and  this  is  more  likely 
and  was  suggested  by  Oldenberg,  Yin.  iii.  272,  "  two  stories  appear 
to  be  wanting " — i.e.,  those  corresponding  to  drddhandya  and 
vedandya. 

*  Uhho.  «  Tavade, 


IV.  8,  1--3]  DEFEAT  1 73 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk,  through  undue 
estimate  of  himself,  declared  profound  knowledge.^ 
He  was  remorseful,  and  said:  "  The  course  of  training 
has  been  made  known  by  the  lord.  What  now  if  I  have 
fallen  into  an  offence  involving  defeat  ?"  So  this  monk 
told  this  matter  to  the  lord  ...  "  There  is  no  offence, 
monk,  (merely)  because  there  was  an  undue  estimate  of 
yourself."  |!  1 1| 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  [100]  lived  in  the 
jungle  having  made  a  wish^:  "  Thus  may  people  esteem 
me  !"^    People  esteemed  him.     He  was  remorseful  .  .  . 

'*  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat.  But, 
monks,  there  should  not  be  living^  in  the  jungle  having 
made  a  wish.  Whoever  should  dwell  thus — ^there  is  an 
offence  of  wrong-doing." 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  going  for  alms 
having  made  a  wish:  "  Thus  may  people  esteem  me  !" 
People  esteemed  him.     He  was  remorseful  .  .  . 

"  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat.  But, 
monks,  there  should  not  be  going  for  alms  having  made 
a  wish.  Whoever  should  go  thus — there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  ||2|| 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  spoke  thus  to  another 
monk:  ''  Your  reverence,  those  who  are  pupils  of  our 
teacher  are  all  men  perfected."  He  was  remorseful 
...     He  told  this  matter  to  the  lord. 

"  Of  what  were  you  thinking,  monk  ?"  he  said. 

'M  wanted  to  put  forward  the  claim,  lord,"  he  said. 

"  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat;  there  is 
a  grave  offence,"  he  said. 

*  Anna. 

2  Panidhdya,  ger.  of  panidahati.  VA.  502,  patthanam  katvd, 
making  a  wish,  cf.  Jd.  i.  68.  For  panidhdya,  cf.  A.  iii.  249==iv.  461, 
trans,  in  G.S.  "  set  on  gaining."  SA.  i.  99  on  S.  i.  42  explains 
panidhdya  by  thapelvd,  establishing. 

^  VA.  502,  "  May  people  esteem  me  living  in  the  jungle  as  being 
at  the  stage  of  arahanship,  or  of  a  learner,  then  I  will  become  revered 
by  the  world,  venerated,  respected,  worshipped. 

*  Vatlhabbam,  from  Vms,  to  live,  to  dwell. 


174  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  101-102 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  spoke  thus  to  another 
monk : 

"  Your  reverence,  those  who  are  the  novices  of  our 
teacher  are  all  of  great  psychic  potency,  of  great  majesty." 
He  was  remorseful  .  .  . 

"...  a  grave  offence/'  he  said,  [j  3  || 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  walked  up  and  down, 
having  made  a  wish  .  .  .  stood,  having  made  a  wish 
.  .  .  sat,  having  made  a  wish  ...  laid  down,  haVwig 
made  a  wish:  "Thus  may  people  esteem  me!"  The 
people  esteemed  him.  He  was  remorseful  i  .  .  He 
told  this  matter  to  the  lord  .  .  . 

"  There  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  monk.  But, 
monks,  there  should  not  be  lying  down,  having  made 
a  wish.  Whoever  should  so  lie  down — there  is  an 
offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||  4 1| 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  laid  claim  to  a  state 
of  further-men  in  front  of  another  monk,  and  spoke 
thus:  "Your  reverence,  the  fetters  are  destroyed  for 
me."  He  was  remorseful  .  .  .  He  told  this  matter 
to  the  lord  .  .  . 

"You,  monk,  have  fallen  into  an  offence  involving 
defeat."  ||5|| 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk,  being  in  private, 
claimed  a  state  of  further-men.^  A  monk,  knowing  the 
mind  of  the  other,  blamed  that  monk,  saying:  "  Do  not 
speak  thus,  your  reverence,  this  is  not  for  you."  He 
was  remorseful  .  .  .  He  told  this  matter  to  the 
lord  .  .  . 

"  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat;  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing." 

Now  at  one  time  [101]  a  certain  monk,  being  in  private, 
laid  claim  to  a  state  of  further-men.     A  devata  re- 


*  According  to  VA.  503  he  said,  "  I  am  an  arahan,"  but  as  he 
did  this  not  (really)  believing  it  in  his  mind  {na  manasd  cintitarn), 
it  was  a  dukkata  offence. 


IV.  8,  6-8]  DEFEAT  175 

buked  this  monk,  saying:  "  Honoured  sir,^  do  not  speak 
thus,  this  is  not  for  you."  He  was  remorseful  .  .  . 
He  told  this  matter  to  the  lord  ... 

"  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat;  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||  6  || 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  said  to  a  certain  lay- 
follower  : 

"  Your  reverence,  whatever  monk  lives  in  your 
vihara  is  one  perfected."  Now,  he  lived  in  his^  vihara. 
He  was  remorseful  .  .  . 

"  Of  what  were  you  thinking,  monk  ?"  he  said. 

"  I  wanted  to  put  forward  the  claim,  lord,"  he  said. 

"  There  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  monk;  there  is 
a  grave  offence." 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  said  to  a  certain 
lay-follower: 

"  Your  reverence,  whomever  you  attend  with  the 
requisites  of  robes,  alms-food,  lodgings  and  medicines 
for  the  sick,  that  monk  is  one  perfected."  But  he 
attended  him  with  the  requisites  of  robes,  alms-food, 
lodgings  and  medicines  for  the  sick.  He  was  remorse- 
ful ..  . 

"...  an  offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||  7  || 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill.  The  monks 
said  to  him:  "  The  venerable  one  has  a  state  of  further- 
men." 

"  Reverend  sirs,  it  is  not  difficult  to  attain."  He  was 
remorseful,  and  said:  "Those  who  are  really  disciples 
of  the  lord  may  speak  thus,  but  I  am  not  a  disciple  of 
the  lord.^  What  now  if  I  have  fallen  into  an  offence 
involving  defeat  ?"     He  told  this  matter  to  the  lord. 

"  Of  what  were  you  thinking,  monk  ?"  he  said. 

"  I  did  not  intend  to  put  forward  the  claim,  lord," 
he  said. 


^  Note  the  way  a  fellow-monk  uses  dvuso  in  addressing  a  monk, 
while  a  non-monk,  lay  people,  and,  as  here,  a  devata,  use  bhante, 
honoured  sir. 

^  I.e.,  the  lay-follower's.  ^  _^g/^^^  p   jgQ. 


176  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  102-103 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  as  you  did  not  intend  to 
put  forward  the  claim.  "^ 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill.  The  monks 
said  to  him:  "  The  venerable  one  has  a  state  of  the 
further-men." 

"  Reverend  sirs,  it  is  not  difficult  to  declare  profound 
knowledge,"  he  said.  He  was  remorseful  ...  He 
told  this  matter  to  the  lord.     He  said: 

"  Of  what  were  you  thinking,  monk  ?" 

"  I  did  not  intend  to  put  forward  the  claim,  lord,"^ 
he  said. 

*'  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  as  you  did  not  intend 
to  put  forward  the  claim."  ||  8  || 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill.  The  monks 
said  to  him : 

"  The  venerable  one  has  a  state  of  further-men." 

"  Reverend  sirs,  a  state  is  to  be  attained  by  stirring 
up  energy."  He  was  remorseful  ...  He  told  this 
matter  to  the  lord  ... 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  as  you  did  not  intend 
to  put  forward  the  claim." 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill.  The  monks 
said  to  him: 

''  Your  reverence,  do  not  be  afraid."     He  said: 

"  Your  reverences,  I  am  not  afraid  of  death."  He 
was  remorseful  .  .  . 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  as  you  did  not  intend  to 
put  forward  the  claim." 

Now  at  one  time  [102]  a  certain  monk  was  ill.  The 
monks  said  to  him : 

"  Your  reverence,  do  not  be  afraid." 


^  Anullajmnddhippdyassa.  VA.  502  says,  kohanne  icchdcdre 
athatvd,  not  wanting  to  have  his  needs  filled  by  hypocrisy  (or  deceit). 
Tr.  Crit.  Pali  Did.  gives,  "  not  intending  to  show  off,  to  impose," 
under  anuUa''. 

2  VA.  503,  "  it  is  not  difficult  for  a  virtuous  man,  who  has  set 
insight  going  to  declare  profound  knowledge,  he  is  competent  to 
attain  arahanship."  But  this  monk  did  not  reckon  himself  in  this 
category. 


IV.  8,  9-10]  DEFEAT  177 

"  Your  reverences,  let  him  be  afraid  who  may  be 
remorseful."^     He  was  remorseful  .  .  . 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  as  you  did  not  intend 
to  put  forward  the  claim." 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill.  The  monks 
said  to  him: 

"  The  venerable  one  has  a  state  of  further-men." 

"  Your  reverences,  the  state  is  to  be  attained  by  one 
who  is  rightly  intent. "^    He  was  remorseful  .  .  . 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  as  you  did  not  intend  to 
put  forward  the  claim." 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill  .  .  . 

"  Your  reverences,  a  state  is  to  be  attained  by  stirring 
up  energy."^    He  was  remorseful  ... 

"...  as  you  did  not  intend  to  put  forward  the 
claim." 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill  .  .  . 

"  Your  reverences,  a  state  is  to  be  attained  by  one 
who  is  harnessed*  to  endeavour."*  He  was  remorse- 
ful. .  . 

"  .  .  .  as  you  did  not  intend  to  put  forward  the 
claim."  II 9  II 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill.  The  monks 
said  to  him; 

"  We  hope,  your  reverence,  that  you  are  getting 
better,  we  hope  that  you  are  able  to  support  life  ?" 

"  Your  reverences,  it  is  not  possible  to  give  in  because 
of  this  and  that."  He  was  remorseful  ...  He  told 
this  matter  to  the  lord  ... 


^  Vippatisdri,  cf.  above,  p.  171,  n.  3.  VA.  504,  "  let  the  monk 
in  whom  remorse  arises  be  afraid,  but  I  am  not  remorseful,  the 
moral  precepts  are  completely  pure,  why  then  should  I  be  afraid 
of  death?" 

2  Sammd  payuttena. 

3  As  above,  p.  176. 

*  Yuttayoga.  This  word  also  occurs  at  J  a.  i.  65  and  is  translated 
"  devout  "  {Buddhist  Birth  Stories,  second  edition,  p.  178).  Yanjati 
(of  which  yutta  is  p.p.)  occurs  at  Jd.  iv.  131,  v.  369,  with  ghatati 
vdyamati,  all  meaning  to  strive,  to  endeavour.  Yoga  {yogya)  has 
sense  of  "  lit  for." 

I.  12 


178  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  103 

"  Monk,  there  is  no  offence  as  you  did  not  intend  to 
put  forward  the  claim." 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  was  ill  .  .  . 

"  Your  reverences,  it  is  not  possible  to  give  in  because 
of  the  common  people."^     He  was  remorseful  .  .  . 

*'  Monk,  of  what  were  you  thinking?"  he  said. 

"  I  intended  to  put  forward  the  claim,  lord,"  he 
said. 

"Monk,  there  is  no  offence  involving  defeat,  there  is 
a  grave  offence."  ||  10 1| 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  brahmin  invited  the  monks, 
saying: 

"  Let  the  good  sirs,  the  perfected  ones,  come."^  They 
were  remorseful,  and  said: 

*'  But  we  are  not  perfected  ones,  and  yet  this  brahmin 
addresses  us  with  talk  about  perfected  ones.  Now 
what  line  of  conduct  should  be  taken  by  us  ?"  They 
told  this  matter  to  the  lord. 

*'  Monks,  there  is  no  offence  in  a  speaker  with  faith,"^ 
he  said. 

*  VA.  504,  surrounding  him. 

^  Ayantu,  from  a  +  Jl  and  meaning  dgacchantu.  VA.  504,  "  Who- 
ever said  this  would  also  have  said :  '  Prepare  seats  for  all  the 
arahans,  give  water  for  washing  the  feet,  let  the  arahans  wash  their 
feet.'  " 

3  Pasddabhanne.  Apart  from  the  meaning  of  this  very  rare 
word,  it  is  noteworthy  that  it  is  in  the  loo.,  instead  of,  as  is  usually 
the  case  after  dpatti  and  andpaiti,  in  the  gen.  VA.  504  says, 
"  The  meaning  being:  instigated  (samussdhitassa)  through  his  own 
power  of  faith,  being  one  who  goes  by  faith."  Cf.  for  bhanna  (for 
which  P.T.S.  Diet,  refers  to  bhd)  Jd.  v.  317,  318.  The  former  of 
these  passages  reads  bhan  nam  with  v. I.,  hamnam,  bhunjam,  and 
the  latter  explains  by  saying  bhd  tiratanass'  etam  ndmam.  But  I 
think  that  here  bhanna  derives  from  Vbhds,  to  speak,  and  not  from 
Vbhds,  to  shine.  At  A.  ii.  31;  S.  iii.  72;  M.  iii.  78  we  find  Ukkald 
vassa-bhannd.  K.S.  iii.  63  translates  vassa-bhannd  as  *'  preachers 
in  retreat " — i.e.,  during  vassa,  the  rains.  But  SA.  ii.  279  says  vasso 
ca  Bhanno  ca,  and  evidently  means  that  these  are  names  of  people 
in  certain  districts,  like  UkkaJa-janapada-vdsino;  while  MA.  iv.  136 
declares  this  to  be  the  case:  Vasso  ca  Bhanno  cd  ti  dve  jand.  Cf. 
Pis.  of  Contr.  95,  n.  2.  I  do  not,  however,  think  that  the  pasdda- 
bhanfie  of  Vi7i.  above  can  refer  to  the  Bhaniia  people. 


IV.  8,  11-13]  DEFEAT  179 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  brahmin  invited  the  monks, 
saying: 

"  Let  the  good  sirs,  the  perfected  ones,  be  seated  .  .  . 
Let  the  good  sirs,  the  perfected  ones,  eat  .  .  .  Let 
the  good  sirs,  the  perfected  ones,  be  regaled  .  .  .  Let 
the  good  sirs,  the  perfected  ones,  go  away."  .  .  . 
They  were  remorseful  and  said  .  .  . 

"  .  .  .  in  a  speaker  with  faith."  ||11 1| 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  claimed  a  state  of 
further-men  in  front  of  another  monk,  and  he  said : 

"  Your  reverence,  the  cankers  are  destroyed  for  me." 
He  was  remorseful  ... 

"  You,  monk,  have  fallen  into  an  offence  involving 
defeat." 

Now  [103]  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  ... 

"  Your  reverence,  these  states  exist  for  me."  He  was 
remorseful ... 

"...  involving  defeat." 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  .  .  . 

"  Your  reverence,  I  live  conformably  to  these  states." 
He  was  remorseful  ... 

"...  involving  defeat."  ||12|| 

Now  at  one  time  his  relations  spoke  thus  to  a  certain 
monk : 

"  Come,  honoured  sir,  live  in  a  house."    He  said: 

"  Your  reverences,  one  like  me  cannot  become  one 
to  live  in  a  house."     He  was  remorseful  .  .  . 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  as  you  did  not  intend 
to  put  forward  the  claim." 

Now  at  one  time  his  relations  said  to  a  certain  monk : 

"  Come,  Jionoured  sir,  enjoy  the  pleasures  of  the 
senses."     He  said: 

"  Your  reverences,  the  pleasures  of  the  senses  are 
rejected  by  me."^     He  was  remorseful  .  .  . 

^  VA.  505,  dvatd  ii  dvdritd  nivdritd  patikkhittd  ti  attho.  Had 
they  in  truth  been  rejected  he  would  have  been  an  arahan.  Before 
they  attained  this  supreme  state,  monks  were  not  indifferent  to  the 
beauties  of  nature,  as  for  example  some  of  the  Theragatha  show. 


l8o  BOOK  OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  104 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  as  you  did  not  intend 
to  put  forward  the  claim." 
Now  at  one  time  his  relations  said  to  a  certain  monk : 
"  Come,  honoured  sir,  enjoy  yourself."^     He  said: 
**  Your  reverences,  I  am  enjoying  myself  with  the 
highest  enjoyment. "2     He  was  remorseful  and  said: 
*'  Those  who  are  really  the  lord's  disciples  may  speak 
thus,  but  I  am  not  a  disciple  of  the  lord.^    What  now 
if  I  have  fallen  into  an  offence  involving  defeat  ?"     He 
told  this  matter  to  the  lord. 

"  Of  what,  monk,  were  you  thinking  ?" 
*'I  did  not  intend  to  put  forward  the  claim,  lord," 
he  said. 

"  There  is  no  offence,  monk,  as  you  did  not  intend  to 
put  forward  the  claim."  ||  13  || 

Now  at  one  time  a  company  of  monks  went  up  to  a 
certain  residence  for  the  rains,  having  made  this  agree- 
ment: Whoever  shall  set  out  from  this  residence  first, 
him  we  shall  know  for  one  perfected.  A  certain  monk 
said: 

"  Let  them  know  me  for  one  perfected,"  and  he  set 
out  first  from  that  residence.  He  was  remorseful.  He 
told  this  matter  to  the  lord  .  .  . 

'*  You,  monk,  have  fallen  into  an  offence  involving 
defeat."  11 141!  8  li 


At  one  time*  the  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  was 
staying  at  Rajagaha  in  the  Bamboo  Grove  at  the 
squirrels'  feeding  place.  Now  at  that  time  the  venerable 
Lakkhana^  and  the  venerable  Moggallana  the  Great 

^  On  ahhirati  and  ahhiramati  see  above,  p.  114. 

2  YA.  505,  "  the  monk  says,  *  Because  there  is  no  lack  of  exposition 
and  questionings  on  the  teaching,  and  because  I  enjoy  this  state  of 
things,  I  say  I  am  enjoying  myself  with  the  highest  enjoyment.'  " 

3  =  above,  p.  175. 

4  =S.  ii.  254-262  from  here  to  end  of  |I  3  !|  below. 

5  VA.  506~*SJ.  ii.  216,  "He  from  among  a  thousand  Jatilas 
(matted  hair  ascetics)  received  the  '  Come,  monk '  for  upasampada 
ordination.     He  attained  arahanship  at  the  end  of  the  Discourse 


IV.  9,  1-2]  DEFEAT  l8l 

were  staying  oji  the  summit  of  the  Vulture's  Peak. 
Then  the  venerable  Moggallana  the  Great,  rising  up 
early  and  taking  his  bowl  and  robe,  approached  the 
venerable  Lakkhana,  and  having  approached  the 
venerable  Lakkhana,  he  said: 

"  Let  us  go,  reverend  Lakkhana,  we  will  enter  Raja- 
gaha  for  alms-food.'* 

"So  be  it,  your  reverence,"  the  venerable  Lakkhana 
answered  the  venerable  Moggallana  the  Great.  Then 
the  venerable  Moggallana  the  Great,  [104]  as  he  was  de- 
scending from  the  summit  of  the  Vulture's  Peak,  smiled 
(when  he  came  to)  a  certain  place.  Then  the  venerable 
Lakkhana  said  to  the  venerable  Moggallana  the  Great : 

"  Now,  reverend  Moggallana,  what  is  the  reason, 
what  the  cause,  that  you  smile  ?" 

"  This  is  not  the  time,  reverend  Lakkhana,  for  this 
question.  Ask  me  this  question  in  the  presence  of  the 
lord."  II 1 II 

Then  the  venerable  Lakkhana  and  the  venerable 
Moggallana  the  Great,  having  been  for  alms-food  in 
Rajagaha,  and  having  dined  and  come  away  from  their 
meal,  approached  the  lord  and  having  approached  and 
saluted  the  lord,  they  sat  down  to  one  side.  As  they 
were  sitting  to  one  side,  the  venerable  Lakkhana  said 
to  the  venerable  Moggallana  the  Great: 

"  Now  as  the  venerable  Moggallana  the  Great  was 
descending  from  the  summit  of  the  Vulture's  Peak,  he 
smiled  (when  he  came  to)  a  certain  place.  Now  what, 
reverend  Moggallana,  is  the  cause,  what  the  reason, 
that  you  smiled  ?" 

"  Just  now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  descending  from 


on  Burning.  He  should  be  called  one  great  disciple  {eko  nmhd- 
sdvako).  Inasmuch  as  he  is  endowed  with  this  mark  and  is 
possessed  of  a  Brahma-like  existence,  he  is  called  Lakkhana.  Maha- 
Moggallana,  the  second  great  disciple,  attained  arahanship  on  the 
seventh  day  after  he  had  gone  forth  into  homelessness."  This 
mention  of  Moggallana  as  second  to  Lakkhana  is  curious,  for  in 
the  Suttas  he  is  only  ever  linked  with  Sariputta.  See  Vin.  i.  33  ff. 
for  the  story  of  the  conversion  of  the  Jatilas. 


l82  BOOK   OF  THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  106 

the  summit  of  the  Vulture's  Peak,  I  saw  a  skeleton 
going  through  the  air/  and  vultures,  crows  and  hawks^ 
were  following  hard,  striking  it^  round  about  the  ribs,* 
while  it  uttered  a  cry  of  distress.  Then,  your  reverence, 
I  thought:  Indeed  it  is  wonderful,  indeed  it  is  marvellous 
that  a  being  will  become  like  that,  that  a  yakkha  will 
become  like  that,  that  one  having  existence  as  an  in- 
dividual^ will  become  like  that." 

The  monks  became  annoyed,  vexed,  angry  and  said. 

"  The  venerable  Moggallana  the  Great  is  claiming  a 
state  of  further-men."^ 

Then  the  lord  addressed  the  monks,  saying : 

**  Indeed,  monks,  Ihere  live  disciples  who  have  become 
vision,'  indeed  monks,  there  live  disciples  who  have 
become  knowledge,  inasmuch  as  a  disciple  will  know 
or  will  see  or  will  see  with  his  own  eyes  a  thing  like  this. 
Monks,  I  saw  this  being  before  now,  but  I  did  not 
declare  it.  I  could  have  declared  it,  but  others  would 
not  have  had  faith  in  me,  and  for  those  who  could  not 
have  had  faith  in  me,  there  would  have  been  for  them 
pain  and  sorrow  for  a  long  time.     Monks,  this  being 


^  Vehdsagata,  or  going  above  ground,  cf.  above,  p.  79, 
n.  7. 

*  VA.  507  calls  these  yakkha  vultures,  yakkha  crows  and  yakkha 
hawks,  probably  meaning  that  these  birds  eat  flesh.  Qf.  the  pre- 
datory yakkhas,  above,  p.  146. 

3  Vitudenti.  VA.  507  reads  vituddhenti  ti  vinivijjhitvd  gacchanti, 
vitudanti  ti  (v.l.  vitudenti  ti)  vd  pdtho.  S.  ii.  255  reads  vita>cchenti 
vibhajenti,  as  in  the  cases  below,  with  v.l.  vitudenti  for  vitacchenti  and 
omitting  vibhajenti. 

*  PdsUlay  with  v.l.  pdsula;  S.  ii.  255  reads  phdsula. 

*  Attabhdvapatildbha. 

«  Omitted  at  S.  ii.  255. 

'  CakkhubhUta,  hhuta  being  p.p.  of  bhavati.  At  A.  v.  226  the 
tathagata  is  called  cakkhubhitto  ndnabhuto  (as  above)  and  dhamma- 
bhuto  brahmabhUtOj  trans,  at  G.S.  v.  157  "  he  has  become  the  eye, 
he  has  become  knowledge,"  etc.  VA.  508  says,  cakkhubhutam 
jdtam  uppannam  tesan  ti  cakkhubhUtd,  bhutacakkhukd  uppannacak- 
khukd.  Cakkhum  uppddetvd  viharanti  dutiyapade  pi  es'  eva  nayo. 
A  A.  on  A.  V.  226)Siamese  edition)  says,  cakkhubhuto  ti  cakkhu  viya 
bhdto  nibbatto.  Ndnabhuto  ti  ndnasabhdvo.  {A A.  also  explains 
bhuta  in  dhamma°  and  brahma°  by  sabhdva.) 


IV.  9,  2-3]  DEFEAT  183 

was  a  cattle  butcher^  in  this  very  Rajagaha.  As  a 
result  of  his  deeds  he  was  boiled^  in  hell  for  many- 
years,  for  many  hundreds  of  years,  for  many  thousands 
of  years,  for  many  hundreds  of  thousands  of  years; 
now  for  what  remains  as  the  result  of  his  deeds  he  under- 
goes existence  as  an  individual  like  this.  Monks, 
Moggallana  spoke  truly;  there  is  no  offence  for  Mog- 
gallana."^  ||2|| 

..."  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  coming  down 
from  the  summit  of  the  Vulture's  Peak,  I  saw  a  lump 
of  flesh  going  through  the  air,  and  vultures,  crows  and 
hawks,  following  hard,  were  tearing  at  it  and  pulling 
it  to  pieces,*  while  it  uttered  a  cry  of  distress."  [106] 
..."  Monks,  this  being  was  a  cattle-butcher  in  this 
very  Rajagaha." 

..."  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  coming  down 
from  the  summit  of  the  Vulture's  Peak,  I  saw  a  morsel 
of  flesh  going  through  the  air,  and  vultures,  crows  and 

^  VA.  508,  '*  at  the  time  of  his  passing  from  the  Pit  (naraka)  his 
outward  appearance  was  a  mass  of  bones  ...  he  has  arisen  as  a 
departed  one  {'peta)  who  is  a  skeleton."  Of  his  deeds,  tassa  katnmassa 
expl.  tassa  ndndcetandhi  dyuhi  tassa  apardpariyakammassa. 

2  paccifvd,  passive  of  pacati.  Paccati  is  lit.  to  be  boiled  or  cooked, 
P.T.S.  Diet,  saying,  "  Nearly  always  applied  to  the  torture  of  boiling 
in  niraya,  where  it  is  meant  literally."  But  I  think  that  the  idea 
(found  in  the  active)  of  ripening  and  maturing  for  the  next  rebirth 
is  also  intended.  The  context  brings  out  this  point.  One  was  not 
condemned  to  eternal  damnation.  VA.  508  also  emphasises  this 
by  saying  that  through  what  remained  of  the  result  of  his  deeds 
after  his  reinstatement  (patisandhi)  in  naraka,  he  took  on  reinstate- 
ment again  among  the  petas.  I  have  translated  paccitvd  literally, 
since  for  lack  of  an  English  word  to  express  the  idea  of  being  boiled 
to  a  ripeness  which  entails  a  change,  it  seems  to  me  preferable  to 
"  has  been  punished  "  {K.S.  ii.  170),  as  this  conveys  the  idea  still 
less  of  the  past  deeds  maturing  until  the  individual  is  ready  for  a 
new  rebirth. 

3  Omitted  at  S.  ii.  256. 

*  Cf.  M.  i.  364,  where  the  simile  is  possibly  taken  from  this  Vin. 
passage,  M.  i.  364  reads,  vitaccheyyum  virdjeyyum,  trans.  Fur. 
Dial,  i'  261,  "  to  tear  and  rend  it."  VirdjerUi  is  a  v.l.  for  vibhajetUi 
at  both  Vin.  iii.  105  above  and  S.  ii.  256,  and  it  would  not  seem  un- 
intelligible in  these  contexts. 


184  BOOK   OF  THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  106 

hawks,  following  hard,  were  tearing  at  it  and  pulling 
it  to  pieces,  while  it  uttered  a  cry  of  distress."  .  .  . 
"  Monks,  this  being  was  a  fowler^  in  this  very  Raja- 
gaha." 

..."  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  coming  down 
from  the  summit  of  the  Vulture's  Peak,  I  saw  a  flayed 
man  going  through  the  air,  and  vultures,  crows  and 
hawks,  following  hard,  were  tearing  at  it  and  pulling  it 
to  pieces,  while  it  uttered  a  cry  of  distress."  .  .  . 
"  Monks,  this  being  was  a  sheep-butcher^  in  this  very 
Eajagaha." 

..."  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  coming  down 
from  the  summit  of  the  Vulture's  Peak,  I  saw  a  man 
who  had  swords  for  hair  going  through  the  air.  These 
swords  of  his,  constantly  flying  up  into  the  air,  fell  down 
on  his  body  while  he  uttered  a  cry  of  distress."  .  .  . 

"  Monks,  this  being  was  a  butcher  of  pigs  in  this  very 
Rajagaha."^ 

..."  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  coming  down 
...  I  saw  a  man  with  knives  for  hair  going  through 
the  air.  These  knives  of  his  constantly  flying  up  into 
the  air  fell  down  on  his  body,  while  he  uttered  a  cry  of 
distress."  ...  "  Monks,  this  being  was  a  deer-hunter 
in  this  very  Rajagaha."* 

..."  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  coming  down 
...  I  saw  a  man  with  arrows  for  hair  going  through 
the  air.  These  arrows  of  his  ..."..."..  .  was  a 
fl etcher^  in  this  very  Rajagaha." 

^  VA.  509,  "  at  the  time  of  bis  passing  from  the  Pit  (tiaraka)  his 
outward  ai)pearance  was  a  piece  of  flesh,  therefore  he  arose  as  a 
departed  one  who  is  a  piece  of  flesh." 

2  orabbhika,  VA.  509,  elake  vidhitvd,  having  skinned  them  during 
his  life,  afterwards  his  appearance  was  that  of  a  skinless  ram's  body, 
and  therefore  he  has  arisen  as  a  departed  one  who  is  flayed  {nic- 
chavipeto). 

3  He  killed  the  pigs  with  swords,  thus  his  outward  appearance 
is  the  state  of  having  drawn  swords,  thus  he  has  arisen  as  a  departed 
one  who  has  swords  for  hair. 

*  His  outward  appearance  is  a  state  of  being  struck  with  knives, 
because  he  killed  the  deer  with  knives. 

*  kdrmiika,  but  judge  at  K.S.  ii.  171,  which  has  n.  "cruel  to 
criminals."     According  to  the   Comys.   "  a  man   causing  death. 


IV.  9,  3]  DEFEAT  185 

..."  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  coming  down 
...  I  saw  a  man  having  hair  like  needles  going  through 
the  air.  These  needles  of  his  .  .  ."  .  ..*'...  was  an 
animal- tamer^  in  this  very  Rajagaha." 

..."  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  coming  down 
...  I  saw  a  man  having  hair  like  needles  going  through 
the  air.  These  needles  of  his  piercing  his  head  came 
out  through  his  mouth,  entering  his  mouth  they  came 
out  through  his  breast,  entering  his  breast  they  came 
out  through  his  stomach,  entering  his  stomach  they 
came  out  through  his  thighs,  entering  his  thighs  they 
came  out  through  his  legs,  entering  his  legs  they  came 
out  through  his  feet,  while  he  uttered  a  cry  of  distress." 
...  "...  was  a  slanderer  in  this  very  Raja- 
gaha." 

..."  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  .  .  .  I  saw  a 
demon-man^  g^^ii^g  through  the  air.  When  he  moves 
he  goes  having  put  his  secret  organs  on  to  his  shoulder, 
when  he  sits  he  sits  among  these  secret  organs,  so  that 
vultures,  crows  and  hawks  following  hard,  were  tearing 
at  him  and  pulling  him  to  pieces,  while  he  uttered  a  cry 
of  distress  ..."..."...  was  a  village  fraud  in 
this  very  Rajagaha." 

..."  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  ...  I  saw  a 
man,   head  and  all,   tumbled  into   a   dung-pit  ..." 

shooting  with  arrows,"  kandena  vijjhitvd.  Hence  possibly  the 
confusion,  P.T.S.  Diet.,  referring  only  to  S.  ii.  257,  and  saying, "  wsw°, 
however,  used  simply  in  the  sense  of  making:  arrow-maker,  fletcher." 

^  sdrathi.  S.  ii.  257  reads,  sucako  here  as  in  the  next  example. 
Translator  at  K.S.  ii.  172  suggests  suto  for  sucako.  Bofh  words, 
according  to  P.T.S.  Diet.,  mean  charioteer  or  coachman,  but  VA. 
50^  and  SA.  ii.  220  (under  suto,  with  n.  that  title  in  text  sud-sdrathi) 
sjjeak  of  horse-tamer,  cow-tamer. 

2  kuynbhanda.  Note  word-play  on  anda.  VA.  b\0=:SA.  ii.  220 
says,  kumbhamattd  mahdghatappamdnd  andd  ahesum,  while  Jd.  iii. 
147  defines  as  kumbhamattarahassangd  mahodard  yakkJid.  Our 
Comys.  say  that  as  he  had  made  others  suffer  by  his  secret  wrong- 
doing, so  now  he  suffers  in  his  secret  organs.  At  DA.  i.  73  a 
kumbhanda  is  placed  on  the  back  of  a  horse  as  a  sign  of  instability. 
Kumbha7idi  at  Vism.  183,  in  connection  with  lata,  creeper,  trans. 
"  pumpkin."  This  is  evidently  the  secondary  meaning  of  the 
word. 


l86  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  106-107 

..."  Monks,  this  being  was  an  adulterer  in  this  very 
Eajagaha." 

..."  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  [106]  ...  I 
saw  a  man,  head  and  all,  tumbled  into  a  dung-pit  and 
eating  dung  with  both  hands  ..."  ..."  Monks, 
this  being  was  a  wicked  brahmin  in  this  very  Rajagaha. 
He,  at  the  time  of  Kassapa,  the  all-enlightened  one, 
having  invited  a  company  of  monks  to  a  meal,  and 
having  had  a  trough  filled  with  dung,  and  having  had 
the  time  announced,  said:  "  I  say,  let  my  masters  eat 
as  much  as  they  like,  and  carry  away  as  much  as  they 
need." 

..."  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  ...  I  saw  a 
flayed  woman  going  through  the  air.  Vultures  .  .  . 
were  pulling  her  to  pieces,  while  she  uttered  a  cry  of 
distress  ..."  ...  "  Monks,  this  woman  was  an 
adulteress  in  this  very  Rajagaha."^ 

..."  Now,,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  ...  I  saw  a 
malodorous,  ill-favoured  woman  going  through  the  air. 
Vultures  .  .  .  were  pulling  her  to  pieces  ..." 
..."...  was  a  fortune-teller^  in  this  very  Raja- 
gaha." 

.  .  .  "  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  ...  I  saw  a 
woman,  shrivelled  up,  dried  up  because  of  some 
cutaneous  disease,^  going  through  the  air  .  .  .  while 
she  uttered  a  cry  of  distress."  ...  "  Monks,  this 
woman  was  the  chief  consort  of  King  Kalinga;  over- 
come by  envy  she  threw  out  her  rival,*  scattering  a 
brazier  of  burning  coals  over  her." 

1  Inasmuch  as  she  got  her  pleasures  with  other  men,  not  with  her 
own  husband,  she  is  reborn  flayed  so  as  to  undergo  a  painful  contact, 
being  deprived  of  pleasant  touch.     VA.  510. 

2  VA.  511,  deceiving  the  people  by  taking  gifts  of  flowers  and 
perfumes  from  them,  saying,  "  now  there  will  be  increase  for  you." 

3  wpakkam  okilinim  okirinim.  Bu.  at  VA.  511  says,  '*  she  fell  on 
to  a  heap  of  coals  .  .  .  therefore,  she  is  shrivelled  by  the  agonising 
fires;  okilini  and  her  body  inflamed,  drop  upon  drop  oozing  from  her 
body;  okirinl  and  surrounded  by  charcoal;  from  below  the  charcoal 
was  on  both  sides  of  her,  like  the  red  flowers  of  the  kimsuka  tree ; 
the  charcoal  fell  from  the  air  on  her." 

*  She  was  a  dancer  who  had  pleased  the  King  by  massaging  him. 


IV.  9,  3]  DEFEAT  187 

..."  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  ...  I  saw  the 
headless  trunk  of  a  body  going  through  the  air.  Its 
eyes  and  even  its  mouth  were  on  its  breast.  Vultures 
.  .  .  were  pulling  it  to  pieces  while  it  uttered  a  cry  of 
distress  ..."  ...  "  Monks,  this  being  was  an  execu- 
tioner called  Harika  in  this  very  Rajagaha."^ 

..."  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  ...  I  saw  a 
monk  going  through  the  air.  His  outer  cloak  was 
burning,^  in  flames  and  ablaze,  moreover  his  bowl  was 
burning,  in  flames  and  ablaze,  moreover  his  girdle  was 
burning,  in  flames  and  ablaze,  moreover  his  body  was 
burning,  in  flames  and  ablaze,  and  he  was  uttering  a 
cry  of  distress  ..."  ...  "  Monks,  in  the  time  of 
Kassapa,  the  all-enlightened  one,  this  monk  was  a 
depraved  monk."^ 

..."  Now,  your  reverence,  as  I  was  ...  I  saw  a 
nun  ...  I  saw  a  (female)  probationer*  ...  I  saw  a 
novice  ...  I  saw  a  female  novice  going  through  the 
air.  Her  outer  cloak  was  burning,  in  flames,  and 
ablaze  .  .  .  while  she  uttered  a  cry  of  distress.  Then, 
your  reverence,  I  thought:  indeed  it  is  wonderful, 
indeed  it  is  marvellous,  that  a  being  may  become  like 
that,  that  a  yakkha  may  become  like  that,  that  one 
having  existence  as  an  individual  may  become  like 
that." 

The  monks  became  annoyed,  vexed  and  angry  and 
said: 

"The  venerable  Moggallana  is  claiming^ a  state  of 
further-men."^ 

Then  the  lord  addressed  the  monks,  saying : 

"  Indeed,  monks,  there  live  disciples  who  have  be- 


*  VA.  512,  for  a  long  time  he  had  beheaded  thieves  at  the  king's 
command.     Therefore  he  was  reborn  headless. 

^  Quoted  at  MA.  i.  91,  and  said  to  refer  to  the  monk  Kapila. 
VA.  mentions  no  names. 

*  He  went  about  enjoying  himself  to  his  heart's  content,  therefore 
he  was  boiled  in  hell  for  an  interval  between  Buddhas,  and  then 
arising  in  a  ^e^a- world  he  arose  with  an  existence  like  a  monk. 

*  Fem.  in  Table  of  Contents,  above,  p.  172. 
6  Omitted  at  S.  ii.  261. 


l88  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE      [III.  107-106 

come  vision,  there  live  disciples  who  have  become 
knowledge,  [107]  inasmuch  as  a  disciple  will  know  or 
will  see  or  will  see  with  his  own  eyes  a  thing  like  this. 
Monks,  I  saw  this  female  novice  before  now,  but  I  did  not 
declare  it.  I  could  have  declared  it,  but  others  would 
not  have  had  faith  in  me,  and  for  those  who  could  not 
have  had  faith  in  me,  there  would  have  been  for  them 
pain  and  sorrow  for  a  long  time.  Monks,  at  the  time 
of  Kassapa,  the  all-enlightened  one,  this  female  novice 
was  a.  depraved  female  novice.  As  a  result  of  her 
deeds,  she  was  boiled  in  hell  for  many  years,  for  many 
hundreds  of  years,  for  many  thousands  of  years,  for 
many  hundreds  of  thousands  of  years.  Now,  because 
of  what  remains  as  the  result  of  her  deeds,  she  undergoes 
existence  as  an  individual  like  this.  Monks,  Moggallkna 
spoke  truly;  there  is  no  offence  for  Moggallana."  ||3'|| 

Then  the  venerable  Moggallana  the  Great  addressed 
the  monk^  thus : 

''  Your  reverences,  this  Tapoda  flows  from  this:  this 
lake  of  beautiful  water,  of  cool  water,  of  sweet  water, 
of  pure  water,  with  lovely  and  charming  fords,  with  an 
abundance  of  fishes  and  turtles,  and  lotuses  bloom  for 
the  measure  of  a  cycle.  And  yet  this  Tapoda  as  it 
flows  is  boiling." 

The  monks  became  .  .  .  angry  and  said: 

"  How  can  the  venerable  Moggallana  the  Great  speak 
thus :  '  Your  reverences,  this  Tapoda  flows  from  this 
...  is  boiling  V  The  venerable  Moggallana  the  Great 
ite  claiming  a  state  of  further-men."  They  told  this 
matter  to  the  lord.     He  said : 

"Monks,  this  Tapoda  flows  from  this:  this  lake  of 
beautiful  water  .  .  .  lotuses  bloom  for  the  measure 
of  a  cycle.  But,  monks,  the  Tapoda  comes  between 
the  two  great  hells,^  that  is  why  the  Tapoda  as  it  flows 

^  Tapoda  means  "  boiling  waters."  VA.  512,  says,  "  they  say- 
that  the  town  of  Rajagaha  is  near  the  world  of  the  departed,  and 
this  Tapoda  comes  there  between  the  two  great  red  pits  of  the  hells." 
Cf.  below,  p.  274,  n.  6.  At  ^.  v.  196  Ananda  and  the  wanderer 
Kokanuda  went  to  this  river  to  bathe  their  limbs. 


IV.  9,  4-6]  DEFEAT  189 

is  boiling.     Monks,  Moggallana  spoke  truly.     There  is 
no  offence  for  Moggallana."  ||  4  || 

At  one  time  King  Seniya  Bimbisara  of  Magadha  was 
defeated  in  a  conflict  with  the  Licchavis.  Then  the 
king,  after  collecting  his  armies,  beat  the  Licchavis  and 
the  drum  of  victory  went  into  the  conflict,  and  the 
Licchavis  were  defeated  by  the  king.  Then  the  vener- 
able Moggallana  the  Great  addressed  the  monks  saying : 

''  Your  reverences,  the  king  was  defeated  by  the 
Licchavis,  and  the  drum  of  victory  went  into  the  con- 
flict, and  the  Licchavis  were  defeated  by  the  king." 
The  monks  became  annoyed,  vexed  and  angry  and  said : 

*' How  can  the  venerable  Moggallana  speak  thus: 
*  Your  reverences,  the  king  was  defeated  by  the  Lic- 
chavis, and  the  drum  of  victory  went  into  the  conflict, 
and  then  the  Licchavis  were  defeated  by  the  king.'  The 
venerable  Moggallana  the  Great  is  claiming  a  state  of 
further-men."  They  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  He 
said : 

**  Monks,  first  the  king  was  defeated  by  the  Licchavis, 
[108]  and  then  after  the  king  had  collected  the  army, 
he  beat  the  Licchavis.  Moggallana  spoke  truly.  There 
is  no  ofl*ence  for  Moggallana."  ||  5  || 

Then  the  venerable  Moggallana  the  Great  addressed 
the  monks,  saying : 

''  Now  I,  your  reverences,  having  entered  upon  stead- 
fast contemplation  on  the  banks  of  the  river  Sappinika/ 
heard  the  noise  of  elephants  plunging,  crossing  over 
and  trumpeting. "2 

The  monks  became  annoyed,  vexed  and  angry,  saying : 
"  How  can  the  venerable  Moggallatia  the  Great  talk 

1  Mentioned  also  at  S..  i.  153;  A.  ii.  29,  176,  SappinT;  at  A.  i.  185, 
Sappinika;  cf.  also  Vin.  Texts  i.  254,  n.  2.  Usually  trans,  the 
"  Snake  River."  The  wanderers  had  a  park  on  its  banks.  It  was 
near  Rajagaha. 

2  VA.  513,  "  plunging  down  into  the  deep  water,  and  bathing 
and  drinking  there,  and  taking  up  water  with  their  trunlis,  they 
mingle  together  and  cross  over." 


igo  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [109 

like  this,  saying :  '  Having  entered  upon  steadfast  con- 
templation, I  heard  elephants  plunging,  crossing  over 
and  trumpeting  ?'  .  .  .  a  state  of  further-men."  They 
told  this  matter  to  the  lord.     He  said: 

*' Monks,  that  was  contemplation,  but  he  was  not 
wholly  purified.^  Moggallana  spoke  truly.  There  is  no 
offence  for  Moggallana."  ||  6  || 

Then  the  venerable  Sobhita^  addressed  the  monks, 
saying:  "Your  reverences,  I  remember  five  hundred 
kalpas."  The  monks  became  annoyed,  vexed  and 
angry,  saying: 

''  How  can  the  venerable  Sobhita  speak  thus:  '  I  re- 
member five  hundred  kalpas  '?  He  is  claiming  a  state 
of  further-men."  They  told  this  matter  to  the  lord. 
He  said : 

"  Monks,  the  meaning  is  that  this  is  just  one  birth 
of  Sobhita's.  Sobhita  spoke  truly.  There  is  no  offence 
for  Sobhita."  ||  7  ||  9 1| 

Told  is  the  Fourth  Offence  involving  Defeat 


Set  forth  for  the  venerable  ones  are  the  four  things 
involving  defeat.  A  monk,  having  fallen  into  one  or 
other  of  these,  is  not  in  communion  with  the  monks; 
as  before,^  so  after,  he  is  one  who  is  defeated,  he  is  not 

^  parisuddha.  VA.  513  f.  "  They  say  that  the  thera  attained 
arahanship  on  the  seventh  day  after  he  went  forth,  and  had  mastery 
in  the  eight  attainments,  but  not  having  purified  himself  well  in 
the  obstructions  to  contemplation  .  .  .  and  rising  up  from  musing 
and  hearing  the  sound  of  the  elephants,  he  heard  it  between  the 
attainments.     Of  this  he  was  aware." 

^  A.  I.  25  says,  that  he  is  the  chief  of  the  monks  remembering  his 
former  rebirths.  In  his  verses,  Thag.  165,  166,  he  twice  repeats 
that  he  remembered  five  hundred  kalpas  in  a  single  night.  At 
Asl.  32  he  is  said  to  be  the  third  in  the  line  of  theras  who  conveyed 
the  Abhidhamma  up  to  the  time  of  the  Third  Council. 

^  Vin.  Texts  i.  5,  n.  2,  says  that  the  phrase  yathd  pure  tathd  pacchd 
"  probably  means  that  the  monk  is  irrevocably  defeated.  He 
must  remain  for  ever  in  the  condition  (of  permanent  exclusion  from 
the  Order)  into  which  he  has  brought  himself."     VA.  516  says, 


IV.]  DEFEAT  191 

in  communion.  Therefore  I  ask  the  venerable  ones: 
I  hope  that  you  are  quite  pure  in  this  matter  ?  A 
second  time  I  ask:  I  hope  that  you  are  quite  pure  in 
this  matter  ?  A  third  time  I  ask:  I  hope  that  you  are 
quite  pure  in  this  matter  ?  The  venerable  ones  are 
quite  pure  in  this  matter,  therefore  they  are  silent. 
Thus  do  I  understand. 

Unchastity,  taking  what  is  not  given,  and  the  form 

of  men,  and  those  who  are  further. 
The  four  matters  involving  defeat  are  without  doubt 

a  reason  for  punishment.^ 

Told  is  the  Defeat  Section  [109] 

*'  as  in  his  time  as  a  householder,  at  the  time  when  he  was  not  (yet) 
ordained,  and  as  after  when  he  has  fallen  into  defeat,  he  is  not  in 
communion;  there  is  not  for  him  communion  with  the  monks  at 
the  uposatha  (observance-day),  the  pavarana  (ceremony  at  the  end 
of  the  rains),  under  the  rule  of  the  Patimokkha,  or  at  the  legal  acts 
of  the  Order." 

1  Chejjavatthu.    See    chejja    (Vched)    above,    p.    75,    meaning 
maiming. 


[These  thirteen  things,  venerable  ones,  entailing  formal 
meetings  of  the  Order,  come  for  exposition.] 


FORMAL  MEETING  (SANGHADISESA)  I 

At  one  time  the  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  was  stay- 
ing at  Savatthi  in  the  Jeta  Grove  in  Anathapindika's 
park.  Now  at  that  time  the  venerable  Seyyasaka^  led 
the  Brahma-life,  dissatisfied.^  Because  of  this  he  was 
thin,  wretched,  his  colour  bad,  yellowish,  the  veins 
showing  all  over  his  body.^  The  venerable  Udayin  saw 
the  venerable  Seyyasaka  thin,  wretched,  his  colour  bad, 
yellowish,  his  veins  showing  all  over  his  body.  Seeing 
him  thus,  he  said  to  the  venerable  Seyyasaka :  "  Reverend 
Seyyasaka,  why  are  you  thin,  wretched  .  .  .  the  veins 
showing  all  over  your  body  ?  Perhaps  it  is  that  you, 
reverend  Seyyasaka,  lead  the  Brahma-life,  dissatisfied  ?" 

**  It  is  so,  your  reverence,"  he  said. 

"  Now  then,  you,  reverend  Seyyasaka,  eat  as  much 
as  you  like,  sleep  as  much  as  you  like,  bath*  as  much 
as  you  like :  eating  as  much  as  you  like,  sleeping  as  much 
as  you  like,  bathing  as  much  as  you  like,  if  dissatisfac- 
tion arises  in  you  and  passion  assails^  your  heart,  then 
emit  semen  using  your  hand."^ 

^  At  Vin.  ii.  7  ff.  he  is  represented  as  being  tiresome  in  various 
ways. 

*  armbhirato,  see  above,  p.  114,  for  discussion  on  this  term.  VA. 
517  says  on  this  term,  vikkhittacitto  kdmardgaparildhena  pari- 
dayhamdno  na  pana  gihibhdvam  patthayamdno,  upset  in  his  mind, 
burning  with  a  fever  of  passion  and  sense-desires,  but  not  wanting 
the  household  state. 

'  stock-phrase. 

*  VA.  517,  anointing  the  body  with  clay,  rubbing  on  chunam. 

5  A  stock-phrase,  rdgo  citiam  anuddhamseti,  as  at  Af.  i.  26;  ^.  i. 
186;  ^.  ii.  126.  VA.  518  says,  kdmardgo  cittam  dhamseti  padhamsefi 
vikkhipati  c'eva  mildpeti  ca.  MA.  i.  142  expl.  anuddhamsessati  by 
hifjsissati  adhibhavissati. 

«  VA.  518,  "  Thus  will  your  mind  become  one-pointed.  The 
teacher  is  said  to  have  taught  this."      At  VA.  517  it  is  said  that 

102 


I.  1,  1-2]  FORMAL  MEETING  I93 

"  But,  your  reverence,  are  you  sure  that  it  is  suitable 
to  act  like  this  V 

"  Yes,  your  reverence,  I  do  this." 

Then  the  venerable  Seyyasaka  ate  as  much  as  he 
liked,  slept  as  much  as  he  lik^d,  bathed  as  much  as  he 
liked;  but  having  eaten  as  much  as  he  liked,  slept  as 
much  as  he  liked,  bathed  as  much  as  he  liked,  dissatis- 
faction arose,  and  passion  assailed  his  heart,  so  he  emitted 
semen  using  his  hand.  Then  in  a  short  time  the  vener- 
able Seyyasaka  was  nice-looking  with  rounded  features, 
of  a  bright  complexion  and  a  clear  skin.  So  the  monks 
who  were  the  friends  of  the  venerable  Seyyasaka  spoke 
thus  to  the  venerable  Seyyasaka : 

"  Formerly,  reverend  Seyyasaka,  you  were  thin, 
wretched,  of  a  bad  colour,  yellowish,  with  the  veins 
showing  all  over  your  body.  But  now,  at  present,  you 
are  nice-looking  with  rounded  features,  [110]  of  a  bright 
complexion  and  a  clear  skin.  Why  now,  do  you  take 
medicine,^  reverend  Seyyasaka  ?" 

"  I  do  not  take  medicine,  your  reverences,  but  I  am 
eating  as  much  as  I  like,  I  am  sleeping  as  much  as  I 
like,  I  am  bathing  as  much  as  I  like;  then  eating  as 
much  as  I  like,  sleeping  as  much  as  I  like,  bathing  as 
much  as  I  like,  if  dissatisfaction  arises  in  me  and  passion 
assails  the  heart,  I  emit  semen  using  my  hand."  1|  1 1| 

"  But  do  you,  reverend  Seyyasaka,  eat  the  gifts  of 
faith^  with  the  very  same  hand  as  that  which  you  use 
to  emit  semen  ?" 

"  Yes,  your  reverences,"  he  said. 

Those  who  were  modest  monks  became  annoyed, 
vexed  and  ^ngry,  saying: 

Seyyasaka's  teacher  is  Laludayin,  "  an  unsteady  monk."  This 
thera  Laludayin  is  mentioned  at  DhA.  ii.  123  as  having  the  reputa- 
tion of  saying  the  wrong  thing;  at  Jd.  i.  123  as  coming  into  conflict 
with  Dabba  the  Mallian  over  food-tickets;  and  at  J  a.  ii.  164  as  being 
extremely  nervous  and  unable  to  talk. 

1  bhesajjam  karosi. 

2  saddhd-deyya,  VA.  is  silent,  but  DhA.  i.  81,  explains  as  kamman 
ca  phalah  ca  idhalokah  ca  paralokan  ca  saddahitvd  dinndni. 

I.  13 


194  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  Ill 

"  How  can  the  venerable  Seyyasaka  emit  semen  in 
this  way  ?" 

Then  these  monks,  having  rebuked  the  venerable 
Seyyasaka  in  various  ways,  told  this  matter  to  the  lord. 
Then  the  lord  on  this  occasion,  in  this  connection,  having 
had  the  order  of  monks  convened,  asked  the  venerable 
Seyyasaka : 

"  Is  it  true,  as  is  said,  that  you,  Seyyasaka,  using 
your  hand,  emit  semen  ?" 

*'  It  is  true,  lord,"  he  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  him,  saying: 
"  It  is  not  fit,  foolish  man,  it  is  not  becoming,  it  is  not 
suitable,  it  is  not  worthy  of  a  recluse,  it  is  not  right,  it 
is  not  to  be  done.     How  can  you,  foolish  man,  emit 
semen  using  your  hand  ?     Foolish  man,    have  I  not 
uttered  dhamma  in  many  ways  for  the  stilling  of  passion,^ 
and  not  for  the  sake  of  passion,  taught  dhamma  for 
the  sake  of  being  devoid  of  the  fetters,  and  not  for  the 
sake  of  being  bound,  taught  dhamma  for  the  sake  of 
being  without  grasping, ^  and  not  for  the  sake  of  grasp- 
ing ?     How  can  you,  foolish  man,   while  dhamma  is 
taught  by  me  for  the  sake  of  passionlessness,  strive 
after  passion  ?     How  can  you,  while  dhamma  is  taught 
for  the   sake  of  being  devoid   of  the  fetters,  strive 
after  being  bound  ?     How  can  you,  while  dhamma  is 
taught  for  the  sake  of  being  without  grasping,  strive 
after  grasping  ?     Foolish  man,    have    I    not    taught 
dhamma  in  various  ways  for  the  stilling  of  passion, 
taught  dhamma  for  the  subduing  of  conceit,  for  the 
restraint  of  thirst,  for  the  elimination  of  attachment, 
for  the  cutting  through  the  round  of  becomings,  for 
the   destruction   of   craving,    for    passionlessness,    for 
stopping,  for  waning  ?     Foolish  man,  have  I  not  de- 
clared in  various  ways  the  destruction  of  the  pleasures 
of  the  senses,  declared  the  full  understanding  of  ideas 
of  the  pleasures  of  the  senses,  declared  the  restraint 


1  =  above,  p.  35,  except  that  in  this  second  passage  the  lord  is 
represented  as  speaking.     Cf.  A.  ii.  34. 
*  A7iupddd7ia,  sa-upddana. 


I.  1,  2—2,  1]  FORMAL  MEETING  195 

of  the  thirst  for  pleasures  of  the  senses,  declared  the 
elimination  of  thoughts  of  pleasures  of  the  senses, 
declared  the  allaying  of  the  fever  of  pleasures  of  the 
senses  ?  Foolish  man,  it  is  not  for  the  benefit 
of  unbelievers,  nor  for  increase  in  the  number  of 
believers,  but  it  is,  foolish  man,  to  the  detriment 
of  unbelievers  as  well  as  of  believers,  and  it  causes 
wavering  in  some." 

Then  the  lord  having  rebuked  the  venerable  Seyya- 
saka  [111]  in  various  ways  on  account  of  his  difficulty 
in  maintaining  his  state  .  .  .  said: 

"...  Thus,  monks,  this  course  of  training  should 
be  set  forth : 

Intentional  emission  of  semen  is  a  matter  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  "^ 

Thus  this  course  of  training  for  monks  was  made 
known  to  the  lord.  11 2  11  111 


Now  at  that  time,  monks,  having  eaten  abundant 
food,  went  to  sleep,  thoughtless  and  careless.  While 
they  were  sleeping,  thoughtless  and  careless,  one  of 
them  emitted  semen  as  the  result  of  a  dream.  These 
were  remorseful  and  said^:  "  The  course  of  training  made 

^  Sahghddisesa.  Cf.  A.  ii.  242.  VA.  522  says,  sahgho  ddimhi 
c  eva  sese  ca  icchitabbo  assd  ti  sahghddiseso.  This  explanation  was 
noted  by  Childers:  an  offence  to  be  dealt  with  by  a  sahghakamma 
in  the  beginning,  ddi,  and  in  the  remaining  cases,  sesa.  See  below, 
Old  Corny.' s  explanation  which  makes  clear  the  first  stage,  the 
placing  on  probation ;  the  second  stage  of  sending  back  to  the  begin- 
ning of  the  probation;  the  third  stage,  the  tndnatta  discipline;  and 
the  last  stage,  the  rehabilitation.  This  type  of  offence  is  next  in 
gravity  after  the  Parajikas.  Because  it  cannot  be  settled  by  many 
people  or  by  one  man  [Old  Corny.)  it  therefore  has  to  be  settled  by 
the  Order,  which  presumably  has  to  be  convened  for  the  purpose, 
as  the  above  incident  shows.  Editor  at  Vin.  Texts  i.  7,  n.  1,  notes 
that,  "  these  thirteen  offences  give  rise  to  the  various  saw^Aa^awwas 
.  .  .  which  are  explained  in  detail  in  the  third  Khandhaka  of  the 
Culavagga." 

2  These  first  sentences  recur  at  Vin.  i.  294.  Cf.  Kvu.  164  where 
the  matter  of  this  story  formed  the  controverted  point  of  one  of 
the  early  debates  on  arahans. 


196  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  112 

known  by  the  lord  says  that  intentional  emission  of 
semen  is  a  matter  requiring  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order;  and  because  01  a  dream  one  of  us  (did  this). 
Now  is  this  intention  permitted  ?  What  now  if  we  have 
fallen  into  an  offence  requiring  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order  ?"    They  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.    He  said: 

"  Monks,  this  was  the  intention,  but  it  does  not 
apply.^  Monks,  this  course  of  training  should  be  set 
forth: 

Intentional  emission  of  semen  except  during  a  dream 
is  an  offence  requiring  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. "  1 1 1 1 1 

Intentional  means:  a  transgression  committed  know- 
ingly, consciously,  deliberately.^ 

Semen  means:  there  are*  ten  kinds  of  semen  .  .  . 

Emission  means :  the  removal  from  the  place  is  called 
emission. 

Except  during  a  dream^  means:  setting  the  dream 
aside. 

Offence  requiring  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  means : 
the  Order  places  him  on  probation^  on  account  of  the 
offence,  it  sends  him  back  to  the  beginning,*  it  inflicts 
the  manatta  discipline,^  it  rehabilitates®;  it  is  not  many 

1  =above,  p.  159,  and  see  n.  1. 

a  =above,  p.  126,  and  see  n.  3. 

3  parivdsam  deti.  Cf.  Vin.  ii.  7.  Rules  for  monks  placed  on 
probation  are  given  at  Vin.  ii.  31  ff.  At  Vin.  ii.  40  Udayin  was 
placed  on  probation  for  one  day,  since  he  had  concealed  this  first 
saiighadisesa  for  one  day.  See  Vin.  Texts  ii.  384,  n.  1,  for  the  four 
principal  kinds  of  probation,  and  for  Seyyasaka's  conduct.  At 
Vin.  1.  69  it  is  said  that  a  person  who  was  formerly  an  adherent  of 
another  sect  and  who  asks  for  ordination  should  be  put  on  probation 
for  four  months,  and  the  measures  to  be  taken  for  the  proper  carrying 
out  of  this  step  are  stated.  Valid  and  invalid  proceedings  are  given 
at  Vin.  i.  320  ff. 

*  I.e.,  of  his  probationary  term.  Cf.  Vin.  ii.  7.  At  Vin.  ii.  34 
rules  for  those  thrown  back  to  the  beginning  are  given:  they  are 
the  same  as  for  those  placed  on  probation. 

*  This  appears  to  be  much  like  being  placed  on  probation,  cf. 
Vin.  ii.  35.  At  Vin.  ii.  45  Udayin  underwent  manatta  for  six  days. 
For  the  correct  carrying  out  of  this  discipline  see  below,  p.  328. 

«  The  way  in  which  a  monk  should  ask  for  rehabilitation  is  given 
at  Vin.  ii.  39  and  cf.  below,  p  328. 


I.  2,  2—6,  1]  FORMAL  MEETING  IQ/ 

people,  it  is  not  one  man ;  therefore  it  is  called  an  oifence 
which  in  the  earlier  as  well  as  the  later  stages  (requires) 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  A  synonym  for  this 
class  of  oifence  is  a  work;^  therefore,  again,  it  is  called 
(an  offence  which  in  the  earlier  as  well  as  the  later  stages 
requires)  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.^  ||  2  ||  ||  2  || 


[The  whole  of  ||  3 1|,*  pp.  112-115,  because  of  the  out- 
spokenness and  crudeness  which  it  contains,  and 
which  seem  to  be  inseparable  from  early  litera- 
tures, appears  unsuitable  for  incorporation  in  a 
translation  designed  principally  for  Western 
readers.] 


He  aims  at  it,  makes  the  effort,  it  is  emitted — an  offence  en- 
tailing a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  He  aims  at  it,  makes  the 
effort,  it  is  not  emitted — a  grave  offence.  He  aims  at  it,  does 
not  make  the  effort,  it  is  emitted — not  an  offence.  He  aims  at 
it,  does  not  make  the  effort,  it  is  not  emitted — not  an  offence. 
He  does  not  aim  at  it,  he  makes  the  effort,  it  is  emitted — not  an 
offence.  He  does  not  aim  at  it,  does  not  make  the  effort,  it  is 
emitted — not  an  offence.  He  does  not  aim  at  it,  does  not  make 
the  effort,  it  is  not  emitted — ^not  an  offence. 

There  is  no  offence  if  he  was  dreaming,  if  there  was 
no  intentional  emission,  if  he  was  mad,  unhinged,  in 
pain,  a  beginner.  ||4|| 


A  dream,  excrement  and  urine,  reflection,  and  about 

hot  water, 
Medicine,  itching,  the  way,  the  bladder,  a  hot  room 

for  bathing-purposes,  making  an  effort,/ 

^  kamma,  possibly  meaning  sanghakamma:  an  act  or  ceremony, 
for  the  infliction  of  the  penalty,  to  be  performed  by  an  assembly  of 
monks  met  together  in  solemn  conclave.  Probably  kamma  has  here 
an  ancient  technical  meaning. 

*  Gf.  Vin.  iv.  225,  the  first  Bhikkhuni-sanghadisesa.  Here 
"  inflicts  manatta  "  is  apparently  substituted  for  "  places  on  pro- 
bation," which  is  not  mentioned. 


J 


198  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE       [III.  116-119 

And  a  novice,  and  asleep,  the  thigh,  he  pressed  with 

the  fists, 
In  the  air,  firmness,  he  meditated  on,  an  aperture, 

he  hit  with  a  stick,  / 
In  the  stream,  muddy  water,  running,  a  twist  of 

flowers,  a  lotus. 
Sand,  mud,  water,  lying  down,  and  with  the  thumbs. 


At  one  time  while  a  certain  monk  was  dreaming  he 
emitted  semen.  He  was  remorseful  and  said:  "  What 
now  if  I  have  fallen  into  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order  ?"  That  monk  told  this  matter 
to  the  lord.  He  said :  "  There  is  no  offence  for  the  monk 
because  he  was  dreaming.''  ||  1 1| 


[The  reasons  for  not  including*  the  remainder  of  ||  6 1| 
in  this  translation  are  the  same  as  those  for  not 
including  |{3||  above.] 

Told  is  the  First  Offence  entailing  a  Formal  Meeting  of 

the  Order 


FORMAL  MEETING  (SANGHADISESA)  II 

At  one  time  the  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  was  staying 
at  Savatthi  in  the  Jeta  Grove  in  Anathapindika's  park. 
At  that  time  the  venerable  Udayin  lived  in  the  jungle. 
The  dwelling^  of  the  venerable  one  was  lovely,  good  to 
look  upon,  beautiful,  the  inner  chamber  in  the  middle 
was  entirely  surrounded  by  the  house;  the  couch  and 
chair,  the  bolster  and  pillow  were  well  designed,  the 
water  used  for  drinking  and  that  used  for  washing  were 
well  placed;  the  celP  was  well  swept.  Many  people 
came  to  look  at  the  dwelling  of  the  venerable  Udayin, 
and  a  certain  brahmin  together  with,  his  wife  approached 
the  venerable  Udayin,  and  having  approached  the  vener- 
able Udayin,  he  said:  "  We  want  to  see  the  dwelling  of 
the  good  Udayin." 

''  Do  look  at  it,  brahmin,"  he  said,  and  taking  the 
key,  unfastening  the  bolt,  and  opening  the  door,^  he 
entered  the  dwelling.  The  brahmin  entered  after  the 
venerable  Udayin,  and  the  brahmin  lady  entered  behind 
the  brahmin.  Then  the  venerable  Udayin,  opening 
some  windows  and  closing  others,  going  round  about 
the  inner  room,  and  coming  up  from  behind,  rubbed  up 
against*  the  brahmin  lady  limb  by  limb.     Then  the 

^  Vihdra.  ^  parivena,  see  above,  p.  119,  n.  1. 

3  Kavdlam  pandmetvd.  Cf.  Vin.  i.  87;  ii.  114,  207  and  Vin. 
Texts  iii.  88,  where  in  n.  1  translator  (rightly)  insists  that  pandmeti 
is  "to  open  "  and  not  "  to  shut,"  Our  passage  above  is  further 
evidence  that  this  is  so.  But  P.T.S.  Diet,  says  "  kaodtam  "pandmeti, 
to  shut  the  door."  Possibly  it  means  "to  make  the  door  lean/' 
i.e.  when  open  against  the  wall,  when  closed  against  the  post. 

*  pardmasi,  see  below,  p.  203,  and  n.  6.  This  "  rubbing  up 
against  "  was  not,  I  think,  an  act  of  deliberate  familiarity  or 
meant  offensively.  In  the  tiny  cell-room  Udayin  just  rubbed  up 
against  the  visitors,  as  we  might  rub  up  against  people  in  a  crowd 
— in  a  bus  or  train  or  queue. 

199 


200  BOOK   OF  THE    DISCIPLINE      [III.  11&-120 


brahmin,  having  exchanged  greetings  with  the  venerable 
Udayin,  went  away.  Then  the  brahmin,  who  was 
pleased,  burst  out  with  a  cry  of  pleasure:^  "  Superb  are 
these  recluses,  sons  of  the  Sakyans,  who  dwell  in  such 
a  jungle,  superb  is  the  revered  Udayin  who  dwells  in 
such  a  jungle." 

Having  spoken  thus,  the  brahmin"  lady  said  to  the 
brahmin:  [119] 

"  What  is  there  superb  about  him  ?  Even  as  you 
rubbed  up  against  me  limb  by  limb,  so  did  this  recluse 
Udayin  rub  up  against  me  limb  by  limb." 

Then  the  brahmin  became  annoyed,  vexed,  angry 
and  said  : 

''  These  recluses,  sons  of  the  Sakyans, ^  are  shameless, 
of  low  morality,  liars.  And  they  pretend  to  be  walking 
by  dhamma,  walking  by  right,  leading  the  Brahma- 
life,  speaking  truth,  virtuous,  of  good  conduct.  Among 
these  there  is  no  recluseship,  among  these  there  is  no 
brahmanhood.  Perished  is  recluseship  among  these, 
perished  is  brahmanhood  among  these.  Where  is  re- 
cluseship among  these  ?  Where  is  brahmanhood  among 
these  ?  Fallen  from  recluseship  are  these,  fallen  from 
brahmanhood  are  these.  How  can  this  recluse  Udayin 
rub  up  against  my  wife  limb  by  limb  ?  It  is  not  possible 
to  go  to  the  park  or  dwelling  with  wives  of  respectable 
families,  with  daughters  of  respectable  families,^  with 
girls  of  respectable  families,^  with  daughters-in-law* 
of  respectable  families,  with  women-slaves  of  respectable 

^  attmnano  atfamanavdcam  nicchdresi=  M .  i.  32  and  M.  i.  509 
inicchdreyya) .  VA.  is  silent,  MA.  i.  151  says:  attamano  ti  saka- 
mano  tuttliamano  ;  pUisomanassehi  va  gc^hiiamano.  Attamanavdcam 
nicchdresi  ti  attamanatdya  vdcam,  attamanabhdvassa  vd  yutiavdcam 
nicchdresi.     Udirayi,  pabydhari  ti  vuttam  hoti. 

2  As  above,  p.  125,  and  below,  p.  223. 

3  These  two  are  probably  meant  to  be  opposed.  Bu.  calls  kula- 
dhitd,  purisantaram  gatd,  and  kulakumdriyo,  anivitthd  (unsettled). 

^  Kulasunhd.  P. T.S.  Diet,  given  sunhd  undei  sunisa.  At  Vin.  Texts 
ii.  348  it  is  trans.  "  sisters-in-law."  Childers  gives  daughter-in-law. 
VA.  532  says,  "  brought  from  another  family  for  the  young  men  of 
respectable  families,  they  are  vadhuyo,"  which  is  daughters-in-law. 
And  indeed  a  daughter-in-law  held  a  more  important  position  in 
the  social  system  than  did  a  sister-in-law. 


II.  1,  1-2]  FORMAL  MEETING  201 

families.  If  wives  of  respectable  families,  daughters 
of  respectable  families,  girls  of  respectable  families, 
daughters-in-law  of  respectable  families,  women-slaves 
of  respectable  families  should  go  to  a  park  or  dwelling, 
the  recluses,  sons  of  the  Sakyans,  may  assault  them." 

Ill  II 

The  monks  heard  this  brahmin  as  he  was  grumbling, 
murmuring,  and  becoming  angry.  Those  who  were 
modest  monks  became  annoyed,  vexed,  angry  and  said: 
"  How  can  the  reverend  Udayin  come  into  bodily  contact 
with  women-kind  ?"  Then  these  monks  told  this  matter 
to  the  lord.  Then  the  lord  on  this  occasion,  for  this 
reason,  causing  the  Order  of  monks  to  be  convened, 
asked  the  reverend  Udayin: 

*'  Is  it  true  as  they  say,  Udayin,  that  you  came  into 
bodily  contact  with  a  woman  ?" 

"  It  is  true,  lord,"  he  said. 

Then  the  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  him, 
saying: 

"It  is  not  right,  foolish  man,  it  is  not  becoming,  it 
is  not  suitable,  it  is  not  fit  in  a  recluse,  it  is  not  proper, 
it  is  not  to  be  done.  How  can  you,  foolish  man,  come 
into  bodily  contact  with  a  woman  ?  Foolish  man,  is 
not  dhamma  uttered  by  me  in  various  ways  for  the 
sake  of  stilling  passion,  and  not  for  the  sake  of  passion 
.  .  .  declared  the  allaying  of  the  flames  of  the  pleasures 
of  the  senses  ?  It  is  not,  foolish  man,  for  the  benefit 
of  unbelievers.  .  .  .  Thus,  monks,  this  course  of  train- 
ing should  be  set  forth : 

"  Whatever  monk,  affected  by  desire,^  with  perverted^ 
heart,  should  come  into^  physical  contact  with  a  woman. 


^  Otinna,  as  passive:  possessed  by.  See  Old  Corny.'' s  explanation 
below  in  2,  1.  The  translators  in  Vin,  Texts  i.  7,  n.  2  say,  "  our 
word  '  degraded  '  has  often  a  very  similar  connotation."  They 
render  otinna  by  degraded.     Cf.  below,  p.  215. 

^  Viparinatena,  lit.  changed.     Cf.  below,  p.  215. 

*  Samdpajjeyya=$afj  -\-dpajjati,  Sanskrit.  dpadyate=d-{-pad,  to 
get  into,  to  come  into,  to  meet  with.  Sam+d  (as  here)  very  often 
pleonastic.    Although  samdpajjati  does  not,  in  the  above  context, 


202  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [120-121 

holding  her  hand,  or  holding  a  braid  of  her  hair,  or 
rubbing  against  any  one  or  other  of  her  limbs:  this  is 
an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order/' 

11211111 


Tf^a^ever  means:  he  who  ... 

Monk  means:  .  .  .  this  is  how  monk  is  to  be  under- 
stood in  this  sense.  [120] 

Affected  by  desire  means:  infatuated,  full  of  desire, 
physically  in  love  with.^ 

Perverted  means:  the  perverted  heart  is  impassioned, 
the  perverted  heart  is  corrupt,  the  perverted  heart  is 
erring.  And  in  this  meaning  it  is  to  be  understood 
that  the  perverted  heart  is  impassioned.^ 

Woman  means :  a  human  woman,  not  a  female  yakkha, 
not  a  female  departed  one,  not  a  female  animal,^  even 
a  girl  bom  on  this  very  day,  all  the  more  an  older 
one.2 

Together  with  means :  together. 

Should  come  into  physical  contact  means:  it  is  called  a 
transgression.^ 


necessarily  imply  deliberate  action,  coming  into  physical  contact 
with  a  woman  was  nevertheless  regarded  as  an  offence  of  a  serious 
nature,  because  the  desires  possibly  resulting  from  such  a  contact 
had  to  be  suppressed.  For  in  a  growing  vogue  of  monasticism  the 
majority  of  members  were  perhaps  young  and  middle-aged  men. 
Cf.  below,  p.  338. 

^  =below,  p.  215. 

^  Mahattari.  This  is  comparative  of  makant.  The  Sanskrit 
form  is  muhattard,  but  Pali  has  -i,  after  then.  Same  definition 
occurs  below,  p.  332. 

^  Ajjhdcdra,  cf.  ajjhdcarati  {adhy  -  a  +  \^car)  to  practise  (some- 
thing bad).  Used  in  Vin.  in  the  sense  of  a  fault,  a  transgression; 
then  in  an  erotical  sense  as  above,  and  cf.  below,  p.  216.  It  could  not 
there  be  used  in  sense  of  contact,  for  the  speech,  not  the  body,  was 
at  fault.  VA.  533  says,  "  whatever  is  called  physical  contact 
{cf.  547,  "  oifensive  speech  ")  according  to  that  meaning  it  is  a  trans- 
gression." Cf.  also  VA.  213,  "  she,  because  of  his  transgression, 
became  pregnant."  VA.  19  says,  "  he  disciplines  body  and  speech 
through  the  restraint  of  transgressions  of  body  and  speech."  At 
Vin.  i.  63  we  get  adhisile  silavipanno  hoti  ajjhdcdre  dcdravipanno 


II.  2,  1-2]  FORMAL   MEETING  203 

The  hand  means:  going  up  from  the  tip  of  the  nail 
as  far  as  the  elbow. 

Braid  of  hair  means:  nothing  but  hair/  or  mixed 
with  threads,^  or  mixed  with  garlands,^  or  mixed  with 
gold  coins,*  or  mixed  with  gold,*  or  mixed  with  pearls, 
or  mixed  with  jewels.^ 

A  limb  means :  setting  to  one  side  a  hand  and  a  braid 
of  hair,  what  remains  is  called  a  limb.  ||  1 1| 

Rubbing,  rubbing  up  against,  rubbing  downwards, 
rubbing  upwards,*  bending  down,  raising  up,  drawing 
to,  pushing  back,  holding  back  hard,  taking  hard  hold 
of,  the  grasp,  the  touch. 

Rubbing    is    called    merely    rubbed.     Rubbing    up 


hoti  atidiithiyd  ditthivipanno  hoti.  Here  ajjhdcdre  (indeclinable) 
means  according  to  Tr.  Crit.  Pali  Diet.,  "  in  matter,  of  conduct  " 
as  adhisile  means  not  **  in  the  higher  morality,"  but  *'  as  to  a  matter 
of  morality."  Vin.  Texts  i.  184,  n.  1,  points  out  that  there  Bu.  says 
that  adhisUe  ''  m  said  with  regard  to  offences  against  the  Defeat 
and  Formal  Meeting  rules,  while  ajjhdcdre  consists  in  offences  against 
the  minor  rules  of  the  Patimokkha."  But  below,  p.  211,  "  to  come 
into  physical  contact,"  which  above  is  called  a  transgression,  is 
there  (below)  called  a  Formal  Meeting  offence. 

*  /.c,  unmixed  with  threads,  VA.  533. 

^  I.e.,  the  hair  mixed  with  threads  of  five  colours. 
^  I.e.,  with  jasmine  flowers,  and  so  on. 

*  On  hiranna  and  suvanna  see  above,  p.  28.  Here  VA.  534  says  that 
hiranfiamissa  means  mixed  with  garlands  and  kahapanas;  and 
suvanrikamissa  means  mixed  with  golden  ciraka  and  with  pdmanga. 
Here  suvannaciraka  probably  means  gold  threads  or  bands  or 
fillets  {of.  Jd.  V.  197  where  suvannaciraka  seems  to  mean  gold 
brocade).     On  pdtnahga,  cf.  above,  p.  77. 

^  With  jewels  strung  on  threads. 

*  These  four  words:  dmasand,  pardmasand,  omasand,  ummasand 
are  all  connected  with  masati  from  ^/mfs.  to  touch.  I  have  tried 
to  give  the  force  of  the  prefixes  with  masati  by  suitable  prepositions. 
a  has  force  of  "at,"  therefore  d-masati,  to  stroke  at,  touch  at, 
although  a  in  itself  denotes  touch  (contact)  or  a  personal  (close) 
relation  with  the  object — so  P.T.S.  Diet.  Cf.  below,  p.  211.  Para- 
means  "  over."  Note  the  difference  of  o<jiva  and  ut  in  the  third  and 
fourth  words.  There  are  similar  prefixes  in  some  of  the  following 
words,  meaning  "  down  "  and  "  up."  Pardmasati  at  Vin.  ii.  216 
is  trans,  by  "  wipes  "  (at  Vin.  Texts  iii.  291) — i.e.,  wipes  over,  rubs 
over  (the  spoon  and  the  dish).     Cf.  pardmasati,  above,  p.  199. 


204  BOOK  OF  THE   DISCIPLINE        III.  121-122 

against  is  called  moving  from  here  and  there.  Rubbing 
downwards  is  called  bringing  down  low.  Rubbing  up- 
wards is  called  raising  up  high.  Bending  down  is  called 
lowering.  Bending  up  is  called  raising  up  high.  Draw- 
ing to  is  called  pulling.  Pushing  back  is  called  sending 
back.  Holding  back  hard^  is  called  holding  back  having 
taken  hold  of  a  limb.  Taking  hard  hold  of  is  called 
taking  hold  together  with  someone.  Grasp  is  called 
merely  taken.     Touch  means  merely  contact. 

Offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  means : 
.  .  .  therefore  it  is  called  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  2  ||  2 1| 


If  there  is  a  womai^  and  thinking  her  to  be  a  woman, 
if  the  monk  is  infatuated,  and  rubs  the  woman's  body 
with  his  body,  rubs  up  against  it,  rubs  it  downwards, 
rubs  it  upwards,  bends  it  down,  raises  it  up,  draws  it 
to,* pushes  it  back,  holds  it  back  hard,  takes  hold  of 
it  hard,  grfisps  it,  touches  it,  there  is  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

If  there  is  a  woman,  and  being  doubtful,  if  the  monk  is  in- 
fatuated, and  rubs  the  woman's  body  with  his  body,  rubs  up 
against  it  .  .  .  touches  it,  there  is  a  grave  offence. 

If  there  is  a  woman,  and  thinking  it  to  be  an  eunuch,  if  the 
monk  is  infatuated  .  .  .  grave  offence. 

If  there  is  a  woman,  and  thinking  it  to  be  a  man  .  .  .  thinking 
it  to  be  an  animal,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  .  .  .  grave  offence. 

If  there  is  an  eunuch,  and  thinking  it  to  be  an  eunuch,  if  the 
monk  is  infatuated,  [121]  and  rubs  the  eunuch's  body  .  .  . 
touches  it  .  .  .  grave  offence. 

If  there  is  an  eunuch,  and  being  doubtful  .  .  .  thinking  it  to 
be  a  man  .  .  .  thinking  it  to  be  an  animal  .  .  .  thinking  it 
to  be  a  woman,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated ^  and  rubs  the  eunuch's 
body  .  .  .  touches  it,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing 

If  there  is  a  man,  and  thinking  it  to  be  a  man  .  .  . 
doubtful  .  .  .  thinking  it  to  be  an  animal  .  .  .  think- 
ing it  to  be  a  woman  .  .  .  thinking  it  to  be  an  eunuch, 

^  ahhinigganhand,  while  merely  **  holding  back  "  is  nigganhand. 
Also  cf.  next,  abhinipjniand  and  nipptland. 


U.  3,  1-3]  FORMAL  MEETING  205 

if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  the  man's  body  .  .  . 
touches  it,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  is  an  animal,  and  thinking  it  to  be  an  animal 
.  .  .  doubtful  .  .  .  thinking  it  to  be  a  woman  .  .  . 
thinking  it  to  be  an  eunuch  .  .  .  thinking  it  to  be  a 
man,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  the  animal's 
body  .  .  .  touches  it,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. 

Beginning  with  one  ||  1 1| 

If  there  are  two  women,  and  thinking  the  two  women 
to  be  women,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  the 
women's  bodies  .  .  .  touches  them,  there  is  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

If  there  are  two  women,  and  being  doubtful  whether  they 
are  two  women  .  .  .  thinking  them  to  be  men  ...  to  be 
eunuchs  ...  to  be  animals,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs 
with  his  body  the  bodies  of  the  two  women  .  .  .  touches  them, 
there  are  two  grave  offences. 

If  there  are  two  eunuchs,  and  thinking  the  eunuchs  to  be 
two  eunuchs,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  their  bodies  .  .  . 
touches  them,  there  are  two  grave  offences. 

If  there  are  two  eunuchs,  and  being  doubtful  of  their  being 
eunuchs  .  .  .  thinking  them  to  be  men  ...  to  be  animals 
...  to  be  women,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  the  bodies 
of  the  eunuchs  .  .  .  touches  them,  there  are  two  offences  of 
wrong-doing. 

It  there  are  two  men,  and  thinking  the  two  men  to  be  men, 
if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  the  two  men  with  his  body 
.  .  .  touches  them,  there  are  two  offences  of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  two  men,  and  being  doubtful  of  their  being  men 
.  .  .  thinking  them  to  be  animals  ...  to  be  women  ...  to 
be  eunuchs,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  the  two  men 
with  his  body  ...  touches  them,  there  are  two  offences  of 
wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  two  animals,  and  thinking  the  two  animals  to 
be  animals  .  .  .  doubtful  .  .  .  thinking  them  to  be  women 
...  to  be  eunuchs  ...  to  be  men,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated 
and  rubs  the  two  animals  with  his  body,  there  are  two  offences 
of  wrong-doing.  ||  2  || 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch,  and  thinking 
both  to  be  women,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  [122]  and 


206  BOOK    OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  123 

rubs  with  his  body  .  .  .  touches  them,  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing  together  with  an  offence  entailing  a 
formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch,  and  being  doubtful,  if 
the  monk  is  infatuated  .  .  .  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing 
together  with  a  grave  offence. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch,  and  thinking  both  to  be 
eunuchs,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  .  .  .  there  are  two  grave 
offences. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch  and  thinking  both  to 
be  men,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  .-  .  .  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing  together  with  a  grave  offence. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch,  and  thinking  both  to 
be  animals,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  .  .  .  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing  together  with  a  grave  offence. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  a  man,  and  thinking  both 
to  be  women',  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  .  .  .  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing  together  with  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  a  man,  and  being  doubtful 
of  both  .  .  .  thinking  them  to  be  eunuchs  ...  to  be 
men  .  .  .  to  be  animals,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  .  .  . 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing  together  with  a  grave 
offence. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  animal,  and  thinking 
both  to  be  women,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  ...  there 
is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing  together  with  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch,  and  being  doubt- 
ful of  both  .  .  .  thinking  them  to  be  eunuchs  ...  to 
be  men  ...  to  be  animals,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated 
.  .  .  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing  together  with  a 
grave  offence. 

If  there  are  an  eunuch  and  a  man,  and  thinking  both 
to  be  eunuchs,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  .  .  .  there  is  an 
offence  of  wrong-doing  together  with  a  grave  offence. 

If  there  are  an  eunuch  and  a  man,  and  being  doubtful 
of  both  .  .  .  thinking  them  to  be  men  ...  to  be 
animals  ...  to  be  women,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated 
.  .  .  there  are  two  offences  of  wrong-doing. 


II.  3,  3-4]  FORMAL  MEETING  207 

If  there  are  an  eunuch  and  an  animal,  and  thinking 
both  are  eunuchs,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  .  .  .  there 
is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing  together  with  a  grave 
offence. 

If  there  are  an  eunuch  and  an  animal,  and  being 
doubtful  of  both  .  .  .  thinking  them  to  be  men  .  .  . 
to  be  animals  ...  to  be  women,  if  the  monk  is  in- 
fatuated .  .  .  there  are  two  offences  of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  a  man  and  an  animal,  and  being  doubtful 
of  both  .  .  .  thinking  them  to  be  animals  ...  to  be 
women  ...  to  be  eunuchs,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated 
.  .  .  there  are  two  offences  of  wrong-doing. 

Beginning  with  two  ||  3  || 

If  there  is  a  woman,  and  thinking  it  to  be  a  woman, 
if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  with  his  body  the 
woman's  article  of  dress  (worn  on  the  body^)  .  ,  . 
touches  it,  there  is  a  grave  offence.^ 

If  there  are  two  women,  and  thinking  the  two  women 
to  be  women,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  with 
his  body  an  article  of  dress  belonging  to  the  two  women 
.  .  .  touches  it,  there  are  two  grave  offences.  [123] 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch,  thinking  that  both  are 
women  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  an  article  of  dress 
of  both  with  his  body  .  .  .  touches  them,  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing  together  with  a  grave  offence. 

If  there  is  a  woman,  thinking  it  to  be  a  woman,  if  the  monk 
is  infatuated  and  rubs  his  body  with  the  woman's  article  of  dress 
.  .  .  touches  it,  there  is  a  grave  offence. 

If  there  are  two  women  .  .  .  there  are  two  grave  offences. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch  .  .  .  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing  together  with  a  grave  offence. 

If  there  is  a  woman,  thinking  it  to  be  a  w^oman,  if  the  monk 
is  infatuated  and  rubs  (his)  article  of  dress  with  the  woman's 
article  of  dress  .  .  .  touches  it,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. =* 

^  Kdyapatibaddha,  or  ornaments,  e.g.  rings,  VA.  536,  clothes  and 
flowers,  VA.  537.  Whoso  takes  several  women,  encircling  them  in 
things  to  be  worn,  commits  various  offences.     Cf.  below,  p.  218. 

2  C/.  Fm.  iv.  214.  ^  Ibid. 


208  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [II.  124 

If  there  are  two  women  .  .  .  there  are  two  offences  of  wrong- 
doing. 

Ifthere  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch  .  .  .  there  are  two  offences 
of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  is  a  woman,  and  thinking  it  is  a  woman, 
if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  the  woman's  body 
with  something  that  may  be  thrown^  (aside),  thBre  is  an 
offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  two  women,  and  thinking  that  the  two  women 
are  women,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  the  bodies  of  the 
two  women  with  something  that  may  be  thrown  (aside),  there  are 
two  offences  of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch,  and  thinking  both  are 
women,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  the  body  of  each  with 
something  that  may  be  thrown  (aside),  there  are  two  offences  of 
wrong-doing. 

If  there  is  a  woman,  and  thinking  it  to  be  a  woman, 
if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  the  woman's  article 
of  dress  with  something  that  may  be  thrown  (aside), 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  two  women,  and  thinking  that  the  two  women  are 
women,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  an  article  of  dress 
belonging  to  the  two  women  with  something  that  may  be  thrown 
(aside),  there  are  two  offences  of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch  .  .  .  there  are  two 
offences  of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  is  a  woman,  and  thinking  it  to  be  a  woman,  if  the 
monk  is  infatuated  and  rubs  something  he  has  thrown  (aside) 
with  something  of  the  woman's  which  may  be  thrown  (aside), 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  two  women  .  .  .  there  are  two  offences  of  wrong- 
doing. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  eunuch  .  .  there  are  two  offences  of 
wrong-doing. 

Told  is  the  Monk  Repetition  ||4|| 

If  there  is  a  woman,  and  thinking  it  to  be  a  woman, 
if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  the  woman  rubs  the  body 
of  the  monk  with  her  body,  rubs  against  it,  rubs  it  down- 

1  nissagyiya,  cf.  p.  129.  VA.  540,  flowers  and  fniits;  cf.  Vin,  iv.  214. 


II.  3,  5]  FORMAL   MEETING  209 

wards,  rubs  it  upwards,  bends  it  down,  raises  it  up,  draws 
it  to  her,  pushes  it  back,  holds  it  back  hard,  takes  hard 
hold  of  it,  grasps  it,  touches  it;  if  desiring  cohabitation, 
he  exerts  his  body  and  recognises  the  contact,  there  is 
an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

If  there  are  two  women,  and  thinking  them  to  be 
women,  if  the  monk  if  infatuated  and  the  women  rub 
.  .  .  and  recognises  the  contact,  there  is  an  offence  entail- 
ing two  formal  meetings  of  the  Order.  [124] 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch,  and  thinking  both  to 
be  women,  if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  if  both  rub  .  .  . 
and  recognises  the  contact,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing 
together  with  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order. 

If  there  is  a  woman,  and  thinking  it  to  be  a  woman,  if  the 
monk  is  infatuated  and  the  woman  rubs  with  her  body  the  monk's 
article  of  clothing  .  .  .  there  is  a  grave  offence. 

If  there  are  two  women  .  .  .  there  are  two  grave  offences. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch  .  .  .  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing  together  with  a  grave  offence. 

If  there  is  a  woman,  and  thinking  it  to  be  a  woman,  if  the 
monk  is  infatuated  and  the  woman  rubs  the  monk's  body  with^ 
her  article  of  dress  .  .  .  there  is  a  grave  offence. 

If  there  are  two  women  .  .  .  there  are  two  grave  offences. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch  .  .  .  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing  together  with  a  grave  offence. 

If  there  is  a  woman,  and  thinking  it  to  be  a  woman, 
if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  the  woman  rubs  the 
monk's  article  of  dress  with  her  article  of  dress  .  .  . 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  two  women  .  .  .  there  are  two  offences  of  wrong 
doing. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch  .  .  .  there  are  two 
offences  of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  is  a  woman,  and  thinking  it  to  be  a  woman, 
if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  the  woman  rubs  the 
monk's  body  with  something  that  may  be  thrown  (aside), 
if  desiring  cohabitation,  he  exerts  his  body  and  recognises 
the  contact,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

I.  14 


210  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE       [III.  126-126 

If  there  are  two  women  .  .  .  there  are  two  offences  of  wrong- 
doing. 

Ifthere  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch  .  .  .  there  are  two  offences 
of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  is  a  woman,  and  thinking  it  to  be  a  woman, 
if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  the  woman  rubs  the  monk's 
article  of  dress  with  something  that  may  be  thrown 
(aside)  .  .  .  and  recognises  the  contact,  there  is  an 
offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  two  women  .  .  .  there  are  two  offences  of  wrong- 
doing. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch  .  .  .  there  are  two  offences 
of  wrong-doing. 

If  ihene  is  a  woman,  and  thinking  it  to  be  a  woman, 
if  the  monk  is  infatuated  and  the  woman  rubs  with  some- 
thing that  may  be  thrown  (aside)  something  of  the 
monk's  that  maybe  thrown  (aside),  if  desiring  cohabita- 
tion, he  exerts  his  body  but  does  not  recognise  the 
contact,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  two  women  .  .  .  there  are  two  offences 
of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch  .  .  .  there  are 
two  offences  of  wrong-doing.  ||  5  || 

If  desiring  cohabitation,  he  makes  bodily  exertion 
and  recognises  contact,  there  is  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  If  desiring  cohabita- 
tion, he  makes  bodily  exertion  but  does  not  recognise 
contact,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  desiring 
cohabitation,  he  does  not  make  bodily  exertion  but 
recognises  contact,  there  is  no  offence.  If  desiring 
cohabitation,  he  does  not  make  bodily  exertion  nor 
recognises  contact,  there  is  no  offence. 

If  desiring  emission  he  exerts  his  body  and  recognises 
contact,  there  is  no  offence.  If  desiring  emission,  he 
exerts  the  body  but  does  not  recognise  contact,  [125] 
there  is  no  offence.  If  desiring  emission,  he  does  not 
exert  the  body  but  recognises  contact,  there  is  no  offence. 
If  desiring  emission,  he  does  not  exert  the  body  and  does 
not  recognise  contact,  there  is  no  offence.  ||  6  || 


n.  8,  7—4,  3]  FORMAL  MEETING  211 

There  is  no  offence  if  it  is  not  on  purpose,  not  inten- 
tional, not  knowing,  not  agreeing,  if  lie  is  mad,  un- 
hinged, in  pain,  a  beginner.^  II 7  ||  3 1| 


Mother,  daughter,  and  sister,  wife,  and  female  yakkha, 

eunuch, 
Asleep,  dead,  an  animal,  about  a  wooden  doll,/ 
Pressing  up  to,  a  bridge,  a  road,  a  tree,  and  a  boat, 

and  a  cord, 
A  stick,  he  disclosed  the  bowl,^  in  salutation,  he 

exerted  himself  but  did  not  touch. 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  stroked^  a  mother* 
for  the  sake  of  a  mother's  affection  ...  a  daughter 
for  the  sake  of  a  daughter's  affection  ...  a  sister  for 
the  sake  of  a  sister's  affection.  He  was  remorseful,  and 
said:  ''  What  now  if  I  have  fallen  into  an  offence  en- 
tailing a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  ?"  He  told  this 
matter  to  the  lord.     He  said: 

"  Monk,  this  is  not  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order,  it  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing." 

II 1 II 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  came  into  physical 
contact  with  his  former  wife.     He  was  remorseful  .  .  . 

"  You,  monk,  hava  fallen  into  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order."  ||  2 1| 

Now  at  that  time  a  certain  monk  came  into  physical 
contact  with  a  female  yakkha  .  .  .  with  a  eunuch. 
He  was  remorseful  ...     "  Monk,  it  is  not  an  offence 


*  VA.  541  says  that  Thera  Udayin  was  the  first  olfender,  therefore 
there  was  no  offence  for  him. 

*  Cf.  kavdtam  pandmeti.  See  p.  199,  n.  3,  above,  and  p.  213,  below. 
^  Amasi,  see  above,  p.  199,  n.  4,  and  p.  203  n.  6.    Amasi  is  the  word 

there  trans,  by  "  to  rub,"  but  there  it  seems  to  call  for  **  to  stroke." 

*  VA.  541  says  "  he  strokes  the  mother's  body,  saying, '  she  is  my 
mother.'  "  In  text  amasi  (he  stroked)  is  not  followed  by  the  ace. 
as  is  usually  the  case. 


212  BOOK  OF  THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  126-127 

entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order,  it  is  a  grave 
offence."  ||3|| 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  came  into  physical 
contact  with  a  sleeping  woman.  He  was  remorseful 
...  *'  Monk,  you  have  fallen  into  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order." 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  came  into  physical  con- 
tact with  a  dead  woman.  He  was  remorseful.  ''  Monk, 
it  is  not  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order,  it  is  a  grave  offence." 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  came  into  physical 
contact  with  a  female  animal^  ...  "  Monk,  it  is  not 
an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order, 
it  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing." 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  came  into  physical 
contact  with  a  wooden  doll  ...  "...  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing."  ||4|| 

Now  at  one  time  many  women,  pressing  up  to^  a 
certain  monk,  led  him  about  arm-in-arm.  He  was 
remorseful  ...     "  Did  you  consent,  monk  ?"  he  said. 

''I  did  not  consent,  lord,"  he  said. 

"  It  is  not  an  offence,  monk,  as  you  did  not  consent," 
he  said.  |!5||  [126] 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk,  being  infatuated, 
shook  the  bridge^  upon  which  a  woman  had  ascended. 
He  was  remorseful  ...  "...  offence  of  wrong- 
doing." II  6 II 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk  seeing  a  woman 
whom  he  met  on  the  way,  was  infatuated,  and  gave 
her  a  blow  on  the  shoulder.  He  was  remorseful  .  .  . 
"...  formal  meeting  of  the  Order."  ||  7  ij 

1  tiracchdnagatitthi,  see  above,  p.  47,  n.  4. 
*  sampilefvd,  pressing,  pinching,  or  worrying. 
»  VA .  546,  whether  it  is  a  bridge  for  one  passenger,  or  for  waggons, 
if  he  succeeds  in  shaking  it  or  not,  it  is  a  dukkata. 


II.  4,  8-11]  FORMAL   MEETING  213 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk,  being  infatuated, 
shook  the  tree  up  which  a  woman  had  climbed  .  .  .  the 
boat  in  which  a  woman  had  embarked.  He  was  remorse- 
ful ..  .     "...  offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||  8  || 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk,  being  infatuated, 
pulled  a  cord^  of  which  a  woman  held  (the  other  end). 
He  was  remorseful  ...     "...  grave  offence,"  he  said. 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk,  being  infatuated, 
pulled  a  stick  of  which  a  woman  held  (the  other  end). 
He  was  remorseful  ...  "...  grave  offence,"  he 
said.  II 9  II 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk,  being  infatuated, 
greeted^  a  woman  with  his  bowl.  He  was  remorse- 
ful ..  .     "  .  .'.  grave  offence,"  he  said.  ||10|| 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk,  infatuated  by  a 
woman  who  made  reverence,  raised  his  foot.  He  was 
remorseful  ...  "...  formal  meeting  of  the  Order," 
he  said. 

Now  at  one  time  a  certain  monk,  saying:  "  I  will  take 
a  woman,"  exerted  himself  but  did  not  touch  one.  He 
was  remorseful  ...  "...  offence  of  wrong-doing," 
he  said.  ||11||.4|| 

Told  is  the  Second  Offence  entailing  a  Formal  Meeting 

of  the  Order 


1  rajjum  dvinji. 

2  pattena  pandmesi.  In  "  Table  of  Contents,"  p.  211,  above, 
this  appears  as  pattam  pandmesi,  which  at  Vin.  ii.  216  is  "  uncovered 
(or  disclosed)  the  bowl."  The  trans,  of  this  passage  at  Vin.  Texts 
iii.  290  is  not  accurate;  but  it  means  "he  presents  the  bowl 
with  his  right  hand."  In  the  above  passage  it  is  so  curious  that 
paita  is  in  the  instrumental,  as  against  the  more  natural  ace.  that  I 
am  inclined  to  suspect  that  anjalim  should  have  been  inserted — 
then  meaning,  "  he  raised  his  hands  together  with  his  bowl  in 
respectful  salutation  of  the  woman."  Thus  this  "  greeting  with 
the  hands  "  would  be  balanced  just  below  by  "  greeting  with  the 
feet."  Corny,  is  silent.  I  think  that  there  must  be  some  con- 
fusion between  pattam  pandmeti  and  anjalim  pandtneti.  Cf.  on 
kavdtam  ^ariameii,  above,  p.  199,  n.  3. 


FORMAL  MEETING  (SA]?^GHADISESA)  III 

...  at  Savatthi  in  the  Jeta  Grove  in  Anathapindika's 
park.  At  that  time  the  venerable  Udayin  lived  in  the 
jungle.  The  venerable  one's  dwelling  was  lovely,  good 
to  look  upon,  beautiful.  At  that  time  many  women 
came  to  the  park^  in  order  to  see  the  dwelKng.  Then 
those  women  approached  the  venerable  Udayin,  and 
having  approached  him,  they  said  to  the  venerable 
Udayin: 

"  Honoured  sir,  we  want  to  see  the  master's  dwell- 
ing." 

Then  the  venerable  Udayin,  showing  these  women 
his  dwelling  and  pointing  out^  the  privies  to  them,  spoke 
in  praise,  spoke  in  blame  and  begged  and  implored  and 
asked  and  questioned  and  described  and  exhorted  and 
abused.  Those  [127]  women  who  had  little  fear  of 
blame,^  who  were  sly  and  who  had  no  shame  mocked  at 
the  venerable  Udayin,  called  out  to  him,  laughed  at 
him,  made  fun  of  him.*  But  those  women  who  had 
shame,  upon  departing  complained  to  the  monks, 
saying: 

"  Honoured  sirs,  this  is  not  suitable,  it  is  not  fitting, 
we  should  not  wish  this  spoken  about  ev^n  by  our 
husbands,  to  say  nothing  of  master  Udayin."^  ||  1 1| 

Then  those  who  w:ere  modest  monks  became  annoyed, 
vexed  and  angry  and  said: 


^  Oldenberg,  Vin.  iii.  274,  suggests  aranham  agamafjsu. 

2  ddissa=:apadisitvd,  VA.  546. 

^  chinnikd=chinnaoUappd,  VA.  546. 

*  uppandenti  ti  pandaho  ayarn  ndyam  puriso  ti, 

^  Kim  pan'  ayyena  Uddyind. 

214 


III.  1,  2—2]  FORMAL   MEETING  215 

"  How  can  the  venerable  Udayin  offend  women  with 
lewd  words  ?"  Then  these  monks  told  this  matter  to 
the  lord.  Then  the  lord  on  this  occasion  and  in  this 
connection  had  the  company  of  monks  convened  and 
questioned  the  venerable  Udayin,  saying: 

"  Is  it  true  as  is  said,  Udayin,  that  you  offended 
women  with  lewd  words  ?" 

"  It  is  true,  lord,"  he  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  him,  saying: 

''  It  is  not  suitable,  foolish  man,  it  is  not  proper,  it 
is  not  becoming,  it  is  not  worthy  of  a  recluse,  it  is  out 
of  place,  it  is  not  to  be  done.  How  can  you,  foolish 
man,  offend  women  with  lewd  words  ?  Foolish  man, 
is  not  dhamma  uttered  in  various  ways  by  me  for  the 
sake  of  passionlessness,  not  for  the  sake  of  passion  .  .  . 
proclaimed  for  the  allaying  of  the  flames  of  pleasures 
of  the  senses  ?  It  is  not,  foolish  man,  for  the  benefit  of 
unbelievers  .  .  .  and  thus,  monks,  this  course  of  train- 
ing should  be  set  forth : 

Whatever  monk,  affected  by  desire^,  with  perverted 
heart,2  should  offend  a  woman  with  lewd  words  con- 
cerned with  unchastity,  as,  for  example,  a  youth  to  a 
young  woman,  it  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting 
of  the  Order."  ||  2  ill  11 


Whatever  means :  he  who  .  .  . 

Monk  means:  .  .  .  this  is  how  monk  is  to  be  under- 
stood in  this  meaning. 

Affected  by  desire  means:  infatuated,  full  of  desire, 
physically  in  love  with.^ 

Perverted  means:  the  perverted  heart  is  impassioned, 
the  perverted  heart  is  corrupt,  the  perverted  heart  is 
erring.  And  in  this  meaning  it  is  understood  that  the 
perverted  heart  is  impassioned.^ 

Woman  means :  a  human  woman,  not  a  female  yakkha, 
not  a  female  departed  one,  not  a  female  animaP;  she  is 

1  KSee  above,  p.  201,  n.  1.         ^  g^e  above,  p.  201,  n.  2. 
^  Cy.  above,  p.  202. 


2l6  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  128-129 


intelligent,  competent  to  know  good  and  bad  speech, 
what  is  lewd  and  what  is  not  lewd.^ 

Le/ivd  speech  means:  speech  connected  with  privies 
and  with  unchastity. 

Should  offend^  means:  it  is  called  a  transgression.^ 

As,  for  example,  a  youth  to  a  young  woman  means :  a 
lad  to  a  young  girl,  a  boy  of  tender  age  to  a  girl  of  tender 
age,  a  male  enjoying  sense-pleasures  to  a  female  enjoying 
sense-pleasures.  [128] 

Concerned  ivith  unchastity  means:  connected  with 
unchaste  things.* 

A  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  means :  .  .  .  because  of 
this  it  is  called  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  2 1| 

Pointing  out  the  two  privies  he  speaks  in  praise,  and 
he  speaks  in  blame,  and  he  begs,  and  he  implores,  and 
he  asks,  and  he  questions,  and  he  describes,  and  he 
exhorts,  and  he  abuses. 

He  speaks  in  praise  means:  he  extols,  he  praises,  he 
commends  .  .  . 

He  speaks  in  blame  means:  he  curses,  he  reviles,  he 
finds  fault  with  .  .  . 

He  begs  means:  he  says,  "  give  to  me,  you  are  worthy 
to  give  to  me." 

He  implores  means:  he  says,  "  When  will  your  mother 
be  reconciled  ?^  When  will  your  father  be  reconciled  ? 
When  will  your  devatas  be  reconciled  ?  W^hen  will 
there  be  a  good  opportunity,  a  good  time,  a  good 
moment  ?  When  shall  I  have  sexual  intercourse  with 
you  ?" 

He  asks  means:  he  says,  "  How  do  you  give  to  your 
husband  ?     How  do  you  give  to  a  paramour  ?" 

1  ==  below,  p.  337 

-  obhdseyijd  ti  avabhdseyya  .  .  .  asaddhammavacanam  vadeyya. 

^  Cf.  above,  p.  202,  in  expl.  of  kdyasaysagga. 

^  It  is  difficult  to  render  into  English  the  slight  difference  of  mean- 
ing in  the  Pali :  methunujjasamhitdhi  ti  tnethunadhammapatismjyuttdhi. 
Cf.  below,  p.  226. 

^  VA.  548,  "  on  tlie  reconciliation  of  your  mother  I  will  indulge  in 
sexual  intercourse." 


III.  3,  1-3]  FORMAL  MEETING  217 

He  questions  means:  he  says,  "  They  say  that  as  you 
give  to  your  husband  so  you  give  to  your  paramour." 

He  describes  means:  having  asked,  he  says:  "  Give 
thus,  giving  thus  you  will  become  dear  and  beloved  to 
your  husband." 

He  exhorts  means:  not  having  asked,  he  says:  "  Give 
thus,  giving  thus  you  will  become  dear  and  beloved  to 
your  husband." 

He  abuses  means:  he  says,  "  You  are  without  sexual 
characteristics,  you  are  defective  in  sex,  you  are  blood- 
less, your  blood  is .  stagnant,  you  are  always  dressed, 
you  are  dripping,  you  are  a  deformed  woman,^  you  are 
a  female  ounuch,  you  are  a  man-like  woman,  your 
sexuality  is  indistinct,  you  are  a  hermaphrodite.^  ||  1 1| 

If  it  is  a  woman,  if  he  is  infatuated  thinking  her  to 
be  a  woman,  and  if  the  monk,  pointing  out  the  two 
privies  to  a  woman,  speaks  in  praise,  speaks  in  blame 
.  .  .  abuses,  it  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting 
of  the  Order. 

If  there  are  two  women,  if  he  is  infatuated  thinking 
them  to  be  women,  and  if  the  monk  pointing  out  the  two 
privies  to  the  two  women  ...  it  is  an  offence  entailing 
two  formal  meetings  of  the  Order. 

If  it  is  a  woman  and  an  eunuch,  if  he  is  infatuated 
thinking  them  both  to  be  women,  and  if  the  monk 
pointing  out  the  two  privies  to  both  .  .  .  there  is  an 
offence  of  wrong-doing  with  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  2 1| 

If  there  is  a  woman,  if  he  is  infatuated  thinking  her 
to  be  a  woman,  and  if  the  monk  leaving  out  (talk  on) 
the  two  privies  to  the  woman,  pointing  out  (any  part) 
from  below  the  collar  bone  to  above  the  knee,^  speaks  in 
praise,  and  speaks  in  blame  [129]  .  .  .  and  abuses,  there 
is  a  grave  offence. 


^  sikharani — i.e.,  probably  with  certain  defects  of  the  pudendum. 

2  For  these  abnormalities,  c/.  same  list  at  Vin.  ii.  271. 

3  Cf.  Vin,  iv.  213. 


2l8  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  130 

If  there  are  two  women  .  .  .  there  are  two  grave 
offences. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch  .  .  .  there  is  an 
offence  of  wrong-doing  together  with  a  grave  offence.  ||  3  || 

If  there  is  a  woman,  if  he  is  infatuated  thinking  her 
to  be  a  woman,  and  if  the  monk,  pointing  out  (any  part) 
from  below  the  collar  bone  to  above  the  knee  to  the 
woman,  speaks  in  praise,  speaks  in  blame  .  .  .  abuses, 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  two  women  .  .  .  there  are  two  offences 
of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch  .  .  .  there  are 
two  offences  of  wrong-doing.  ||  4  || 

If  there  is  a  woman,  if  he  is  infatuated  thinking  her 
to  be  a  woman,  if  the  monk,  pointing  out  an  article  of 
clothing^  to  the  woman,  speaks  in  praise  .  .  .  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  two  women  .  .  .  there  are  two  offences 
of  wrong-doing. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch  .  .  .  there  are 
two  offences  of  wrong-doing.  ||  5  || 

There  is  no  offence  if  he  is  aiming  at  (explaining)  the 
meaning,^  if  he  is  aiming  at  (explaining)  dhamma,^  if 
he  is  aiming  at  (explaining)  the  teaching,  if  he  is  mad, 
if  he  is  a  beginner.^  II  6 1|  3 1| 

Red,  thick  and  short,  matted,  shaggy  and  long,  sown, 
I  hope  the  way  is  at  an  end,  faith,  about  a  gift,  about 
work. 

^  Kdyapatihaddha,  VA.  549  says,  ''  a  garment  or  a  flower  or  an 
ornament,"  so  here  not  necessarily  article  of  dress.  Cf.  above, 
p.  207. 

*  atthapurekkhdra  dhammapurekkhdra.  Attha  and  dhamma  taken 
together  are  sometimes  rendered  "  the  letter  and  the  spirit  "  as 
at  ^.  i.  69 ;  cf.  "  not-dhamma  and  not-aim  "  at  G.S.  v.  155.  VA.  549 
says  of  attha'^,  "  telling  the  meaning  of  the  words  or  reciting  the 
commentary,"  and  of  dhamma°y  "  teaching  or  reciting  the  text 
{pdli). 

^  VA.  549  again  says,  Udayin  was  the  beginner. 


III.  4,  1-5]  FORMAL   MEETING  219 

At  one  time  a  certain  woman  was  wearing  a  newly 
dyed  blanket.  A  certain  monk,  being  infatuated,  said 
to  this  woman:  "  Sister,  is  that  red  thing  yours^  ?"  She 
did  not  understand  and  said: 

"  Yes,  master,  it  is  a  newly  dyed  blanket." 

He  was  remorseful  and  said;  "  What  now  if  I  have 
fallen  into  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order  ?"    He  told  this  matter  to  the  lord,  who  said: 

"  Monk,  it  is  not  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting 
of  the  Order,  it  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||  1  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  woman  was  wearing  a  rough 
blanket  .  .  .  said: 

"  Sister,  is  that  thick,  short  hair^  yours  ?"  She  did 
not  understand  and  said : 

"  Yes,  master,  it  is  a  rough  blanket  "...  "... 
offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||  2 1| 

At  one  time  a  certain  woman  was  wearing  a  newly 
woven^  blanket  .  .  .  and  said: 

"Sister,  is  that  your  matted  hair*  ?"  She  did  not 
understand  and  said: 

"  Yes,  master,  it  is  a  newly  woven  blanket."  He  was 
remorseful  ...     "...  offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||  3 1| 

At  one  time  a  certain  woman  was  wearing  a  rough 
blanket  .  .  .  and  said: 

"  Sister,  is  that  stiffs  hair  yours  ?"  .  .  . 

"  Yes,  master,  it  is  a  rough  blanket  "...  "... 
offence  of  wrong-doing.  ||  4  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  woman  was  wearing  a  mantle 
.  .  .  and  said: 


1  lohita  is  both  "  blood  "  and  "  red." 

2  VA.  550,  kakkasaloman  ti  rassalomam  bahulomam. 

3  dvuta  seems  to  be  derived  from  dvayati=d-\-vd,  to  weave,  a 
root  which  has  been  merged  in  d+vr  (dvarati),  to  string  on,  to  fix 
on.     Avuta  as  "  woven  "  is  not  given  in  the  P.T.S.  Did. 

*  VA.  550,  dkinnaloman  ti  jatitalomam. 
«  VA.  550,  kharaloman  ti  thaddhalomarru 


220  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  130-131 


"  Sister,  is  that  long  hair  yours  ?".  .  .  ''  . ..  .  offence 
of  wrong-doing."  ||  5  ||  [130] 

At  one  time  a  certain  woman  came  along  having  had 
a  field  sown.^  A  certain  monk  being  infatuated  said 
to  this  woman: 

"  Well,  sister,  has  there  been  some  sowing^  ?"  She, 
not  understanding,  said: 

"  Yes,  master,  only  I  have  not  closed^  the  furrow." 
He  was  remorseful  ...  "  Monk,  there  is  no  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order,  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing."  ||  6  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  seeing  a  female  wanderer^ 
on  the  road,  and  being  infatuated,  said  to  this  female 
wanderer : 

"  I  hope,  sister,  that  there  is  a  way  at  the  end  ?"^ 

She,  not  understanding,  said: 

"  Yes,  monk,*  "you  will  follow  it."  He  was  remorse- 
ful ..  .     "...  grave  offence."  ||  7  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  being  infatuated,  said 
to  a  certain  woman : 

"  You  are  faithful,  sister,  but  you  do  not  give  to  us 
what  you  give  to  your  husband." 

"  What  is  that,  sir  ?"  she  said. 

^  Note  hfere  the  play  of  the  three  conjugations:  (1)  double  causa- 
tive, vapdpetvd,  having  had  the  sowing  done,  or  having  superintended 
it,  (2)  simple  causative,  vdpitam,  (3)  radical  verb  pati-{-vuUay= 
Sanskrit  praty-upta,  as  noted  by  Oldenberg,  Vin.  in.  274,  and  by 
Geiger,  Pali  Gr.^  pp.  72,  147,  and  not  prati-vac,  as  given  in  P.T.S. 
Diet.  Vapdpeti,  vulta  and  vdpita  are  given  under  vapati,  to  sow. 
Bu.  at  VA.  550,  who  naturally  attaches  the  word  to  vap,  to  sow, 
has  two  explanations;  one  for  udakavappa,  another  for  thUlavappa. 

^  paribbdjikd.  At  Vin.  iv.  92  it  is  a  pdcittiya  for  a  monk  to  give 
food  to  one,  at  Yin.  iv.  285  for  a  nun  to  give  a  robe  to  one. 

3  Under  sarjsidati  the  P.T.S.  Diet.,  referring  to  this  passage, 
takes  it  to  mean  that  the  way  {magga)  is  at  an  end.  Bu.  at  VA.  550 
has  another  explanation;  indeed,  without  him  we  could  not  under- 
stand these  puns. 

*  Note  that  the  female  wanderer  addresses  the  monk  as  bhikkhu, 
while  laywomen  say  ayya,  master,  or  bhante,  honoured  sir. 


III.  4,  8-10]  FORMAL   MEETING  221 

"  Sexual  intercourse,"  he  said.  He  was  remorseful 
...  "...  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of 
the  Order."  ||8|| 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  infatuated,  said  to  a 
certain  woman : 

"  You  are  faithful,  sister,  for  you  do  not  give  us  the 
highest  gift." 

"  What  is  the  highest  gift,  sir  ?"  she  said. 

"  Sexual  intercourse,"  he  said.  He  was  remorseful 
...  "...  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of 
the  Order."  ||9|| 

At  one  time  a  certain  woman  was  doing  some  work. 
A  certain  monk,  infatuated,  said  to  this  woman : 

"  Stand,  sister,  I  will  work  "  .  .  .  "  sit,  sister,  I  will 
work  ...  lie  down,  sister,  I  will  work."  She,  not 
understanding  ...  "...  an  offence  of  wrong-doing." 
I|10||4|| 

Told  is  the  Third  Off'ence  entailing  a  Formal  Meeting 
of  the  Order 


FORMAL  MEETING  (SANGHAdISESA)  IV 

...  at  Savatthi  in  the  Jeta  Grove  in  Anathapindika's 
park.  At  that  time  the  venerable  UdSyin  was  dependent 
on  families,  and  approached  many  families.  Now  at 
that  time  there  was  a  certain  woman  who  was  a  widow, 
beautiful,  good  to  look  upon,  lovely.  Then  the  vener- 
able Udapn,  rising  early  and  taking  his  robe  and  bowl, 
came  up  to  this  woman's  dwelling  [131]  and  having 
come  up  he  sat  down  on  the  appointed  seat.  Then  this 
woman  approached  the  venerable  Udayin,  and  having 
approached  she  greeted  the  venerable  Udayin  and  sat 
down  to  one  side.  As  she  was  sitting  to  one  side  the 
venerable  Udayin  rejoiced,  pleased,  gladdened,  delighted 
this  woman  with  talk  on  dhamma.  Then  this  woman 
having  been  .  .  .  delighted  with  talk  on  dhamma  by 
the  venerable  Udayin,  said  to  the  venerable  Udayin : 

"  Do  say,  honoured  sir,  what  (will  be)  of  use^;  we  are 
able  to  give  to  the  master,  that  is  to  say,  the  requisites 
of  robes,  alms-food,  lodgings  and  medicine  for  the  sick." 

"  It  is  not  hard,  sister,  for  us  to  come  by  those  things, 
that  is  to  say,  the  requisites  of  robes,  alms-food,  lodgings, 
medicine  for  the  sick.  Give^  what  is  hard  for  us  to 
come  by." 

"  What  is  that,  honoured  sir  ?" 

''  Sexual  intercourse,"  he  said. 

**  (Will  it  be)  of  use,^  honoured  sir,"  she  said. 

"  (It  will  be)  of  use,  sister." 

''  Come,  honoured  sir,"  she  said,  and  entering  into  an 
inner  room,  taking  off  her  cloak,  she  lay  back  on  the 

^  Yena  attho.     Cf.  Vin.  iii.  210  for  the  same  expression. 
^  Dehi.     The  use  of  the  imperative  in  such  a  connection  is  a  very 
grave  thing. 
^  Attho,  to  balance  yena  attho  above  (?). 

222 


IV.  1,  1-2]  FORMAL  MEETING  223 

couch.  Then  the  venerable  Udayin  approached  this 
woman,  and  having  approached  her  he  said: 

"  Who  could  touch  this  evil-smelling  wretch^  ?"  and 
he  departed  spitting.^ 

Then  this  woman  became  annoyed,  vexed,  angry 
and  said: 

"  These  recluses,  sons  of  the  Sakyans^  are  shameless, 
of  low  morality,  liars.  And  they  pretend  to  be  those 
walking  by  dhamma,  walking  by  right,  leading  the 
Brahma-life,  speaking  truth,  virtuous,  of  good  conduct. 
Among  these  there  is  no  recluseship,  among  these  there  is 
no  brahmanhood.  Perished  is  recluseship  among  these, 
perished  is  brahmanhood  among  these.  Where  is  re- 
cluseship among  these  ?  Where  is  brahmanhood  among 
these  ?  Fallen  from  recluseship  are  these,  fallen  from 
brahmanhood  are  these.  How  can  this  recluse  Udayin, 
having  himself  begged  me  for  sexual  intercourse,  say: 
'  Who  could  touch  this  evil-smelling  wretch  V  and 
depart  spitting  ?  What  is  bad  in  me  ?  What  is  evil- 
smelling  in  me  ?     In  what  am  I  inferior  to  whom  ?''* 

Other  women  became  annoyed,  vexed,  angry  and 
said:  "  These  recluses,  sons  of  the  Sakyans,  are  shame- 
less .  .  .  How  can  this  recluse  Udayin,  having  himself 
begged  this  (woman)  for  sexual  intercourse,  say :  '  Who 
could  touch  this  evil-smelling  wretch  V  and  depart 
spitting  ?  What  is  bad  in  her  ?  What  is  evil-smelHng 
in  her  ?     In  what  is  she  inferior  to  whom  ?"  ||  1 1| 

The  monks  heard  these  women  who  were  annoyed, 
vexed  and  angry.  Those  who  were  modest  monks 
became  annoyed,  vexed,  angry  and  said: 

1  It  is  curious  that  vasala  is  in  the  masc.  or  neuter,  but  it  obvi- 
ously refers  to  the  woman.     Bu.  sees  it  as  a  masc.  here,  VA.  551. 

2  Nitthuhitvd  ti  khelam  pdtetvd,  VA.  551;.c/".  PvA.  80,  khelan  ti 
nutthuhhanam.  Cf.  fin.  i.  271  where  the  setthfs  wife  spat  out 
{nutthuhitvd)  ghee  into  a  spittoon.  Cf.  also  Jd.  i.  459.  Forms  of 
this  verb  are  nitthuhhati,  nufthuhhati  and  nitthuhati. 

3  As  above,  pp.  125,  200." 

*  Kassdham  kena  hdydmi.  VA.  551,  "  with  regard  to  treasure, 
jewelry  or  beauty,  to  what  other  women  am  I  inferior  ?  Who  is 
better  than  I  a^>i  ?" 


224  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  132-133 


"  How  can  this  venerable  Udayin  speak  in  praise  of 
ministering  to  sense-pleasures  for  self ^  in  the  presence  of 
women-folk  ?" 

Then  these  monks  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  Then 
the  lord  for  this  reason,  on  this  occasion,  having  had  the 
Order  of  monks  convened,  [132]  questioned  the  venerable 
Udayin,  saying: 

"  Is  it  true  as  is  said  that  you,  Udayin,  spoke  in  praise 
of  ministering  to  sense-pleasures  for  self  in  the  presence 
of  women-folk  ?" 

''  It  is  true,  lord,"  he  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  him  saying: 

''It  is  not  right,  foolish  man,  it  is  not  becoming,  it 
is  not  suitable,  it  is  not  worthy  of  a  recluse,  it  is  out  of 
place,  it  is  not  to  be  done.  How  can  you,  foolish  man, 
speak  in  praise  of  ministering  to  sense-pleasures  for  self 
in  the  presence  of  women-folk  ?  Foolish  man,  is  not 
dhamma  preached  by  me  in  various  ways  for  the 
stilling  of  passion  .  .  .  the  allaying  of  the  flames  of 
sense-pleasures  declared  ?  It  is  not,  foolish  man,  for 
the  benefit  of  unbelievers  .  .  .  Thus,  monks,  this 
course  of  training  should  be  set  forth : 

Whatever  monk,  affected  by  desire,^  with  perverted 
heart,^  should  speak  in  praise  of  ministering  to  sense- 
pleasures  for  self  in  the  presence  of  women-folk,  saying: 
*  Sister,  this  is  the  highest  kind  of  ministration :  that  a 
woman^  should  minister  to  one  like  me,  virtuous,  of 


^  Attakdmapdricariydya,  VA.  551  says,  methunadhammasamkhd- 
tena  kdmena  pdricariyd  kdmapdricariyd,  attano  atthdya  kdmapdri- 
cariyd  attakdmapdricariyd.  This  passage  is  quoted  at  VvA.  11, 
where  atta°  cariydya  is  caMed  gdmadhamme — i.e.,  low  states,  those 
belonging  to  the  village.  Note  that  the  term  attakdma  could 
be  used  also  with  religious  significance:  see  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids, 
Buddhism  (Home  University  Library),  second  edition,  p.  81,  and  cf. 
G.S.  ii.  21,  *'  he  to  whom  the  self  is  dear,"  and  K.S.  i.  102,  "  the  soul- 
lover."  See  also  attakdmarupa  at  Vin.  i.  350=ilf .  i.  205=  iii.  155. 
MA.  ii.  236  and  Old  Corny,  below  give-  two  quite  different  interpreta- 
tions of  attakdma,  the  one  giving  the  higher  and  the  other  the  lower 
meaning. 

2  Cf.  above,  pp.  201,  215. 

^  Yd,  whoever,  fern. 


IV.  1,  2-2]  FORMAL   MEETING  225 

good  conduct,  leading  the  Brahma-life,  in  this  fashion  '^ 
— meaning  with  what  is  connected  with  sexual  inter- 
course— that  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting 
of  the  Order."  11 2  ||  111 


Whatever  means:  .  .  .  (see  Formal  Meeting  III.  2) 
.  .  .  competent  to  know  .  .  .-  what  is  lewd  and  what 
is  not  lewd. 

In  the  presence  of  women-folk  means:  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  women-folk,  near  women-folk. 

Sense-pleasures  for  self  means:  sense-pleasures  for 
self,2  for  the  sake  of  self,  desiring  for  self,  ministering 
to  self. 

This  highest  means:  this  highest,  this  best,  this  fore- 
most, this  utmost,  this  most  excellent. 

She^  means:  a  noble  woman,*  a  brahmin  woman,  a 
merchant-class  woman,  a  low-caste  woman. ^ 

One  like  me  means :  a  noble  man,  a  brahmin,  a  merchant- 
class  man,  a  low-caste  man. 

Virtuous  means:  refraining  from  onslaught  on  crea- 
tures, refraining  from  taking  what  is  not  given,  refraining 
from  lying. ^ 

Leading  the  Brahma-life  means :  refraining  from  sexual 
intercourse.^ 

Of  good  conduct  means :  he  is  of  good  conduct  in  respect 
of  this  virtue  and  in  respect  of  this  Brahma-life. 

^  Etena  dhammena.  It  might  also  mean  "  according  to  this 
dhamma"  (teaching),  but  that  it  does  not  here  is  apparent  from 
the  Old  Corny.' s  exegesis  below. 

2  Atiakdman  ti  attano  kdmam. 

^  Yd,  trans,  above  "  a  woman." 

*  VA.  552,  "if  it  is  said,  '  I  am  a  noble  man,  you  are  a  noble 
woman,  a  noble  woman  is  worthy  to  give  to  a  noble  man,  because 
they  are  of  the  same  caste,'  it  is  not  a  sanghadisesa  offence.  But 
if  you  say,  '  I. am  a  noble  man  .  .  .  you  are  worthy  to  give  me 
sexual  intercourse,'  because  you  are  speaking  of  things  connected 
with  unchastity,  there  is  a  sanghadisesa  offence." 

5  Showing  that  the  four  castes  were  by  now  recognised. 

^  Corresponding  to  the  first  three  Parajika  offences,  with  the 
addition  of  refraining  from  lying.  Deliberate  lying  has  appeared 
as  a  pacittiya  offence  and  as  a  parajika  offence. 

I.  15 


226  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  133-134 

In  (his  fashion  means :  with  regard  to  sexual  inter- 
course. 

Should  minister  to  means:  should  give  pleasure  to. 

Connected  loith  unchastity  means:  connected  with  un- 
chastity.^ 

A  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  means:  .  .  .  because 
of  this  it  is  called  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  2 1|  [133] 

If  there  is  a  woman,  if  he  is  infatuated  thinking  her 
to  be  a  woman,  and  if  the  monk  speaks  in  praise,  in  the 
woman's  presence,  of  ministering  to  sense-pleasures  for 
self,  it  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order. 

If  there  are  two  women,  if  .  .  .  thinking  they  are 
two  women  .  .  .  there  are  two  offences  ...  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order. 

If  there  are  a  woman  and  an  eunuch,  if  .  .  .  thinking 
them  both  to  be  women  .  .  .  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing  with  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting 
of  the  Order.  ||  1  i| 

There  is  no  offence  if  he  speaks,  saying:  "  Support^ 
(us)  with  the  requisites  of  robes,  alms-food,  lodgings, 
medicine  for  the  sick,"  if  he  is  mad,  if  he  is  a  beginner.^ 

I|2||3|| 

How  can  a  barren  woman  ?  (How)  can  I  get  a  son, 
and  be  dear  ?     How  can  I  be  charming  ? 

What  may  I  give?  With  what  shall  1  support 
(you)  ?     How  can  I  go  to  a  good  bourn  ? 

At  one  time  a  certain  barren  woman  said  to  a  monk 
dependent  on  (her)  family:  "  How  could  I,  honoured  sir, 
bear  (a  child)  ?" 

1  Cf.  above,  p.  216. 

*  upatthaha,  imp.  of  upalthahati,  from  upa-\-\sthd, 
^  VA .  552  again  says  tiiat  Udayiu  was  the  beginner,  and  therefore 
there  was  no  offence  for  him. 


IV.  4,  1-6]  FORMAL   MEETING  227 

"  For  this,  sister,  give  the  highest  gift." 

"  What  is  the  highest  gift,  honoured  sir  ?"  she 
said. 

"  Sexual  intercourse,"  he  said. 

He  was  remorseful  ...  "...  a  formal  meeting  of 
the  Order."  ||  1 1| 

At  one  time  a  certain  fertile  woman  said  to  a  monk 
dependent  on  (her)  family:  "  How  could  I,  honoured  sir, 
get  a  son  ?" 

"  For  this,  sister,  give  the  highest  gift  ...  "...  a 
formal  meeting  of  the  Order."  ||  2 1| 

At  one  time  a  certain  woman  said  to  a  monk  de- 
pendent on  (her)  family:  "  How  could  I,  honoured  sir, 
be  dear  to  (my)  husband  ?"  .  .  .  "  How  could  I, 
honoured  sir,  be  charming  ?" 

"  For  this,  sister,  give  the  highest  gift  "  ...  ".  .  . 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order."  j|  3  || 

At  one  time  a  certain  v/oman  said  to  a  monk  de- 
pendent on  (her)  family: 

"  What,  honoured  sir,  may  I  give  to  the  master  ?" 

"  The  highest  gift,  sister,"  he  said. 

"  What  is  the  highest  gift,  honoured  sir  ?" 

"Sexual  intercourse,"  he  said.  He  was  remorseful 
.  .  .     "...  of  the  Order."  ||4:|| 

At  one  time  a  certain  woman  said  to  a  monk  de- 
pendent on  (her)  family: 

"  With  what  can  1,  honoured  sir,  support  the 
master  ?" 

"  With  the  highest  gift,  sister,"  he  said. 

"  What  is  the  highest  gift,  honoured  sir  ?"  she 
said  ...  "...  formal  meeting  of  the  Order." 
II 5  II 

At  one  time  a  certain  woman  said  to  a  monk  dependent 
on  (her)  family: 


228  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  134 

"  How  can  I  go  to  a  good  bourn,  honoured  sir  ?" 
**  For  this,  sister,  give  the  highest  gift." 
''  What  is  the  highest  gift,  honoured  sir  ?"  she  said  .  .  . 
/\  .  .  formal  meeting  of  the  Order."  ||  6  ||  4 1| 

Told  is  the  Fourth  Offence  entailing  a  Formal  Meeting 
of  the  Order  [134] 


FORMAL  MEETING  (SANGHADISESA)  V 

.  .  .  at  Savatthi  in  the  Jeta  Grove  in  Anathapindika's 
park.  At  that  time  the  venerable  Udayin  was  dependent 
on  families  at  Savatthi,  and  he  approached  many 
families.  When  he  saw  a  youth  not  (yet)  a  husband, 
or  a  young  girl  without  a  husband,  he  spoke  in  praise 
of  the  girl  in  the  presence  of  the  youth's  parents,  saying: 
"  The  young  girl  of  that  family  is  beautiful,  good  to 
look  upon,  lovely,  she  is  learned,  accomplished,  wise, 
clever,  energetic.  This  young  girl  is  suitable  for  that 
youth." 

These  said:  "They  do  not  know  us,  honoured  sir, 
nor  who  we  are,  nor  to  whom  we  belong.  If,  honoured 
sir,  the  master  will  induce  them  to  give,  we  might  con- 
vey this  girl  to  this  youth." 

He  spoke  in  praise  of  the  youth  in  the  presence  of 
the  girl's  parents,  saying:  "  The  youth  of  that  family  is 
beautiful,  good  to  look  upon,  lovely,  he  is  learned, 
accomplished,  wise,  clever,  energetic.  That  young  girl 
is  suitable  for  this  youth." 

They  said:  "  They  do  not  know  us,  honoured  sir, 
nor  who  we  are,  nor  to  whom  we  belong,  nor  in  what, 
as  it  were,  is  the  girl's  property.^  But  if,  honoured  sir, 
the  master  would  beg,  we  might  give  this  girl  to  that 
youth." 

By  this  means  he  brought  about  the  leading^  of  the 
bridegroom  (to  the  bride's  home),  he  brought  about  the 


^  Or,  taking  vatthum  as  wrong  reading  for  vattum :  "  we  should  be 
ashamed  {kismim  viya,  of.  VA .  552)  to  speak  thus  for  the  girl('s  sake)." 

^  dvdha,   VA.  552,  "  The  bringing  of  the  youth  from  another 
family  to  the  girl." 

229 


230  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE        [III.  136-136 


leading  away'  (from  the  bride's  home),  he  caused  mar- 
riages^  to  take  place.  ||  1  || 

Now  at  that  time  the  daughter  of  a  certain  woman 
who  was  formerly  a  courtesan  was  beautiful,  good  to 
look  upon,  lovely.  Some  disciples  of  Naked  Ascetics 
coming  from  a  distant  village,  said  to  the  courtesan: 
"  Lady,  give  this  girl  to  our  boy  !" 

She  said:  "Masters,  I  do  not  know  you,  nor  who 
these  are,  nor  to  whom  he  belongs;  and  I  will  not  give 
my  only  daughter  to  go  to  a  distant  village." 

Some  people  said  to  these  disciples  of  Naked  Ascetics : 
"  Masters,  why  did  you  come  ?"^ 

"Now  we,  masters,  begged  that  courtesan  for  her 
daughter  for  our  son;  and  she  said,  ^  But,  masters,  I  do 
not  know  you,  nor  who  these  are,  nor  to  whom  he  be- 
longs, and  I  will  not  give  my  only  daughter  to  go  to  a 
distant  village.'  " 

"  Master,  why  did  you  beg  the  courtesan  for  her 
daughter  ?  Certainly  master  Udayin  should  be  told, 
master  Udayin  will  induce  her  to  give  (her  daughter)." 

Then  these  [135]  disciples  of  Naked  Ascetics  ap- 
proached the  venerable  Udayin,  and  having  approached 
him,  they  said  to  the  venerable. Udayin :  "  Now,  honoured 
sir,  we  begged  that  courtesan  ..."  distant  village.' 
It  would  be  good,  honoured  sir,  if  the  master  could 
induce  this  courtesan  to  give  her  daughter  to  our  boy." 

Then  the  venerable  Udayin  approached  that  courte- 
san, and  having  approached,  he  said  to  that  courtesan: 
"  Why  did  you  not  give  your  daughter  to  these  (people)?" 

"  But,  master,  I  do  not  know  them,  nor  who  they 
are,  nor  to  whom  he  belongs,  and  I  will  not  give,  my  only 
daughter  to  go  to  a  distant  village." 

^  vivdha.  VA.  553,  "The  sending  out  of  the  L'irl  herself  to  another 
family." 

2  vdreydni,  text;  VA.  553,  vdrei/yan,  with  v.l.  vdreyydni. 
VA.  553,  "begging:  give  your  girl  to  our  boy,  or  settling  the 
day,  lunar  mansion,  astronomic  law." 

^  kissa  tumhe  dgat'  attha?     Here  attha  is  second  pi.  of  atthi,  from 


V.  1,  2-3]  FORMAL   MEETING  23 1 

"  Give  her  to  them,  I  know  them." 

*'  If,  honoured  sir,  the  master  knows  them,  I  will 
give  (her),"  she  said.  Then  this  courtesan  gave  her 
daughter  to  these  disciples  of  Naked  Ascetics.  ||  2  || 

Then  these  disciples  of  Naked  Ascetics,  taking  the 
young  girl,  for  a  month  made  use  of  her  according  to 
her  lot  as  a  daughter  Tin-law^ ;  then  afterwards  they  made 
use  of  her  according  to  her  lot  as  a  female  slave. ^  Then 
this  young  girl  dispatched  a  messenger  to  her  mother, 
saying:  '^  I  am  wretched,  I  am  miserable,  I  get  no 
happiness.  For  a  month  they  made  use  of  me  according 
to  my  lot  as  a  daughter-in-law,  now  after  that  they  are 
making  use  of  me  according  to  my  lot  as  a  female  slave. 
Let  my  mother  come  for  me,  let  her  take  me  away." 

Then  the  courtesan  came  up  to  the  disciples  of  Naked 
Ascetics,  and  having  come  up,  she  said  to  these  disciples 
of  Naked  Ascetics,  "  Masters,  do  not  make  use  of  this 
young  girl  according  to  her  lot  as  a  female  slave,  make 
use  of  this  young  girl  according  to  her  lot  as  a  daughter- 
in-law." 

They  said:  "  We  do  not  want  anything  to  do  with 
you,^  we  want  to  have  to  do  (only)  with  a  recluse.  You 
go  away,  we  do  not  know  you." 

Then  this  courtesan,  being '  reproached  by  these 
followers  of  the  Naked  Ascetics,  returned  again  to 
SavatthT.  A  second  time  this  young  girl  dispatched  a 
messenger  to  her  mother,  saying:  *'  I  am  wretched  .  .  . 
take  me  away."  Then  the  courtesan  approached  the 
venerable  Udayin,  and  having  approached  him,  she 
said  to  the  venerable  Udayin: 

"  Honoured  sir,  it  is  said  that  the  young  girl  is  wretched, 
miserable,  she  gets  no  happiness.     For  a  month  they 

1  I.e.,  VA.  553,  they  enjoyed  what  she  cooked,  and  the  meals  she 
served. 

2  I.e.,  working  in  the  fields,  throwing  out  sweepings,  fetching 
water,  etc. 

3  Ahdrupahdro.  VA.  553  says,  "  taking  and  offering,  getting  and 
giving,  nothing  is  taken  or  offered  by  us,  buying  and  selling  with 
you  is  not  our  custom." 


232  BOOK  OF  THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  136-137 

made  use  of  her  according  to  her  lot  as  a  daughter-in- 
law,  and  now  after  that  they  are  making  use  of  her 
according  to  her  lot  as  a  female  slave.  Honoured  sir, 
do  say :  *  Masters,  do  not  make  use  of  this  young  girl 
according  to  her  lot  as  a  female  slave,  make  use  of  this 
young  girl  according  to  her  lot  as  a  daughter-in-law.'  " 

Then  the  venerable  Udapn  approached  these  disciples 
of  the  Naked  Ascetics,  and  having  approached  them,  he 
said  to  these  disciples  of  the  Naked  Ascetics: 

"Masters,  do  not  make  use  of  this  young  girl  accord- 
ing to  her  lot  as  a  female  slave,  make  use  of  this  young 
girl  according  to  her  lot  as  a  daughter-in-law." 

They  said:  "  We  do  not  want  anything  to  do  with 
you ;  we  want  to  have  to  do  (only)  with  the  courtesan. 
A  recluse  should  be  without  occupation,^  [136]  the 
recluse  will  become  a  model  recluse. ^  You  go  away,  we 
do  not  know  you." 

Then  the  venerable  Udayin  having  been  reproached 
by  these  disciples  of  Naked  Ascetics,  returned  again  to 
Savatthi.  For  a  third  time  the  young  girl  dispatched 
a  messenger  to  her  mother,  saying:  ''I  am  wretched, 
take  me  away."  For  a  second  time  the  courtesan  ap- 
proached the  venerable  Udayin  ...  "...  Do  say: 
'  Masters  ...  as  a  daughter-in-law.' " 

He  said:  "  When  I  went  before,  I  was  reproached  by 
these  disciples  of  the  Naked  Ascetics.  Go  yourself. 
I  will  not  go."  II 3  II 

Then  the  courtesan  became  annoyed,  vexed,  angry 
and  said:  "May  this  master  Udayin  be  wretched, 
may    this    master    Udayin    be    miserable,    may   this 

*  Avydvata,  a  rare  word.  Cf.  Jd.  iii.  G5  and  its  v. 11.  ajhdvata, 
abydvata ;  Jd.  vi.  ]  88 ;  Z).  ii.  141 .  At  Nd.  ii.  72  appossukha=abydvata 
anajpehkha. 

2  Samanena  bhamfabbam,  avydvatena  samano  assa  sumano.  The 
word  sumano  has  v. 11.  sumano,  susamano;  VA.  reads  sussaynano. 
Expl.  seems  to  show  what  is  rare:  that  Oldenbeig's  text  is  faulty. 
No  doubt  the  text  could  be  emended:  samanena  bhavitabbam  avyd- 
vatena (avydvato)  samano  assa  sussamano,  but  the  elliptical  con- 
struction is  perhaps  intentional,  and  shows  a  popular  style,  which 
does  not,  however,  sound  very  well. 


V.  1,  4-5]  FORMAL   MEETING  233 

master  Udayin  not  find  happiness,  even  as  my  girl 
is  wretched,  miserable,  and  finds  no  happiness  because 
of  her  evil  mother-in-law,  because  of  her  evil  father- 
in-law,  because  of  her  evil  husband."  And  then  the 
young  girl  became  annoyed,  vexed,  angry,  saying: 
"  May  this  master  Udayin  be  wretched,  may  this 
master. Udayin  be  miserable,  may  this  master  Udayin 
not  find  happiness,  even  as  I  am  wretched,  miserable 
and  find  no  happiness  because  of  my  evil  mother-in- 
law,  because  of  my  evil  father-in-law,  because  of  my 
evil  husband." 

Even  other  women,  unhappy  with  their  mothers-in- 
law,  unhappy  with  their  fathers-in-law,  unhappy  with 
their  husbands,  denounced^  him,  thus:  "May  .  .  . 
be  wretched  .  .  .  even  as  we  are  wretched,  miserable, 
and  find  no  happiness  because  of  our  evil  mothers-in- 
law,  because  of  our  evil  fathers-in-law,  because  of  our 
evil  husbands." 

But  those  women  who  were  happy  with  their  mothers- 
in-law,  with  their  fathers-in-law,  and  with  their  husbands, 
these  prayed  to^  him  thus:  "May  this  master  Udayin 
be  happy,  may  this  master  Udayin  be  blest,^  may  this 
master  Udayin  prosper,^  even  as  we  are  happy,  blest 
and  do  prosper  because  of  our  good  mothers-in-law, 
because  of  our  good  fathers-in-law,  because  of  our  good 
husbands."  ||4|| 

The  monks  heard  some  women  denouncing,  some 
women  praying.  Then  those  who  were  modest  monks 
became  annoyed,  vexed,  angry  and  said:  "  How  can  the 
venerable  Udayin  act  as  a  go-between  ?"*  Then  these 
monks  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  Then  the  lord  on 
this  occasion,  for  this  reason,  having  had  the  company 
of  monks  convened,  questioned  the  venerable  Udayin, 
saying: 

^  oydcati  and  dydcati.     For  dydcati  cf.  D.  i.  240. 

*  sajjito,  Corny.  553  says,  "  endowed  with  all  means  of  livelihood, 
beautifully  adorned." 

^  sukhamedho. 

*  sahcarittam  samdpajjati.     For  n.  on  samdpajjati  see  p.  201,  n.  3. 


234  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE       [HI.  137-138 

"Is  it  true,  as  is  said,  Udayin,  that  you  acted  as  a 
go-between  ?" 

*'  It  is  true,  lord,"  he  said. 

Then  the  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  him, 
saying:  "  How  could  you,  foolish  man,  act  as  a  go- 
between  ?  That  is  not,  foolish  man,  for  the  benefit 
of  unbelievers  .  .  .  Thus,  monks,  this  course  of  train- 
ing should  be  set  forth :  [137] 

Whatever  monk  should  act  as  a  go-between  for  a 
woman  with  a  man  in  mind  or  for  a  man  with  a  woman 
in  mind,  whether  as  a  wife  or  as  a  mistress,  that  is  an 
offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order."  ||  5  ||  1 1| 


At  one  time  many  men  of  abandoned  life^  who  were 
amusing  themselves  in  a  pleasure  grove,  sent  a  messenger 
to  a  harlot  to  say,  "  Come,  we  will  enjoy  c^irselves  in 
the  pleasure  grove." 

She  said:  "  Masters,  I  do  not  know  you,  nor  who  you 
are,  nOr  to  whom  you  belong;  and  I  have  many  goods, 
I  am  well-to-do,  and  I  will  not  go  outside  the  city."- 
Then  the  messenger  told  this  matter  to  the  men  of 
abandoned  life.  A  certain  man  said  to  these  men  of 
abandoned  life: 

"  Masters,  why  do  you  beg  this  harlot  ?  Surely 
master  Udayin  should  be  told.  Master  Udayin  will 
procure  (her  for  you)." 

When  he  had  spoken  thus,  a  certain  lay-follower  said 
to  that  man:  "  Do  not  speak  like  that,  master;  it  is  not 
right  for  recluses,  sons  of  the  Sakyans,  to  act  like  that. 
Master  Udayin  will  not  do  it." 

When  he  had  spoken  thus,  they  said,  "  Will  he  do  it, 
or  won't  he  do  it  ?"  and  they  made  a  bet.  Then  these 
men  of  abandoned  life  approached  the  venerable 
Udayin,  and  having  approached  him  they  said  to  the 
venerable  Udayin: 

^  VA.  533  calls  them  "  abandoned  with  women,"  itthidhutia,  not 
necessarily  leading  the  wild  life  of  gambling  or  the  wild  life  of 
drink — the  other  two  of  the  three  kinds  of  abandoned  life. 

*  bahinagaran  ca  garUabbam  ndham  ymnissdmi. 


V.  2,  1-2]  FORMAL   MEETING  235 

"  Now  we,  honoured  sir,  amusing  ourselves  in  the 
pleasure  grove,  sent  a  messenger  to  some  harlot,  saying, 
*  Come,  we  will  enjoy  ourselves  in  the  pleasure  grove/ 
She  said :  '  Masters,  I  do  not  know  you,  nor  who  you  are, 
nor  to  whom  you  belong ;  and  I  have  many  goods,  I  am 
well-to-do,  and  I  will  not  go  outside  the  city/  It  would 
be  good,  honoured  sir,  if  the  master  would  procure  this 
harlot  (for  us)." 

Then  the  venerable  Udayin  went  up  to  this  harlot, 
and  having  come  up  he  said  to  this  harlot:  "  Why  do 
you  not  go  amolig  these  (men)  ?" 

"  Master,  I  do  not  know  them  ...  I  will  not  go 
outside  the  city." 

"  Go  among  them,"  he  said,  "  1  know  them." 
"  If,  honoured  sir,  the  master  knows  them,  I  will  go." 
Then  these  men  of  abandoned  life,  taking  this  harlot, 
went  to  the  pleasure  grove.  ||  1  || 

Then  that  lay-follower  became  annoyed,  vexed,  angry, 
saying:  '*  How  can  master  Udayin  act  as  a  go-between 
for  a  temporary  wife  ?"^  The  monks  heard  that  lay- 
follower  who  was  annoyed,  vexed,  angry.  Those  who 
were  modest  monks  became  annoyed,  vexed,  angry, 
saying:  "  How  can  the  venerable  Udayin  act  as  a  go- 
between  for  a  temporary  wife  ?"  Then  these  monks 
[138]  told  this  matter  to  the  lord. 

"  Is  it  true,  as  they  say,  Udayin,  that  you  acted  as  a 
go-between  for  a  temporary  wife  ?" 

"  It  is  true,  lord,"  he  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  him,  saying: 
'*  How  can  you,  foolish  man,  act  as  a  go-between  for 
a  temporary  wife  ?  It  is  not,  foolish  man,  for  the 
benefit  of  unbelievers  .  .  .  Thus,  monks,  this  course 
of  training  should  be  set  forth : 

Whatever  monk  should  act  as  a  go-between  for  a 
woman  with  a  man  in  mind,  or  for  a  man  with  a  woman 

^  Of.  Buddhaghosa,  who  says  at  VA.  553-4  that  tamkhano  here 
means  "  for  a  short  time  " ;  thus  tamkhanikd  may  mean  "  a  temporary 
wife  "  as  in  this  Sangh.  rule.  See  below  p.  236,  for  explanation  of 
the  Old  Corny. 


236  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  189 

in  mind  whether  as  a  wife  or  as  a  mistress  or  even  as  a 
temporary  wife,  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order."  ||  2 1|  2 1| 


Whatever  means:  he  who  .  .  . 

Monk  means:  .  .  .  thus  monk  is  to  be  understood 
in  this  meaning. 

Should  act  as  a  go-between  means:  either  sent  by  a 
woman  he  goes  into  a  man's  presence,  or  sent  by  a  man 
he  goes  into  a  woman's  presence. 

For  a  woman  with  a  man  in  mind  means :  he  tells  to 
a  woman  the  mind  of  a  man.  < 

For  a  man  with  a  woman  in  mind  means :  he  tells  to 
a  man  the  mind  of  a  woman. 

As  a  wife^  means :  You  will  become  a  wife. 

As  a  mistress  means:  You  will  become  a  mistress. 

Even  as  a  temporary  wife^  means :  you  will  become  a 
wife  for  the  moment.^ 

Offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  .  .  . 
because  of  that  it  is  called  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  3  || 

Ten  (kinds  of)  women:  protected  by  the  mother, 
protected  by  the  father,  protected  by  the  parents,  pro- 
tected by  the  brother,  protected  by  the  sister,  protected 
by  the  relations,  protected  by  the  lineage,  protected 
by  dhamma,  with  protection,  protected  by  a  stick. ^ 

^  VA.  554,  "  Speaking  to  a  woman  with  a  man  in  mind  he 
speaks  of  being  a  wife.  Speaking  to  a  man  with  a  woman  in 
mind,  he  speaks  of  being  a  mistress.  Further,  speaking  to  a 
woman  with  a  man  in  mind  he  speaks  of  wifehood,  of  the  sure 
state  of  being  a  wife,  of  the  low  livelihood  of  a  mistress,  but  saying 
this,  he  also  says,  '  they  say  you  will  become  a  wife.'  In  speaking 
to  a  man  with  a  woman  in  mind  he  says,  '  You  will  become  a  lord, 
a  husband,  you  will  become  an  adulterer.'  " 

2  Tamkhanikd  and  muhuttikd  are  practically  sjmonymous. 

3  M.  i.  286=ilf .  iii.  46,  gives  the  first  five  on  this  list,  then  sassd- 
mikd,  saparidandd  antamaso  mdldgulaparikkhittd.  A.  v.  264 
gives  the  first  five,  then  dhammarakkhitd  (with  v.U.  to  insert  gotta- 
rakkhitd),  sassdmikd,  etc.,  as  at  M.  i.  286;  iii.  46.  VvA.  72  follows 
the  Vin.  reading.     Cf.  G.S.  v.  177,  n.  2. 


V.  4,  1-2]  FORMAL   MEETING  237 

Ten  (kinds  of)  wives:  one  bought  with  money,  one 
kept  for  passion,  a  kept  woman,  one  who  receives 
clothes,  one  who  provides  water,  one  who  takes  off  the 
pad  (for  the  burden  she  carries  on  the  head),  the  slave 
and  wife,^  the  servant  and  wife,^  the  flag-brought,^  the 
wife  for  the  moment.  ||  1 1| 

Protected  by  the  mother  means:  the  mother  protects,^ 
guards,^  wields  supremacy,*  has  her  under  control.^ 

Protected  by  the  father  means:  the  father  .  .  .  has  her 
under  control. 

Protected  by  the  parefitsmea.ns:  the  ]^3iien.ts  .  .  .  have 
her  under  control. 

Protected  by  the  brother  means:  the  brother  .  .  .  has 
her  imder  control. 

Protected  by  the  sister  means:  the  sister  .  .  .  has  her 
under  control. 

Protected  by  the  relations  means:  the  relations  .  .  . 
have  her  under  control. 

Protected  by  the  lineage  means:  her  own  clans-people 
.  .  .  have  her  under  control. 

Protected  by  dhamma^  means :  those  regarding  dhamma 
.  .  .  have  her  under  control. 

With  protection  means:  she  is  appropriated  in  the 
womb  saying:  ''  She  is  mine,"  even  if  she  is  betrothed. 

Protected  by  the  stick  means:  the  stick  is  put  by  some 

^  For  explanation  see  below,  p.  238. 

2  VA.  555,  "  the  mother  lets  her  go  nowhere." 

^  Ibid.,  "  she  puts  her  in  a  place  so  (well)  guarded  that  other 
people  cannot  see  (her)." 

*  Ibid.,  "  restrains  her  from  living  in  lodgings  of  her  own  choice, 
and  overrules  her." 

6  Ibid.,  "  Saying  '  do  this,  do  not  do  that.'  "  Cf.  M.  i.  2U, 
where  the  expression  cittam  vasam  vatteti,  "  has  his  heart  under 
control,"  or,  as  at  Fur.  Dial.,  i.  155,  "  is  master  of  his  heart." 

^  VA.  555,  "  neither  lineage  nor  dhamma  protects  her,  but  she  is 
protected  by  her  own  clans-people  and  by  those  regarding  dhamma 
who,  on  account  of  one  teacher,  have  gone  forth  belonging  to  one 
company."  It  is  not  the  abstract  but  the  concrete  which  protects 
her;  people  and  not  ideas,  in  fact,  her  co-religionists  (sahadhammikd). 
This  is  an  interesting  heading  as  being  a  recognised  kind  together 
with  nine  others. 


238  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  139-140 

people,  and  whoever  goes  to  such-and-such  a  woman 
says:  "  What  a  stick.''^  ||  2  ||  [139] 

Bought  with  money  means:  having  bought  (her)  with 
money,  he  makes  her  stay. 

Kept  for  'passion^  means:  the  dear  one  makes  the  dear 
one  stay.^ 

A  kept  woman  means:  giving  her  wealth,  he  makes 
her  stay.* 

One  who  receives  clothes  means:  giving  a  garment,  he 
makes  her  stay.^ 

One  who  provides  water  means:  having  handled  a  bowl 
of  water,  he  makes  her  stay.® 

One  who  takes  off  the  pad  (for  burdens  she  carries  on 
the  head)  means:  taking  down  the  pad  he  makes  her 
stay.^ 

A  slave  means:  she  is  a  slave  and  a  wife. 

A  servant  means :  she  is  a  servant  and  wife.  ® 

Flag-brought  means:  a  woman  taken  in  a  raid.^ 


A  temporary  wife  means:  a  wife  for  a  moment.  ||  3  j| 

A  man  sends  a  monk  saying:  "  Go,  honoured  sir,  to 
such  a  one  protected  by  the  mother,  and  explain :  '  He 

^  etkiko  dando. 

2  VA.  555,  "  kept  for  passion,  means,  he  lives  of  his  own  free 
will  for  passion.  Inasmuch  as  she  is  not  only  passionate,  but  a 
wife  she  is  accepted  by  the  man." 

3  piyo  piyam  vdseti. 

*  VA.  555,  "  A  country-woman  comes  to  be  a  wife,  having 
received  the  hoiLsehold  implements." 

*  Ibid.,  "  receivmg  as  much  as  a  garment  or  cloak,  a  vagabond 
woman  rises  to  be  *a  wife." 

^  Ibid.,  plunging  their  two  hands  into  one  pot  of  water,  he  says: 
'*  Joined  like  this  water,  so  let  them  not  be  divided." 

'  VA.  555,  "  Someone  who  is  a  gatherer  of  firewood  and  so  on, 
and  taking  the  pad  off  her  head,  he  keeps  her  in  the  house."  In 
India  the  women  put  a  coiled  pad  of  cotton  or  some  material  or 
grass  on  their  head,  and  then  balance  their  burdens:  brass  vessels, 
long  bunches  of  firewood,  big  round  baskets  and  so  on,  on  the  pad. 

®  Ibid.,  "  She  works  in  the  house  for  wages.  Somebody  lives  a 
household  life  with  her — not  satisfied  with  his  own  wife." 

»  VA.  556,  "  Having  gone  with  the  army  erecting  the  flag,  plunder- 
ing another  district,  she  is  brought  back.  If  anyone  makes  her 
his  wife,  she  is  called  flag-brought." 


b 


V.  4,  4-5]  FORMAL   MEETING  239 

says  become  the  wife  of  such  a  one  bought  for  money.'  " 
If  he  accepts,  examines  and  brings  back,  it  is  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

A  man  .  .  .  protected  by  the  father,  explain:  ... 
protected  by  a  stick,  explain  ...  a  formal  meeting  of 
the  Order. 

The  steps  in  the  composition 

A  man  sends  a  monk  saying:  ''  Go,  sir,  to  such  and  such  a 
one  protected  by  the  mother,  protected  by  the  father  and  say: 
'  He  says,  become  the  wife  of  so-and-so  bought  with  money.'  " 
If  he  accepts  .  .  .  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

A  man  .  .  .  protected  by  the  mother  and  protected  by  the 
parents  .  .  .  protected  by  the  mother  and  protected  by  a  stick 
.  .  .  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

A  portion  of  the  series 

A  man  .  .  .  "protected  by  the  father  and  protected  by  the 
parents  .  .  .  protected  by  the  father  and  protected  by  the 
mother"  .  .  .formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

Told  is  the  beginning  of  the  contracted  series 

A  man  ..."  protected  by  a  stick  and  protected  by  the 
mother  .  .  .  protected  by  a  stick  and  with  protection  .  .  ." 
.  .  ,  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

Told  is  that  beginning  with  one 

That  beginning  with  two  and  that  beginning  with  three  up 
to  that  beginning  with  nine  should  be  done  in  the  same  way. 
This  is  that  beginning  with  ten: 

A  man  sends  a  monk  saying:  "  Go,  sir,  to  such  a  one  protected 
by  the  mother  and  protected  by  the  father  .  .  and  protected 
by  a  stick,  and  explain: '  He  says,  become  ...'"...  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order. 

Told  is  the  series  about  women  bought  with  money  ||  4  || 

A  man  sends  a  monk,  saying:  "  Go,  honoured  sir,  to  such  a 
one  protected  by  the  mother,  and  explain :  '  He  says,  become  the 
wife  kept  for  passion  of  such  a  man  .  .  .  the  kept  woman  .  .  . 
the  temporary  wife.'  "  If  he  accepts  ...  a  formal  meeting 
of  the  Order. 

A  man  sends  a  monk,  saying:  "  Go,  honoured  sir,  to  such  a 


240  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE       [III.  140-141 

woman  [140]  protected  by  the  mother  and  protected  by  the 
father  .  .  .  and  protected  by  a  stick,  and  explain:  ' .  .  .  a 
temporary  wife.' "  If  he  accepts  .  .  .  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order. 

Told  is  the  series  on  the  woman  who  is  a 
temporary  wife  ||  5  || 

A  man  sends  a  monk  saying:  "  Go,  honoured  sir,  explain  to 
so-and-so  protected  by  the  mother:  '  He  says,  become  the  wife 
bought  by  money  of  such  and  such  a  man,'  "  If  ite  ac(jepts, 
examines  her,  brings  back,  it  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order. 

A  man  ...  *  the  wife  kept  for  passion '  .  .  .  '  the  kept 
woman '  .  .  .  '  the  temporary  wife '  .  .  .  formal  meeting  of 
the  Order. 

The  steps  of  composition 

This  is  that  beginning  with  ten: 

A  man  sends  a  monk,  saying:  "  Go,  honoured  sir,  explain  to 
so-and-so  protected  by  a  stick:  '  He  says,  become  the  wife  of 
so-and-so,  bought  by  money,  and  kept  for  passion  and  .  .  .  and 
the  temporary  wife  '  "  .  .  .  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  6  || 

A  man  sends  a  monk  saying:  "  Go,  honoured  sir,  explain  to 
so-and-so  protected  by  the  mother:  '  It  is  said,  become  the  wife 
bought  by  money  of  so-and-so.'  "  .  .  .  a  formal  meeting  of 
the  Order. 

A  man  .  .  .  "to  so-and-so  protected  by  the  mother  and 
protected  by  the  father,  explain:  '  It  is  said,  become  the  wives 
and  so-and-so,  bought  by  money  and  kept  for  passion,  and  .  .  .'  " 
...  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

A  man  .  .  .  "to  so-and-so  protected  by  the  mother  and  pro- 
tected by  the  father  and  protected  by  the  parents,  and  explain: 
'  He  says,  become  the  wives  of  so-and-so,  bought  with  money, 
and  kept  for  passion,  and  the  kept  woman  and  ...'"...  a 
formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

Increase  from  both  (ends)  is  to  be  made  thus: 

A  man  sends  a  monk  saying:  "  Go,  honoured  sir,  to  so-and-so 
protected  by  the  mother  and  protected  by  the  father  and  .  .  . 
and  protected  by  a  stick  and  explain:  'He  says,  become  the 
wives  of  so-and-so,  bought  by  money,  and  kept  for  passion  .  .  . 
and  temporary  wives.'  "...  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

Told  is  the  increase  from  both  (ends)  ||  7  || 


V.  4,  8-11]  FORMAL   MEETING  24I 

The  mother  of  a  man  sent  a  monk  ...  the  father  of  a  man 
sent  a  monk  .  .  .  the  parents  of  a  man  sent  a  monk  .  .  .  the 
brother  of  a  man  sent  a  monk  .  .  .  the  sister  of  a  man  sent  a 
monk  .  .  .  the  relations  of  a  man  sent  a  monk  .  .  .  the  clans- 
men of  a  man  sent  [141]  a  monk  .  .  .  the  co-religionists  of  a  man 
sent  a  monk.  ||  8  |! 

The  mother  of  (a  girl)  protected  by  the  mother  sent  a  monk, 
saying:  "  Go,  honoured  sir,  explain  to  so-and-so:  '  Let  her  be 
the  wife,  bought  by  money,  of  so-and-so  .  .  .  '  ''  .  .  .  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order. 

The  mother  of  (a  girl)  protected  by  the  mother  sent  a  monk, 
saying:  "  Go,  honoured  sir  .  .  .  be  the  wife  kept  for  passion 
.  .  .  the  temporary  wife  ..."  ...  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order. 

The  steps  in  the  composition 

This  is  that  beginning  with  ten: 

The  mother  of  (a  girl)  protected  by  the  mother  sent  a  monk, 
saying:  "  Go,  honoured  sir,  explain  to  so-and-so:  '  Let  her  be 
the  wife  of  so-and-so  bought  by  money  and  the  wife  kept  for 
passion  and  .  .  .  and  the  temporary  wife  ...'"...  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  9  || 

The  father  of  (a  girl)  protected  by  the  father  sent  a  monk  .  .  . 
the  parents  of  (a  girl)  protected  by  the  parents  sent  a  monk  .  .  . 
the  brother  of  (a  girl)  protected  by  the  brother  sent  a  monk  .  .  . 
the  sister  of  (a  girl)  protected  by  the  sister  sent  a  monk  .  .  .  the 
relations  of  (a  girl)  protected  by  the  relations  sent  a  monk  .  .  . 
the  co-religionists  of  (a  girl)  protected  by  dhamma  sent  a  monk 
.  .  .  one  who  was  appropriated  with  protection  sent  a  monk  .  .  . 
one  who  has  put  a  stick,  for  protection  with  a  stick,  sent  a  monk, 
saying:  "  Go,  honoured  sir,  explain  to  so-and-so:  '  Be  the  wife 
of  so-and-so  bought  with  money  ...  be  the  wife  of  so-and-so 
bought  with  money  and  the  wife  kept  for  passion  .  .  .  and 
the  temporary  wife.' "   .  .  .  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  10  || 

One  protected  by  the  mother  sent  a  monk,  saying:  "Go, 
honoured  sir,  explain  to  so-and-so:  '  I  am  the  wife  bought  by 
money  for  so-and-so  ...'"...  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

One  protected  by  the  mother  .  .  .  '  the  wife  kept  for  passion 
.  .  .  the  temporary  wife  '  .  .  .  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

The  steps  of  composition 

If  one  protected  by  a  stick  sends  a  monk,  saying:  "  Go,  sir, 
explain  to  so-and-so:  '  I  am  the  wife  for  so-and-so,  bought  with 
1.  16 


242  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  142-143 

money  .  .  .  another  wife  kept  for  passion  and  .  .  .  and  the 
temporary  wife.'  "  If  he  accepts,  examines,  and  brings  back,  it 
is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

Told  is  the  whole  abbreviated  series  ||  11 1| 

If  he  accepts,  examines,  brings  back,  it  is  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  [142]  If  he 
accepts,  examines,  but  does  not  bring  back,  it  is  a  grave 
offence.  If  he  accepts,  but  does  not  examine  and  does 
not  bring  back,  it  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he 
does  not  accept,  but  examines  and  brings  back,  it  is  a 
grave  offence.  If  he  does  not  accept,  but  examines,  yet 
does  not  bring  back,  it  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 
If  he  does  not  accept,  and  does  not  examine,  but  brings 
back,  it  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  does  not 
accept,  does  not  examine  and  does  not  bring  back,  it  is 
not  an  offence.  ||  12  || 

If  a  man  enjoins  many  monks,  saying:  ''  Go,  honoured 
sirs,  examine  such  and  such  a  woman,"  and  if  they  all 
accept,  all  examine  and  all  bring  back,  it  is  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  for  them  all. 

If  a  man  ...''...  examine  such  and  such  a  woman,"  and 
if  they  all  accept,  all  examine,  but  if  one  makes  them  bring 
back,  it  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  for 
them  all. 

If  a  man  ..."...  examine  such  and  such  a  woman,"  if 
all  accept,  if  one  makes  them  examine  her  and  if  all  bring  back, 
it  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  for  them 
all. 

If  a  man  ..."...  examine  such  and  such  woman,"  if  all 
accept,  but  if  one  makes  them  examine,  and  if  one  makes  them 
bring  back,  it  h  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order  for  them  all.  ||13|i 

A  man  enjoins  a  monk;  "  Go,  honoured  sir,  examine 
such  and  such  a  woman."  If  he  accepts,  examines  her 
and  brings  back,  it  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meet- 
ing of  the  Order. 

A  man  enjoins  a  monk:  "  Go,  honoured  sir,  examine  such  and 
such  a  woman."    If  he  accepts,  examines  her  but  makes  a  novice 


V.  4,  14—5,  1]  FORMAL   MEETING 


243 


bring  back,  it  is  an  oifence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order. 

A  man  enjoins  a  monk:  "...  such  and  such  a  woman."  If 
he  accepts,  makes  a  novice  examine,  but  himself  brings  back,  it 
IS  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

A  man  enjoins  a  monk:  "  .  .  .  such  and  such  a  woman."  If 
he  accepts,  makes  a  novice  examine  her,  and  the  novice  having 
examined,  brings  back  alone,  ^  there  is  a  grave  offence  for 
both.2||14||  ^ 

Going,  he  procures,  coming  back  he  deceives  with 
words— it  is  a  grave  offence.  Going  he  deceives  with 
words,  coming  back  he  procures— it  is  a  grave  offence. 
Going  he  procures,  coming  back  he  procures— it  is  an 
offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  |i  15  || 

There  is  no  offence  if  it  is  for  the  Order,-^  or  for  a 
shrine,*  or  if  he  is  ill;^  if  he  is  going  on  business,  if  he 
IS  mad,  if  he  is  a  beginner.  ||  16  ||  4  || 

Asleep,  and  dead,  gone  out,  unsexed  woman,  a  female 

eunuch. 
She  was  reconciled  after  having  quarrelled,  and  did 

go-between  for  a  eunuch. 

^  bahiddhd]  not  telling  his  teacher,  the  monk. 

2  F^.  559,  "A  grave  offence  for  both  means:  the  accepting, 
and  making  over  the  examining  is  a  grave  offence  with  two  parts 
for  the  teacher.  The  accepting  and  the  bringing  back  is  a  grave 
offence  with  two  parts  for  the  novice." 

^  VA.  599  f.,  "  It  is  not  an  offence  if  any  hall  for  reciting  the 
Patimokkha  belonging  to  the  Order  is  left  unfinished,  and  a  lay- 
tollower  sends  a  monk  to  a  female  lay-follower  in  order  to  get  food 
as  wages  for  the  workers,  or  if  a  female  lay-follower  goes  to  a  lay- 
follower  on  business  connected  with  the  Order.  It  is  the  same  for 
building  a  shrine." 

*  I  do  not  think  a  cetiya  is  necessarily  a  ''  tumulus,  sepulchral 
monument,  cairn,"  as  the  P.T.S.  Diet,  defines  it.  The  cetiyas  at, 
e.g.,  the  Caves  of  Ellora  and  Ajanta  are  certainly  neither  tumuH 
nor  cairns,  nor  do  they  contain  relics.  Erected  probably  after  the 
life-^ime  of  the  Buddha,  they  were  used  as  places  for  meditation, 
iVcet,  to  think),  or  for  listening  to  discourses.     See  below,  p.  266. 

^  *'  If  he  goes  for  the  sake  of  medicine  for  an  invalid,  sent  by  a 
lay-follower  into  the  presence  of  a  female  lay-follower,  or  sent  by 
a  female  lay-follower  into  the  presence  of  a  male  lay-follower." 


244  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE        [III.  143-144 

At  one  time  a  certain  man  [143]  enjoined  a  certain 
monk:  "  Go,  honoured  sir,  examine  such  and  such  a 
woman."  As  he  was  going,  he  asked  some  people: 
"  Where  is  so-and-so  ?" 

"  She  is  asleep,  honoured  sir,"  they  said.  He  was 
remorseful,  and  said:  "  What  now  if  I  have  fallen  into 
an  offence  requiring  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order." 
He  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  He  said:  "  Monk,  this 
is  not  an  offence  requiring  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order;  it  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing."  ||  1 1| 

At  one  time  a  certain  man  enjoined  a  certain  monk, 
saying:  "Go,  honoured  sir,  examine  such  and  such  a 
woman."  As  he  was  going  he  asked  some  people: 
"  Where  is  so-and-so  ?"  "  She  is  dead,  honoured  sir," 
they  said.  ...  "  She  has  gone  out,  honoured  sir," 
they  said.  .  .  .  "  That  is  an  unsexed  woman,  honoured 
sir."  ...  "  That  is  a  female  eunuch,^  honoured  sir," 
they  said.  He  was  remorseful  ..."  offence  of  wrong- 
doing." ||  2 1| 

At  one  time  a  certain  woman,  having  quarrelled 
with  her  husband,  went  to  her  mother's  house.  A  monk, 
dependent  on  (her)  family,  effected  a  reconciliation.  He 
was  remorseful  .  .  . 

"  Monk,  is  she  not  one  to  be  told  '  enough '  ?"2 
"  She  is  not  one  to  be  told  '  enough,'  lord." 
"It  is  not  an  offence,  monk,  as  she  is  not  one  to  be 
told  'enough'."  ||3|| 

^  Ifthipmidakd,  may  be  name  of  a  deformity.  Cf.  above,  p.  217; 
and  Vm.  ii.  271  {°pandikd). 

2  alamvacaniydf  a  woman  who  has  to  be  addressed  with  alam 
(enough),  perhaps  the  husband's  way  of  divorcing,  and  the  wife 
returns  to  her  pai;ental  home.  That  this  woman  did  not  return 
to  the  parental  home,  ndlamvacanlyd,  means,  according  to  Bu., 
VA.  561,  "  she  was  not  abandoned  (by  her  husband).  For  any 
woman  who  is  abandoned  according  to  the  customs  of  divers  districts 
and  thus  ceases  to  be  a  wife,  is  called  alamvacaniyd.  But  this 
woman  was  not  one  to  be  told  '  enough '  (perhaps  =  divorce)  on 
account  of  some  quarrel,  so  that  here  the  lord  said  there  was  no 
offence." 


V.  6,  4]  FORMAL   MEETING  245 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk  acted  as  a  go-between 
for  a  eunuch.  He  was  remorseful.  "  What  now  if  I 
have  fallen  into  an  offence  requiring  a  formal  meeting 
of  the  Order  ?"     He  told  this  matter  to  the  lord. 

**  Monk,  it  is  not  an  offence  requiring  a  formal  meeting 
of  the  Order;  it  is  a  grave  offence."  ||  4  ||  5  || 

Told  is  the  Fifth  Offence  entailing  a  Formal  Meeting  of 

the  Order 


FORMAL  MEETING  (SANGHADISESA)  VI 

...  at  Eajagaha  in  the  Bamboo  Grove  at  the 
squirrels'  feeding  place.  At  that  time  the  monks  of 
AiavT,^  begging  in  company ,2  were  having  huts  built 
with  no  benefactor,^  for  their  own  advantage,  and  not 
according  to  measure^;  but  these  were  not  finished. 
They  lived  intent  on  begging,  intent  on  hinting^:  "  Give 
a  man,  give  a  servant,  give  an  ox,  give  a  wagon,  give  a 
knife,  give  a  hatchet,  give  an  axe,  give  a  spade,  give  a 
chisel,  give  a  creeper,  give  bamboo,  give  mmja-grass, 
give  coarse  grass,  give  ^ma-grass,  give  clay."  People 
were  oppressed  with  the  begging,-  oppressed  with  the 
hinting,  and  when  they  saw  the  monks  they  were  per- 
turbed, then  alarmed,  then  they  ran  away,  then  they 
went  by  a  different  route,*  turned  in  another  direction^ 
and  closed  the  door ;  and  when  they  saw  cows  they  ran 
away,  [144]  imagining  them  to  be  monks. 


_^  ^  VA.  561,  "boys  born  in  the  kingdom  of  Alavi  were  called 
Alavaka,  and  at  the  time  of  their  going  forth  they  were  known  as 
Alavaka."  These  monks  often  gave  trouble  over  new  buildings, 
cf.  above,  p.  148,  and  Vin.  ii.  172. 

2  Oldenberg  says,  Vin.  iii.  274,  "  probably  we  ought  to  read 
constantly  samydcikdya  kutiyo.' '  VA .  566  takes  sayydcikdya  to  mean 
begging  themselves.     See  below,  p.  254. 

3  Assdmikdyo  ti  anissariyo,  VA.  561,  which  goes  on  to  say,  "  having 
them  built  without  a  donor,"  or  benefactor,  ddyaka. 

*  Appamdnikdyo.  VA.  561,  "with  this  amount  they  will  be 
completed,"  they  said.  So  they  were  not  limited  in  size,  their 
measure  increased,  their  measure  was  great. 

6  See  Vin.  iii.  227. 

«  VA.  565,  *'  having  come  to  a  road,  then  leaving  it  and  turning 
back,  they  went  taking  the  left  side  or  the  right." 

'  Annena  mukham  karoti:  to  direct  the  face  towards  another 
(quarter). 

246 


VI.  1,  IJ  FORMAL   MEETING  247 

Then  the  venerable  Kassapa  the  Great^  arose  from 
spending  the  rains  in  Rajagaha,  and  set  out  for  Alavl. 
In  due  course  he  arrived  at  Alavl.  There  the  venerable 
Kassapa  the  Great  stayed  in  the  chief  shrine  at  Alavi.^ 
Then  the  venerable  Kassapa  the  Great  rising  early, 
and  taking  his  bowl  and  robes,  entered  Alavl  for  alms. 
People  seeing  the  venerable  Kassapa  the  Great  were 
perturbed,  then  alarmed,  then  they  ran  away,  then  they 
went  by  a  different  route,  turned  in  another  direction 
and  closed  the  door.  Then  the  venerable  Kassapa  the 
Great,  having  walked  Alavi  for  alms,  after  having  eaten 
and  finished  his  meal,  addressed  the  monks  saying : 

"  Formerly,  your  reverences,  Alavi  had  good  alms- 
food,  alms  were  easily  obtained,  it  was  easy  to  keep 
oneself  going  by  gleaning  or  by  favour.  But  now  this 
Alavi  is  short  of  alms-food,  alms  are  difficult  to  obtain, 
nor  is  it  easy  to  keep  oneself  going  by  gleaning  or  by 
favour.  What  is  the  reason,  what  the  cause  that  now 
this  Alavi  is  short  of  alms-food,  that  alms  are  difficult 
to  obtain,  that  it  is  not  easy  to  keep  oneself  going  by 
gleaning  or  by  favour  ?" 

^  Mahd.  The  rendering  "  Great  "  is  perhaps  a  little  misleading, 
for  one  would  not  think  him  eminent  enough  to  be  so  called.  The 
epithet  was  clearly  given  so  as  to  distinguish  him  from  other 
Kassapas.  Conceivably  it  means  that  he  had  been  in  the  Order 
longer  than  they  had.  We  cannot  say  the  "  Elder  "  as  thera  is 
an  elder;  but  Kassapa  Senior  might  be  possible.  Further,  I  think 
it  doubtful  whether  it  is  right  to  render  Mahd  as  "  Great  "  in  any 
of  the  cases  where  it  occurs  as  an  epithet  of  disciples.  For  example, 
Sariputta  was  never  called  Mahii-Sariputta,  as  Moggallana  was 
referred  to,  very  frequently,  as  Maha-Moggallana ;  and  yet  as  far  as 
"  greatness  "  goes,  there  is  little  or  nothing  to  choose  between  them. 

^  Aggdlave  cetiye,  mentioned  at  Vin.  ii.  172;  S.  i.  185;  Sn.  p.  59; 
DhA.  iii.  170.  SnA.  3M=/S^.  i.  268  explains  aggdlave  cetiye  as  Alavi- 
yam  aggacetiye,  and  says  that  it  was  transformed  into  a  vihara.  At 
K.S.  i.  234,  it  is  taken  to  be  "  the  chief  temple  "  at  Alavi;  in  Buddhist 
Suttas,  p.  56  (second  edition),  it  is  called  "  the  temple  at  Aggalava  "; 
while  translator  at  Vin.  Texts  iii.  212  appears  to  regard  it  as  a  proper 
name.  Mr.  E.  M.  Hare  in  G.S.  iv.  147  translates,  "  at  Agga}ava, 
near  the  shrine  there,"  and  gives  no  notes.  It  was  probably  a' 
pre-Buddhist  shrine.  See  above,  p.  243,  n.  4,  and  below,  p.  266, 
n.  5.  Also  see  B.  G.  Law,  Geography  of  Early  Buddhism,  Appendix, 
p.  74  fiP. 


248  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE       [III.  145-146 

Then  tliese  monks  told  this  matter  to  the  venerable 
Kassapa  the  Great.  ||  1  || 

Then  the  lord  having  dwelt  at  Rajagaha  for  as  long 
as  he  thought  fit,  set  out  on  a  tour  for  Alavi.  Making 
the  tour,  in  due  course  he  arrived  at  Alavi.  There  at 
Ajavi  the  lord  dwelt  in  the  chief  shrine  at  Alavi.  Then 
the  venerable  Kassapa  the  Great  approached  the  lord, 
and  having  approached  him,  he  greeted  the  lord  and  sat 
down  to  one  side.  Sitting  to  one  side  the  venerable 
Kassapa  the  Great  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  Then 
the  lord  on  that  occasion,  for  that  reason,  having  had 
the  Order  of  monks  convened,  questioned  the  monks 
of  Alavi,  saying : 

"Is  it  true,  as  is  said,  that  you,  monks,  begging 
in  company,  were  having  huts  built,  with  no  benefactor, 
for  your  own  advantage,  not  according  to  measure,  and 
that  these  were  not  completed  ?  They  say  that  you 
dwelt  intent  on  begging,  intent  on  hinting:  '  Give  a 
man  ...'...  seeing  cows  they  ran  away,  taking  them 
for  monks." 

*'  It  is  true,  lord,"  they  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  them,  saying: 
"  How  can  you,  foolish  men,  begging  in  company,  have 
huts  built  ?  .  .  .  '  Give  a  man  .  .  .  give  clay.'  It 
is  not  foolish  men,  for  the  benefit  of  unbelievers,"  .  .  . 
having  rebuked  them  and  given  dhamma-talk,  he  ad- 
dressed the  monks:  ||  2  || 

*'  Former ly,i  monks,  two  brothers  (who  were)  holy 
men^  lived  close  by  the  river  Ganges.  Then,  monks, 
Manikantha,^  [146]  the  naga-king,*  emerging  from  the 

^  Cf.  J  a.  ii.  283,  Manikanthajataka,  for  this  story. 

2  Isi,  holy  man  or  anchorite.  Isi  has  not  the  great  force  of 
rsi  of  the  brahminical  tradition,  meaning  a  seer  or  inspired  singer  to 
whom  the  Vedas  were  spoken  or  revealed.  There  are  interesting 
variations  in  the  details  of  this  story  as  described  in  Vin.  and  Jd. 

=^  VA.  565,  "  the  naga-king  went  with  a  very  valuable  jewel 
able  to  grant  all  desires,  adorning  his  throat,  therefore  he  is  called 
'  jewel-throated.'  "  Cf.  Hindu  mythology,  where  the  cow  granting 
all  desires  and  the  jewel  granting  all  desires  were  brought  out  from 
the  sea  at  the  Churning  of  the  Ocean.  *  Or  serpent-king. 


/ 


VI.  1,  3]  FORMAL   MEETING  249 

river  Ganges,  came  up  to  the  younger  holy  man,  and 
having  come  up  and  encircled  the  younger  holy  man 
seven  times  with  his  coils,  he  stood  spreading  his  great 
hood  above  his  head.^  Then,  monks,  the  younger  holy 
man,  through  fear  of  this  snake,  became  thin,  wretched, 
of  a  bad  colour,  yellowish,  his  veins  showing  all  over  his 
body.  Monks,  the  elder  holy  man  saw  that  the  younger 
holy  man  was  thin,  wretched,  of  bad  colour,  yellowish, 
the  veins  showing  all  over  his  body.  Seeing  this,  he 
said  to  the  younger  holy  man:  '  Why  are  you,  good  sir, 
thin  ...  all  over  your  body  V 

'  Now,  the  naga-king,  Manikantha,  came  out  of  the 
river  Ganges  for  me,  and  came  up  to  me,  and  having 
come  up  and  having  encircled  me  seven  times  with  his 
coils,  he  stood  spreading  his  great  hood  above  my  head.^ 
I,  good  sir,  through  fear  of  the  snake,  became  thin  .  .  . 
all  over  my  body.' 

'  But,  good  sir,  do  you  not  want  this  snake  to  return  V 
'  Good  sir,  I  do  not  want  this  snake  to  return.' 
'  Do  you,  good  sir,  see  anything  of  this  snake  V 
'  I  see,  good  sir,  the  jewelled  ornament  on  his  throat.' 
'  Then,  good  sir,  you  beg  this  snake  for  the  jewel, 
saying:  "  Good  sir,  give  me  the  jewel;  I  want  the 
jewel."  ' 

Then,  monks,  Manikantha,  the  naga-king,  emerging 
from  the  river  Ganges,  came  up  to  the  younger  holy  man 
and  having  come  up  he  stood  to  one  side.  Monks,  as 
he  was  standing  to  one  side,  the  younger  holy  man  said 
to  Manikantha,  the  naga-king:  '  Good  sir,  give  the  jewel 
to  me,  I  want  the  jewel.'  Then  Manikantha,  the  naga- 
king,  said:  *  A  monk  begs  for  the  jewel,  a  monk  wants 
the  jewel,'  and  he  hurried  away. 

A  second  time,  monks,  did  Manikantha  emerging 
.  .  .  come  up  to  the  younger  holy  man.  Then,  monks, 
the  younger  holy  man  saw  Manikantha,  the  naga-king, 
coming  from  afar,  and  seeing  Manikantha,  the  naga- 

^  I.e.,  according  to  VA.  565,  above  the  younger  holy  man's  head. 
He  was  practising  mettd-vihdray  and  the  naga-king  shaded  him  with 
his  hood. 


250  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  146-147 


king,  he  said:  ^  Good  sir,  give  me  the  jewel,  I  want  the 
jewel.'  Then,  monks,  Manikantha,  the  naga-king,  said: 
'  A  monk  begs  for  the  jewel,  a  monk  wants  the  jewel.' 
And  then  he  turned  away  again. 

A  third  time,  monks,  Manikantha,  the  naga-king, 
came  up  from  the  river  Ganges.  Then,  monks,  the 
younger  holy  man  saw  Manikantha,  the  naga-king, 
emerging  from  the  river  Ganges,  and  seeing  him,  he 
said  to  Manikantha,  the  naga-king:  *  Good  sir,  give  me 
the  jewel,  I  want  the  jewel.'  Then,  monks,  Manikantha, 
the  naga-king,  addressed  these  verses  to  the  younger 
holy  man:  [146] 

'  My  food  and  drink  is  produced  abundantly,  excel- 
lently— by  reason  of  this  jewel, 

I  do  not  give  it  to  you,  you  are  one  who  asks  too 
much,  and  not  for  you  will  I  come  to  a  hermi- 
tage.,/ 

Like  a  lad,  his  hand  on  a  tempered  sword,^  you 
frighten^  (me)  begging  for  this  stone,^ 

I  do  not  give  it  to  you,  you  are  one  who  asks  too 
much,  and  not  for  you  will  I  come  to  a  hermi- 
tage.' 

Then,  monks,  Manikantha,  the  naga-king,  said:  ^A 
monk  begs  for  the  jewel,  a  monk  wants  the  jewel,'  and 
he  went  away;  then  he  was  gone,  and  did  not  come  back 


1  sakkharadhotipdni.  J  a.  ii.  285  expl.  "  your  hand  is  on  a  sword 
polished  on  the  oil-( whetting)  stone."  VA.  566  says :  sakkhard  vuccati 
kdlasild  (a  dark  stone)  .  .  .  sakkharadhotapdni,  pdsdne  dhotanisita- 
khaggakattho  ti  attho,  which  seems  to  mean  "  in  the  hand  the  sword 
whetted  and  cleaned  on  a  stone."  "As  a  man  with  a  hand  on  a 
sword  frightens,  do  you  frighten  begging  me  for  the  stone."  Ibid., 
Rouse  translates  this  line  at  Jd.  ii.  198:  "  Like  lads  who  wait  with 
tempered  sword  in  hand  "  (lads,  susu  being  there  in  the  pi.). 

2  tdsesi,  cans,  of  tasati,  to  tremble,  shake,  to  have  fears. 

^  Reading  with  Jd.,  tdses'  imam  sdam  ydcamdno,  and  not  with 
Vin.,  tdsesi  mam  .  .  .  Jd.  Corny,  says  Od.  ii.  285):  "asking  for 
this  jewel,  you  frighten  me  like  a  young  man  who  would  unsheathe 
his  gold-hilted  sword  and  say:  'I  cut  off  your  head.'  "  VA.  566 
reads,  evam  tdsesi  mam  selam  ydcamdno,  manim  ydcanto  ti  attho. 


VI.  1,  3-4]  FORMAL   MEETING  251 

again.  Then,  monks,  the  younger  holy  man,  not  seeing 
that  beautiful  snake,  became  increasingly  thin,  wretched, 
of  a  bad  colour,  yellowish,  the  veins  showing  all  over 
his  body.  The  elder  holy  man,  seeing  that  the  younger 
holy  man  had  become  increasingly  thin  .  .  .  the  veins 
showing  all  over  his  body,  said  to  the  younger  holy 
man: 

*  Why  are  you,  good  sir,  increasingly  thin  ...  the 
veins  showing  all  over  your  body  V 

*  It  is  because  I,  good  sir,  do  not  see  the  beautiful 
snake  that  I  become  increasingly  thin  .  .  .  the  veins 
showing  all  over  my  body.' 

Then,  monks,  the  elder  holy  man  addressed  these 
verses  to  the  younger  holy  man : 

*  Do  not  beg  him  who  is  dear  for  what  you  covet,  it 

is  odious  to  ask  for  too  much. 
The  snake,  begged  by  a  brahmin  for  a  jewel,  dis- 
appeared, and  was  not  seen  ( again). '^ 

Monks,  begging  from  these  animals  and  living  creatures 
will  become  hated,  begging  by  hinting  (will  become) 
hated,  how  much  more  then  (will  be  begging)  from 
men?  ||3|| 

Once  upon  a  time,  monks,  a  certain  monk  lived  in  a 
certain  thicket  on  a  slope  of  the  Himalayas.  Monks, 
not  far  from  the  thicket  was  an  extensive,  low-lying 
marshy  ground.  Then,  monks,  a  great  flock  of  birds, 
going  daily  to  feed  in  this  marshy  ground,  entered  the 
thicket  at  night  to  roost.  Then,  monks,  that  monk, 
worried  by  the  noise  of  the  flocking  birds,  came  up  to 
me,  and  having  come  up  and  greeted  me,  he  sat  down 
to  one  side.  Sitting  to  one  side,  I  said,  monks,  to  that 
monk:  [147]  '  I  hope,  monk,  you  are  getting  on  well,  I 
hope,  monk,  you  are  keeping  going,  having  accomplished 
your  journey  with  but  little  fatigue.  But  where  do 
you  come  from,  monk  V 

'  I  am  getting  along  fairly  well,  lord,^  I  am  keeping 
going,  lord,^  and,  lord,^  I  have  accomplished  my  journey 


-Jd.  ii.  285.  2  Bhagavd.  »  Bhante. 


252  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  148 

with  but  little  fatigue.  There  is,  lord,^  on  the  slopes  of 
the  Himalayas  a  large  thicket,  and,  lord,  not  far  from 
this  thicket  there  is  an  extensive,  low-lying  marshy 
ground.  Now,  lord,  a  great  flock  of  birds  going  daily 
to  feed  at  that  marshy  ground  goes  into  that  thicket  at 
night  to  roost.  That  is  why  I  come,  lord,^  for  I  am 
worried  by  the  noise  of  that  flock  of  birds.' 

I  said:  '  Monk,  do  you  want  this  flock  of  birds  not  to 
return  V 

'  I  want,  lord,^  this  flock  of  birds  not  to  return.' 
I  said :  '  Then  3^ou,  monk,  going  there,  and  penetrating 
this  thicket  three  times  in  the  first  watch  of  the  night 
must  utter  this  sound : '  Listen  to  me,  good  sirs,  whatever 
birds  have  come  to  roost  in  this  thicket,  I  want  a 
feather.  Good  sirs,  give  me  one  feather  at  a  time.' 
Three  times  in  the -middle  watch  .  .  .  three  times  in 
the  last  watch  .  .  .  '  at  a  time.'  Then,  monks,  this 
monk  having  gone  there,  and  having  penetrated  the 
thicket,  uttered  this  sound  three  times  ...  in  the 
middle  watch  of  the  night  ...  in  the  last  watch  of 
the  night  .  .  .  '  at  a  time.'  Then,  monks,  that  flock  of 
birds  said:  '  The  monk  begs  for  a  feather,  the  monk 
wants  a  feather,'  and  they  departed  from  that  thicket, 
and  after  they  were  gone,  they  did  not  come  back  again. 
Begging,  monks,  from  these  animals  and  living  creatures 
will  become  hateful,  hinting  (will  become)  hateful,  how 
much  more  then  from  men  ?  ||  4 1| 

Once  upon  a  time,  monks,  the  father  of  Ratthapala, 
the  noble  youth,  addressed  these  verses  to  Ratthapala, 
the  noble  youth : 

'  Tho'  I  do  not  know  them,  Ratthapala,  the  many-folk. 
These,  meeting  me,  beg — why  do  you  not  beg  of  me  V 
'  The   beggar  is  not  liked,  the  not-giver  to  beggar 

is  not  liked, ^ 
Therefore  I  do  not  beg  of  you,  do  not  be  angry  with 

me.'* 

1  Bhante.     ^  Bhagavd.     ^  For  not  giving  is  not  liked,  VA.  566. 
*  =«/a.  iii.  352,  353,  except  first  line. 


VI.  1,  5-6]  FORMAL   MEETING  253 

Monks,  if  Eatthapala,  the  noble  youth,  can  speak 
thus  to  his  own  father,  how  much  more  then  can  (any) 
person  to  (any  other)  person  ?  ||  5  || 

Monks,  it  is  difficult  for  householders  to  collect  pos- 
sessions [148],  and  difficult  to  protect  their  stores;  how 
can  you,  foolish  men,  dwell  intent  on  begging,  intent  on 
asking  by  hinting  (for  something)  from  among  these 
possessions  which  are  difficult  to  collect,  and  from  among 
these  stores  which  are  difficult  to  protect,  saying: 
*  Give  a  man,  give  a  servant,  give  an  ox,  give  a  wagon, 
give  a  knife,  give  a  hatchet,  give  an  axe,  give  a  spade, 
give  a  chisel,  give  a  creeper,  give  bamboo,  give  munja- 
grass,  give  coarse  grass,  give  tina-gra.ss,  give  clay.'  This 
is  not,  foolish  men,  for  the  benefit  of  unbelievers  .  .  .  and, 
monks,  thus  this  course  of  training  should  be  set  forth : 

A  monk  begging  in  company^  for  having  a  hut  built, 
which  has  no  benefactor,  for  his  own  advantage,  should 
make  it  according  to  measure.  This  is  the  measure :  in 
length,  twelve  spans  of  a  span  of  the  accepted  length^ ;  in 
width  seven  spans  inside.  Monks  should  be  brought  for 
marking  out  the  site.  A  site  not  involving  destruction,^ 
and  with  an  open  space  round  it,*  should  be  marked 
out  by  these  monks.  If  that  monk  should  build  a  hut, 
begging  himself  for  a  site  which  involves  destruction  and 
which  has  not  an  open  space  round  it,  or  if  he  should 
not  bring  the  monks  for  marking  out  a  site,  or  if  he 
should  exceed  the  measure,  there  is  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order."  i|  6  ||  1 1| 

^  VA.  566,  "  sanndcikd  m«ans,  having  themselves  inaugurated  is 
called  '  begging,'  therefore  sanndcikdya  is  called  begging  themselves," 
cf,  VA.  561  and  below,  Old  Corny.,  sayam  ydcitvd. 

2  Sttgata-vidatthiyd,  see  Vin.  Texts  i.  8,  n.  2,  for  a  discussion  of  this 
phrase.  VA.  567,  "  a  man  of  medium  height  is  three  spans,  a 
builder's  cubit  {hattha,  the  hand  used  as  a  measure)  is  one  and  a 
half  cubits." 

3  Andrambha — i.e.,  to  living  creatures,  see  below,  Old  Corny., 
p.  257. 

•*  Saparikkamana — i.e.,  accessible,  good  for  rambling  in.  See 
below.  Old  Corny.,  "  possible  for  a  cart  drawn  by  a  yoke  of  oxen  to 
go  round  it."     jf  follow  trans,  as  at  Vin.  Texts  i.  8. 


254  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  149-150 

Begging  in  company  means:  oneself  begging  for  a  man, 
for  a  servant,  for  an  ox,  for  a  wagon,  for  a  knife,  for  a 
hatchet,  for  an  axe,  for  a  spade,  for  a  chisel  ...  for 
^ma-grass,  for  clay. 

A  hut  means:  it  is  smeared  inside  or  it  is  smeared 
outside,  or  it  is  smeared  inside  and  outside.^ 

For  having  .  .  .  built  means:  building  or  causing  to 
be  built. 

Without  a  benefactor  means:  there  is  not  anyone  who 
is  the  owner,  either  a  woman  or  a  man  or  a  householder 
or  one  who  has  gone  forth. 

For  his  oivn  advantage  means:  for  the  goocll)f  him- 
self.2 

Should  make  it  according  to  measure.  This  is  the 
measure  :  in  length,  twelve  spans  of  a  span  of  the  accepted 
length  means:  for  the  outside  measure.  In  width,  seven 
inside  means:  for  the  inside  measure.  ||  1 1| 

Monks  should,  be  brought  for  marking  out  a  site  means: 
that  a  monk  building  a  hut,  having  cleared  a  site  for  a 
hut,  approaching  the  Order,  arranging  his  robe  over  one 
shoulder,  honouring  the  feet  of  the  senior  monks, 
squatting  down  on  his  heels,  and  saluting  with  his  palms 
outstretched,  should  speak  thus  to  them^ :  '  Honoured 
sirs,  I,  begging  in  company,  for  my  own  advantage,  am 
desirous  of  building  a  hut,  it  has  no  benefactor;  honoured 
sirs,  I  beg  the  Order  for  inspection  of  the  site  for  a 
hut.'  A  second  time  it.  should  be  begged  for,  a  third 
time  [149]  it  should  be  begged  for.  If  the  whole  Order* 
is  able  to  inspect  a  site  for  a  hut,  it  should  be  in- 
spected by  the  whole  Order.  But  if  the  whole  Order  is 
not  able  to  inspect  a  site  for  a  hut,  then  those  monks 
who  are  experienced  and  competent  to  know  what  in- 
volves destruction,  what  does  not  involve  destruction, 
what  has  an  open  space  round  it,  what  does  not  have 

1  =  below,  p.  267,  in  definition  oivihdra. 

2  Cf.  below,  p.  268. 

3  VA.  569,  '*  the  Order  should  be  spoken  to  thus  by  him." 
*  I.e.y  all  the  community  of  a  district  or  of  a  vihara. 


VI.  2,  2]  FORMAL   MEETING  255 

an  open  space  round  it— begging  these,  they  should 
depute  (them). 

And  thus,  monks,  should  they  depute  (them):  the 
Order  should  be  informed  by  an  experienced,  com- 
petent monk :  '  Honoured  sirs,  let  the  Order  listen  to 
me.  Such  and  such  a  monk,  begging  in  company,  for 
his  own  advantage,  desirous  of  building  a  hut  which 
has  no  benefactor,  begs  the  Order  for  inspection  of 
the  site  for  a  hut.  If  it  is  the  right  time  for  the  Order,^ 
the  Order  should  depute  such  and  such  monks  to  in- 
spect a  site  for  a  hut  for  that  monk.  This  is  the  motion. 
Let  the  Order  listen  to  me,  honoured  sirs.  Such  and 
such  a  monk  .  .  .  site  for  a  hut.  The  Order  deputes 
such  and  such  monks  to  inspect  a  site  for  a  hut  for  such 
and  such  a  monk.  If  it  seems  good  to  the  venerable 
ones  to  depute  the  inspection  of  a  site  for  a  hut  to  such 
and  such  monks  for  that  monk,  be  silent ;  if  it  does  not 
seem  good,  then  you  should  speak.  Such  and  such 
monks  are  deputed  by  the  Order  to  inspect  a  site  for 
a  hut  for  such  and  such  a  monk.  It  seems  good  to 
the  Order,  therefore  they  are  silent;  thus  do  I  under- 
stand.' 

These  monks  (thus)  deputed,  going  there,  a  site  for  a 
hut  should  be  inspected,  it  should  be  known  whether 
it  involves  destruction,  whether  it  does  not  involve 
destruction,  whether  it  has  an  open  space  round  it, 
whether  it  does  not  have  an  open  space  round  it.  If 
it  involves  destruction  and  has  not  an  open  space  round 
it,  it  should  be  said :  Do  not  build  here.  If  it  does  not 
involve  destruction  and  has  an  open  space  round  it, 
the  Order  should  be  told  that  it  does  not  involve  destruc- 
tion and  that  it  has  an  open  space  round  it.  The  monk 
building  the  hut,  going  up  to  the  Order,  arranging  his 
robe  over  one  shoulder,  honouring  the  feet  of  the  senior 
monks,  squatting  down  on  his  heels,  and  saluting  with 
his  palms  outstretched,  should  speak  thus:  *  I,  honoured 
sirs,  begging  in  company,  am  desirous  of  building  a  hut; 
it   has  no  benefactor,   it  is  for  my  own  advantage. 

1  VA.  569,  "  for  this  inspection." 


256  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE       [111.150^151 

Honoured  sirs,  I  beg  the  Order  to  mark  out  the  site  for 
a  hut.'  A  second  time  it  should  be  begged  for,  a  third 
time  it  should  be  begged  for.  The  Order  should  be 
informed  by  an  experienced,  competent  monk:  'Hon- 
oured sirs,  let  the  Order  listen  to  me.  Such  and  such 
a  monk,  begging  in  company,  is  desirous  of  building 
a  hut,  it  has  no  benefactor,  it  is  for  his  own  advantage. 
He  begs  the  Order  to  mark  out  a  site  for  a  hut.  If  it 
is  the  right  time  for  the  Order,  the  Order  should  mark 
out  a  site  for  a  hut  for  such  and  such  a  monk.  This  is 
the  motion.  Honoured  sirs,  let  the  Order  listen  to  me. 
Such  and  such  a  monk  .  .  .  site  for  a  hut.  [150]  The 
Order  marks  out  a  site  for  a  hut  for  such  and  such  a 
monk.  If  the  marking  out  of  the  site  for  a  hut  for  such 
and  such  a  monk  seems  good  to  the  venerable  ones,  be 
silent;  if  it  does  not  seem  good,  then  speak.  The  site 
for  a  hut  for  such  and  such  a  monk  is  marked  out  by  the 
Order.  It  seems  good  to  the  Order,  therefore  they  are 
silent;  thus  do  I  understand.'  i|2|| 

Involving  destruction  means:  if  it  is  the  abode  of  ants 
or  if  it  is  the  abode  of  termites  or  if  it  is  the  abode  of 
rats  or  if  it  is  the  abode  of  snakes  or  if  it  is  the  abode  of 
scorpions  or  if  it  is  the  abode  of  centipedes  or  if  it  is  the 
abode  of  elephants  or  if  it  is  the  abode  of  horses  or  if  it 
is  the  abode  of  lions  or  if  it  is  the  abode  of  tigers  or  if 
it  is  the  abode  of  leopards  or  if  it  is  the  abode  of  bears 
or  if  it  is  the  abode  of  hyenas^  or  if  it  is  the  abode  of 
any  other  animals  or  living  creatures,  or  if  it  is  connected 
with^  grain  or  if  it  is  connected  with  vegetables,  or  if  it 
is  connected  with  the  slaughtering-place^  or  if  it  is  con- 
nected with  the  execution-block  or  if  it  is  connected 
with  a  cemetery  or  if  it  is  connected  with  a  pleasure- 
grove  or  if  it  is  connected  with  the  king's  property  or 
if  it  is  connected  with  elephant-stables  or  if  it  is  connected 

1  Cf.  above,  p.  98;  A.  iii.  101;  Jd.  v.  416.  At  Vin.  i.  219-220 
it  is  a  dukkata  to  eat  the  flesh  of  some  of  these  animals. 

2  Nissita  throughout. 

3  For  thieves,  VA.  570. 


VI.  2,  3-4]  FORMAL   MEETING  257 

with  horses'  stables  or  if  it  is  connected  with  a  prison 
or  if  it  is  connected  with  a  tavern^  or  if  it  is  connected 
with  a  slaughter-house  or  if  it  is  connected  with  a 
carriage  road  or  if  it  is  connected  with  a  cross-road  or 
if  it  is  connected  with  a  public  rest-house  or  if  it  is 
connected  with  a  meeting-place:^  this  means  involving 
destriiction. 

Not  with  an  open  space  round  it  means:  It  is  not 
possible  to  go  round  it  even  with  a  yoked  wagon,  to  go 
round  it  everywhere  with  a  ladder.^  This  means  not 
with  an  open  space  round  it. 

Not  involving  destruction  means:  if  it  is  nob  the  abode 
of  ants  nor  is  it  the  abode  of  termites  .  .  .  it  is  not 
connected  with  a  meeting-place.  This  means  not  in- 
volving destruction. 

With  an  open  space  round  it  means:  it  is  possible  to 
go  round  it  even  with  a  yoked  wagon,  to  go  round  it 
everyivhere  with  a  ladder.  This  means  with  an  open 
space  round  it.  ||  3  || 

Begging  in  company  means:  oneself  begging  saying: 
Give  a  man  .  .  .  give  clay. 

A  hut  means:  it  is  smeared  inside  or  it  is  smeared 
outside  or  it  is  smeared  inside  and  outside. 

Should  build  means:  he  builds  or  he  causes  to  be 
built. 

//  he  should  not  bring  the  monks  for  marking  out  a 
site,  or  if  he  should  exceed  the  measure  means :  not  having 
caused  the  site  for  a  hut  to  be  marked  out  by  a  vote 
following  upon  the  motion,  he  builds  or  causes  to  be  built, 
exceeding  the  length  or  width  by  as  much  as  even  a 
hair's  breadth,  in  each  operation  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing.-/  If  one  lump*  is  (still)  to  come  there 
is  a  grave   offence,  but   when  that   lump    has    come 

1  At  Vin.  iv.  267  nuns  are  forbidden  to  keep  both  such  places. 

2  Text  reads,  samsarana;  VA.  570  reads  sancarana. 

^  VA.  570,  "  a  ladder  having  been  put  up  by  those  approving 
of  the  hut,  it  is  not  possible  to  go  round  it  with  a  ladder  (to  lean 
a  ladder  on  every  poinl;  of  it). 

*  Of  plaster,  F^.  571. 

L  17 


258  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  151-152 

there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order.^ 

Offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  means : 
.  .  .  because  of  this  it  is  called  an  offence  entailing  a 
formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  4 1|  2 1|  [151] 


If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  not  having  been 
marked  out,  involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open 
space  round  it,  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order  together  with  two  offences  of 
wrong-doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  not  having  been 
marked  out,  involving  destruction,  with  an  open  space 
round  it,  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meet- 
ing of  the  Order  together  with  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  not  having  been 
marked  out,  not  involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open 
space  round  it,  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order  together  with  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  not  having  been 
marked  out,  not  involving  destruction,  having  an  open 
space  round  it,  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  having  been  marked 
out,  involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open  space 
round  it,  there  are  two  offences  of  wrong-doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  having  been  marked 
out,  involving  destruction,  having  an  open  space  round 
it,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  having  been  marked 
out,  not  involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open  space 
round  it,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  having  been  marked 
out,  not  involving  destruction,  having  an  open  space 
round  it,  there  is  no  offence.  ||  1 1| 


1  Cf.  below,  p.  268. 


VI.  3,  2-3]  FORMAL   MEETING  259 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  exceeding  the  measure,  in- 
volving destruction,  not  with  an  open  space  round  it, 
there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order  together  with  two  offences  of  wrong-doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  exceeding  the  measure,  in- 
volving destruction,  with  an  open  space  round  it,  there 
is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order 
together  with  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  exceeding  the  measure,  not 
involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open  space  round  it, 
there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the^ 
Order  together  with  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  exceeding  the  measure,  not 
involving  destruction,  with  an  open  space  round  it, 
there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut  to  (the  right)  measure,  involving 
destruction,  not  with  an  open  space  round  it,  there  are 
two  offences  of  wrong-doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut  to  (the  right)  measure,  involving 
destruction,  with  an  open  space  round  it,  there  is  an 
offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut  to  (the  right)  measure,  not 
involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open  space  round  it, 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut  to  (the  right)  measure,  not 
involving  destruction,  with  an  open  space  round  it, 
there  is  no  offence.  ||  2  || 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  not  having  been  marked 
out,  exceeding  the  measure,  involving  destruction,  not 
with  an  open  space  round  it,  there  are  two  offences 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  together  with 
two  offences  of  wrong-doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  not  having  been 
marked  out,  exceeding  the  measure,  involving  destruc- 
tion, with  an  open  space  round  it,  there  are  two  offences 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  together  with 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  not  having  been 


26o  BOOK   OF  THE    DISCIPLINE      [III.  15^153 

marked  out,  exceeding  the  measure,  not  involving 
destruction,  not  with  an  open  space  round  it,  there  arc 
two  offences  entailing  a  formai  meeting  of  the  Order 
together  with  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  not  having  been 
marked  out,  exceeding  the  measure,  not  involving 
destruction,  with  an  open  space  round  it,  there  are  two 
offences  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 
I|3il  [152] 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  having  been  marked 
out,  to  (the  right)  measure,  involving  destruction,  not 
with  an  open  space  round  it,  there  are  two  offences  of 
wrong-doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  having  been  marked 
out,  to  (the  right)  measure,  involving  destruction,  with 
an  open  space  round  it,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  having  been  marked 
out,  to  (the  right)  measure,  not  involving  destruction, 
not  with  an  open  space  round  it,  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing. 

If  a  monk  builds  a  hut,  the  site  having  been  marked 
out,  to  (the  right)  measure,  not  involving  destruction, 
with  an  open  space  round  it,  there  is  no  offence.  ||  4 1| 

A  monk  commands:  "  Build  a  hut  for  me."  If  they 
build  a  hut  for  him,  the  site  not  having  been  marked 
out,  involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open  space 
round  it,  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting 
of  the  Order  together  with  two  offences  of  wrong-doing 
...  If  they  build  a  hut  for  him,  the  site  having  been 
marked  out,  to  (the  right)  measure,  not  involving  de- 
struction, with  an  open  space  round  it,  there  is  no 
offence.  ||  5  || 

A  monk  having  commanded:  "  Build  a  hut  for  me," 
went  away.  But  he  did  not  command:  "  Let  the  site 
be  marked  out,  and  let  it  not  involve  destruction,  and 
let  it  have  an  open  space  round  it."  They  built  a  hut 
for  him,  the  site  not  having  been  marked  out,  involving 


VI.  3,  6-9]  FORMAL   MEETING  261 

destruction,  not  with  an  open  space  round  it:  there  is 
an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order 
together  with  two  offences  of  wrong-doing  .  .  .  the 
site  having  been  marked  out,  not  involving  destruction, 
with  an  open  space  round  it:  there  is  no  offence.  ||  6  || 

A  monk  having  commanded:  "  Build  a  hut  for  me," 
went  away.  But  he  did  not  command:  *'  Let  it  be  to 
(the  right)  measure,  and  not  involving  destruction,  and 
with  an  open  space  round  it."  They  built  a  hut  for  him, 
exceeding  the  measure,  involving  destruction,  not  with 
an  open  space  round  it:  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a 
formal  meeting  of  the  Order  together  with  two  offences 
of  wrong-doing  ...  to  (the  right)  measure,  not  in- 
volving destruction,  with  an  open  space  round  it:  there 
is  no  offence.  ||  7  || 

A  monk  having  commanded:  ''  Build  a  hut  for  me," 
went  away.  But  he  did  not  command:  "  Let  the  site 
be  marked  out,  and  let  it  be  to  (the  right)  measure, 
and  not  involving  destruction,  and  with  an  open  space 
round  it."  They  built  a  hut  for  him,  the  site  not  having 
been  marked  out,  exceeding  the  measure,  involving 
destruction,  not  with  an  open  space  raund  it:  there  are 
two  offences  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order 
together  with  two  offences  of  wrong-doing  .  .  .  the 
site  having  been  marked  out,  to  (the  right)  measure, 
not  involving  destruction,  with  an  open  space  round  it : 
there  is  no  offence.  ||  8  || 

A  monk  having  commanded:  "  Build  a  hut  for  me," 
went  away.  And  he  commanded:  "Let  the  site  be 
marked  out,  and  let  it  not  involve  destruction,  and  let 
it  have  an  open  space  round  it."  They  built  a  hut  for 
him,  the  site  not  having  been  marked  out,  involving 
destruction,  not  with  an  open  space  round  it.  He 
heard  and  said:  "  They  say  that  a  hut  was  built  for  me, 
the  site  not  having  been  marked  out,  involving  destruc- 
tion, not  with  an  open  space  round  it."  This  monk 
should  go  himself  or  a  messenger  should  be  sent,  saying : 


262  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE      [III.  16a-164 

"  Let  the  site  be  marked  out,  [153]  and  let  it  not  in- 
volve destruction,  and  let  it  have  an  open  space  round 
it."  If  he  should  not  go  himself  or  send  a  messenger, 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

A  monk  having  commanded:  "Build  a  hut  for 
me,"  .  .  .  they  built  a  hut  for  him,  the  site  not  having 
been  marked  out,  involving  destruction,  with  an  open 
space  round  it.  He  heard  ...  or  a  messenger  should 
be  sent  saying:  "  Let  the  site  be  marked  out,  and  let 
it  not  involve  destruction."  If  he  should  not  go  him- 
self nor  send  a  messenger,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. 

A  monk  having  commanded:  ..."  Let  the  site  be 
marked  out,  and  with  an  open  space  round  it  .  .  . 
Let  the  site  be  marked  out  .  .  .  Let  it  not  involve 
destruction,  and  let  there  be  an  open  space  round 
it  .  .  .  Let  it  not  involve  destruction  ...  Let  there 
be  an  open  space  round  it  "  .  .  .  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing.  .  .  .  They  built  a  hut  for  him,  the 
site  not  having  been  marked  out,  not  involving  destruc- 
tion, with  an  open  space  round  it,  there  is  no  offence.  ||  9  || 

A  monk  having  commanded:  "  Build  a  hut  for  me," 
went  away.  And  he  commanded:  "  Let  it  be  to  (the 
right)  measure,  and  not  involving  destruction,  and  with 
an  open  space  round  it."  They  built  a  hut  for  him, 
exceeding  the  measure,  involving  destruction,  not  with 
an  open  space  round  it.  He  heard  and  said:  '^  They 
say  that  a  hut  was  built  for  me,  exceeding  the  measure, 
involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open  space  round 
it . "  This  monk  should  go  himself  or  a  messenger  should 
be  sent,  sajang:  "  Let  it  be  to  (the  right)  measure,  and 
not  involving  destruction,  and  with  an  open  space  round 
it  .  .  .  Let  it  be  to  (the  right)  measure,  and  not  in- 
volving destruction  .  .  .  Let  it  be  to  (the  right) 
measure,  and  with  an  open  space  round  it  .  .  .  Let  it 
be  to  (the  right)  measure  .  .  .  Let  it  not  involve 
destruction,  and  let  it  have  an  open  space  round  it  .  .  . 
Let  it  not  involve  destruction  .  .  .  Let  it  have  an 
open  space  round  it  "  .  .  .  there  is  no  offence.  ||  10 1| 


VI.  3,  11-13]  FORMAL   MEETING  263 

A  monk  having  commanded:  "  Build  a  hut  for  me," 
went  away.  He  commanded:  "  Let  the  site  be  marked 
out,  and  let  it  be  to  (the  right)  measure,  and  let  it  not 
involve  destruction,  and  let  it  have  an  open  space 
round  it."  They  built  a  hut  for  him,  the  site  not  having 
been  marked  out,  exceeding  the  (right)  measure  involv- 
ing destruction,  not  with  an  open  space  round  it.  He 
heard  .  .  .  no  offence.  ||11|| 

A  monk  having  commanded:  ''  Build  a  hut  for  me," 
went  away.  He  commanded:  "  Let  the  site  be  marked 
out,  and  let  it  not  involve  destruction,  and  let  there 
be  an  open  space  round  it."  They  built  the  hut  for 
him,  the  site  not  having  been  marked  out,  involving 
destruction,  not  with  an  open  space  round  it :  there  are 
three  offences  of  wrong-doing  for  the  builders  ...  in- 
volving destruction,  with  an  open  space  round  it:  there 
are  two  offences  of  wrong-doing  for  the  builders  .  .  . 
not  involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open  space  round 
it :  there  are  two  offences  of  wrong-doing  for  the  builders 
.  .  .  not  involving  destruction,  with  an  open  space 
round  it,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing  for  the 
builders  .  .  .  the  site  having  been  marked  out,  in- 
volving destruction,  not  with  an  open  space  round  it: 
there  are  two  offences  of  wrong-doing  for  the  builders 
.  .  .  involving  destruction,  with  an  open  space  round 
it:  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing  for  the  builders 
.  .  .  [154]  not  involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open 
space  round  it:  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing  for 
the  builders  .  .  .  not  involving  destruction,  with  an 
open  space  round  it:  there  is  no  offence.  ||  12 1| 

A  monk  having  commanded:  "  Build  a  hut  for  me," 
went  away.  He  commanded:  "  Let  it  be  to  (the  right) 
measure,  and  not  involving  destruction,  and  with  an 
open  space  round  it "  .  .  .  A  monk  having  com- 
manded: ^'  Build  a  hut  for  me,"  went  away.  He  com- 
manded: "  Let  the  site  be  marked  out,  and  let  it  be 
to  (the  right)  measure,  and  not  involving  destruction, 
and  with  an  open  space  round  it  "  .  .  .  there  is  no 
offence.  II 13  II 


264  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [HI.  166 

A  monk  having  commanded:  "  Build  a  hut  for  me," 
went  away.  They  built  a  hut  for  him,  the  site  not 
having  been .  marked  out,  involving  destruction,  not 
with  an  open  space  round  it.  If  he  comes  back  (and 
finds  that  it  is)  imperfectly  executed,  the  hut  should 
be  given  by  this  monk  to  another,  or  being  destroyed 
should  be  rebuilt.  If  he  does  not  give  it  to  another,  or 
destroying  it  have  it  rebuilt,  there  are  two  offences  of 
wrong-doing  together  with  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order.  .  .  .  A  monk  having  commanded : 
"  Build  a  hut  for  me,"  went  away.  They  built  a  hut 
for  him,  the  site  having  been  marked  out,  to  (the  right) 
measure,  not  involving  destruction,  with  an  open  space 
round  it:  there  is  no  offence.  ||  14  || 

If  he  finishes^  by  himself  what  was  imperfectly 
executed  by  himself,  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a 
formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  If  others  finish  what  was 
imperfectly  executed  by  himself,  there  is  an  offence 
...  of  the  Order.  If  he  finishes  by  himself  what  was 
imperfectly  executed  by  others,  there  is  an  offence  .  .  . 
of  the  Order.  If  others  finish  what  was  imperfectly 
executed  by  others,  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  15 1| 

There  is  no  offence  if  it  is  (built)  in  a  mountain- 
cave^  as  a  hut,^  as  a  hut  of  ^ma-grass,*  for  the  good 

1  Cf.  Yin.  iii.  225,  229. 

«  lenM.  Vin.  i.  206= iii.  248,  trans,  at  Yin.  Texts  ii.  61,  "  cave 
dwelling-place."  At  Yin.  ii.  146  it  is  given  as  the  generic  term  for' 
five  kinds  of  abode. 

3  guhd,  YA.  573,  "  a  hut  of  bricks  or  in  a  rock  or  of  wood  or  of 
earth."  Guha  is  mentioned  at  Yin.  i.  58=96,  with  the  four  other 
abodes  of  Yin.  ii.  146,  as  an  allowance  extra  to  that  of  dwelling  at 
the  foot  of  a  tree.  At  Yin.  i.  107  the  Order  is  allowed  to  fix  upon 
an  Uposatha  Hall  in  any  one  of  these  five  dwelling-places,  lind  at 
Yin.  i.  239  the  Order  is  allowed  to  keep  the  stores  in  any  one  of  them. 
Gf.  Yin.  i.  284. 

*  "  =  a  seven-storied  palace  if  (only)  the  covering  is  of  leaves 
or  of  tina-grass,"  YA.  573.  A  seven-storied  (aattahhwnaka)  hut  is, 
I  suppose,  conceivable,  but  seems  hardly  possible. 


VI.  3,  16]  FORMAL   MEETING  •  265 

of  another^  except  it  be  as  a  house,  there  is  no 
offence  in  any  of  these  circumstances,^  nor  if  he  is  out 
of  his  mind  or  a  beginner.^  ||  16  ||  3 1| 

Told  is  the  Sixth  Offence  entailing  a  Formal  Meeting  of 
the  Order:  that  of  building  a  hut* 

^  "  If  it  is  built  for  the  benefit  of  a  preceptor  or  teacher  or  for  the 
Order,"  VA.5U.       • 

*  VA.  574,  "  except  it  be  as  a  house  (dwelling  or  home,  agdra)  for 
himself,  he  has  it  built,  saying:  '  It  will  become  another  hall  for  the 
recitation  of  the  Patimokkha,  or  a  hot  room  for  bathing  purposes, 
or  a  dining-room,  or  a  warmed  refectory ' ;  in  all  these  circumstances 
there  is  no  ofFence.  But  if  he  says  that  it  will  become  these  things 
and  that '  I  will  dwell  in  it,'  there  is  an  offence." 

3  For  these  exemptions  cf.  Vin.  iv.  48;  VA.  574  indicates  that 
the  monks  of  Alavi  were  beginners. 

*  Probably  nitthitam  is  omitted  here  by  mistake. 


FORMAL  MEETING  (SANGHADISESA)  VII 

...  at  Kosambi  in  Ghosita's  Park.^  At  that  time  a 
householder,  the  supporter^  of  the  venerable  Channa,^ 
said  to  the  venerable  Channa : 

"  Do  find  out  a  site  for  a  vihara,*  honoured  sir. 
I  will  have  a  vihara  built  for  the  master." 

Tlien  the  venerable  Channa,  clearing  a  site  for  the 
vihara,  had  a  tree  cut  down  that  was  used  as  a  shrine,^ 
revered  by  village,  revered  by  little  town,  revered  by 
town,  revered  by  the  country-side,  revered  by  the 
kingdom.  People  became  vexed,  annoyed,  angry,  say- 
ing: ^'  How  can  these  recluses,  sons  of  the  Sakyans, 
have  a  tree  cut  down  that  is  used  as  a  shrine  [155] 
revered  by  village  .  .  .  revered  by  the  kingdom  ?  The 
recluses,  sons  of  the  Sakyans,  are  depriving  a  one- 
facultied  thing*  of  life."  The  monks  heard  these  people 
who  were  vexed,  annoyed,  angry.  Those  who  were 
modest  monks  became  vexed,  annoyed,  angry  and  said : 

^  YA.  574,  "  it  was  made,  they  say,  by  Ghosita,  the  great 
merchant." 

*  \A.  574,  "  at  the  time  of  the  hodhisatla  Channa  was  his 
supporter." 

3  Cf.  Vin.  ii.  21  ff. ;  at  Vin.  ii.  88,  he  took  the  side  of  the  nuns 
in  a  quarrel  with  the  monks;  at  Vin.  ii.  290  the  brahmadanda  penalty 
was  laid  on  him,  but  he  attained  arahanship  [D.  ii.  154).  Cf.  also 
Vin.  iv.  35  f.,  47,  113,  141  and  below,  p.  309. 

*  VA.  574,  "  not  a  whole  vihara,  but  one  dwelling-place."  Vihara 
originally  was  probably  rather  more  than  "  cell,"  and  "  cell  "  would 
most  likely  have  been  called  parivena,  a  monk's  cell,  cf.  Vin.  Texts  iii. 
109,  and  above,  p.  119. 

*  VA.  575  explains  cetiya  by  dftikata.  This  is  from  citti-karoti, 
to  honour,  to  esteem.  VA.  575  further  says  that  "  a  cetiya  is  for 
the  sake  of  honouring:  the  term  is  used  of  those  worthy  of  worship, 
of  sacred  places.  Cetiya  means  the  honoured  (or  revered  or  selected) 
tree,  it  is  a  tree  used  (as  a  place)  for  honouring."  See  above,  p.  243, 
n.  4,  and  p.  247,  n.  2. 

*  With  body-sensibility — i.e.,  sense  of  touch. 


VII.  1-2]  FORMAL   MEETING  267 

"  How  can  the  venerable  Channa  have  a  tree  cut  down 
that  was  used  as  a  shrine,  revered  by  village  .  .  .re- 
vered by  the  kingdom  V  Then  these  monks  told  this 
matter  to  the  lord.     He  said : 

"  Is  it  true,  as  is  said,  Channa,  that  you  had  a  tree 
cut  down  that  was  used  as  a  shrine,  revered  by  village 
.  .  .  revered  by  the  kingdom  ?" 

"  It  is  true,  lord,"  he  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  him,  saying: 

"  How  can  you,  foolish  man,  have  a  tree  cut  down 
that  was  used  as  a  shrine,  revered  by  village  .  .  . 
revered  by  the  kingdom  ?  For,  foolish  man,  in  a  tree 
are  people  having  consciousness  as  living  beings.  This 
is  not,  foolish  man,  for  the  benefit  of  unbelievers  .  .  , 
Thus,  monks,  this  course  of  training  should  be  set  forth: 

If  there  is  a  monk  building  a  large^  vihara  for  his  own 
advantage,  having  a  benefactor,  monks  should  be 
brought  for  marking  out  a  site.  A  site  should  be  marked 
out  by  these  monks,  not  involving  destruction,  with  an 
open  space  round  it.  If  a  monk  should  build  a  large 
vihara  on  a  site  involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open 
space  round  it,  or  if  he  should  not  bring  monks  to  mark 
out  a  site,  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting 
of  the  Order."  11  111 


Large  means:  it  is  called  a  vihara  having  a  bene- 
factor.2 

Vihara  means:  it  is  smeared  inside  or  it  is  smeared 
outside  or  it  is  smeared  inside  and  outside.' 

^  Mahallaka,  here  not  in  the  usual  sense  of  "  full  of  years,"  but 
=mahantabhdvo  .  .  .  pamdnainahantdya  mahallaham  .  .  .  atthadas- 
sanattham  mahallako  ndma,  VA.  575.  But  see  Old  Corny.' s  definition 
below.     Cf.  Vin.  ii.  166,  where  a  vihara  is  also  called  mahallaka. 

2  Because  then  it  can  be  made  to  the  size  of  the  approved  measure, 
apparently  meaning  not  smaller  than  this. 

3  Cf.  above,  p.  254,  where  hut,  kuVi,  is  defined  in  these  same 
terms.  UlliUdvalitta,  which  I  have  rendered  "  smeared  inside  and 
outside,"  also  occurs  at  A.  i.  101=M.  iii.  61,  in  the  simile  of  the 
(wise  and  foolish)  non-inflammable  and  inflammable  house  with 
gabled  roofs. 


268  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  160-167 

Building  means :  building  or  causing  to  be  built. 

Having  a  benefactor  means:  a  certain  person  is  the 
benefactor:  a  woman  or  a  man  or  a  householder  or  one 
who  has  gone  forth.^ 

For  his  own  advantage  means :  for  his  own  good.^ 

Monks  should  be  brought  for  marking  out  a  site  means : 
that  monk  building  a  vihara,  clearing  the  site  for  a 
vihara  .  .  .  (see  Formal  Meeting  VI.  2,  2)  .  .  .  should 
say:  '  I,  honoured  sirs,  am  desirous  of  building  a  large 
vihara,  having  a  benefactor,  for  my  own  advantage; 
honoured  sirs,  I  beg  the  Order  to  inspect  the  site  for  a 
vihara  .  .  .  this  is  called  having  an  open  space  round  it. 

Large  means:  it  is  called  a  vihara  having  a  bene- 
factor. 

Vihara  means:  it  is  smeared  inside  or  it  is  smeared 
outside* or  it  is  smeared  inside  arid  outside. 

Should  build  means:  he  builds  or  he  causes  to  be 
built. 

If  he  should  not  bring  monks  to  mark  out  the  site  means : 
not  having  caused  the  site  for  a  vihara  to  be  marked  out 
by  a  vote  following  directly  upon  the  motion,  he  builds 
or  causes  to  be  built,  [156]  in  each  operation  there  is 
an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  one  lump  (of  plaster)  is 
(still)  to  come,  there  is  a  grave  offence ;  when  that  lump 
has  come  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting 
oftheOrder.2 

Offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  means : 
...  on  account  of  this  it  is  called  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  2 1| 


If  a  monk  builds  a  vihara,  the  site  not  having  been 
marked  out,  involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open 
space  round  it  .  .  .  {see  Formal  Meeting  VI.  3,  1.  The 
sections  which  contain  "  exceeding  the  measure  "  and 
"to  (the  right)  measure "  are  not  repeated  here)  ,  .  .  the 
site  having  been  marked  out,  involving  no  destruction, 
with  an  open  space  round  it,  there  is  no  offence.  ||  1 1| 

1  Cf.  above,  p.  254.  «  Cf  above,  p.  258. 


VII.  3,  2-6]  FORMAL   MEETING  269 

A  monk  commanded:  ''Build  a  vihara  for  me." 
They  built  a  vihara  for  him,  the  site  not  having  been 
marked  out,  involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open 
space  round  it  .  .  .  the  site  not  having  been  marked 
out,  not  involving  destruction,  with  an  open  space 
round  it,  there  is  no  offence.  ||  2  || 

A  monk  having  commanded:  "Build  a  vihara  for 
me,"  went  away.  And  he  did  not  command:  "Let 
there  be  marking  out  of  the  site,  and  let  it  not  involve 
destruction,  and  let  it  have  an  open  space  round  it." 
They  built  a  vihara  for  him,  the  site  not  having  been 
marked  out,  involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open 
space  round  it  .  .  .  the  site  having  been  marked  out, 
not  involving  destruction,  with  an  open  space  round  it, 
there  is  no  offence.  ||  3  || 

A  monk  having  commanded:  "Build  a  vihara  for 
me,"  went  away.  And  he  commanded:  "  Let  there  be 
marking  out  of  the  site,  and  not  involving  destruction, 
and  with  an  open  space  round  it."  They  built  the 
vihara  for  him,  the  site  not  having  been  marked  out, 
involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open  space  round  it. 
He  heard  and  said:  "  They  say  that  a  vihara  was  built 
for  me,  the  site  not  having  been  marked  out,  involving 
destruction,  not  with  an  open  space  round  it."  If  this 
monk  should  go  himself  ...  there  is  no  offence.  ||4|| 

A  monk  having  commanded:  "Build  a  vihara  for 
me,"  went  away.  And  he  commanded:  "  Let  there  be 
marking  out  of  the  site,  and  let  it  not  involve  destruc- 
tion, and  let  there  be  an  open  space  round  it."  They 
built  a  vihara  for  him,  the  site  not  having  been  marked 
out,  involving  destruction,  not  with  an  open  space 
round  it.  For  the  builders  there  are  three  offences  of 
Avrong-doing  .  ,  .  the  site  marked  out,  not  involving 
destruction,  with  an  open  space  round  it,  there  is  no 
offence.  ||  5  || 

A  monk  having  commanded:  "Build  a  vihara  for 
me,"  went  away.     They  built  a  vihara  for  him,  the  site 


270  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  167 

not  having  been  marked  out,  involving  destruction, 
not  with  an  open  space  round  it.  If  he  comes  back 
there  (and  finds  that  it  is)  imperfectly  executed  .  .  . 
the  site  having  been  marked  out,  not  involving  destruc- 
tion, with  an  open  space  round  it,  there  is  no  offence. 
I|6il 

If  he  finishes  by  himself  what  was  imperfectly 
executed  by  himself  .  .  .  (= Formal  Meeting,  VI.  3, 15, 
16)  .  .  .  if  he  is  a  beginner.  ||  7  ||  3 1| 


Told  is  the  Seventh  Offence  entailing  a  Formal  Meeting 
of  the  Order:  that  of  building  a  vihara  [167] 


\ 


FORMAL  MEETING  (SANGHADISESA)  VIII 

At  one  time^  the  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  was  stay- 
ing at  Rajagaha  in  the  Bamboo  Grove  at  the  squirrels' 
feeding  place.  At  that  time  perfection  had  been  at- 
tained by  the  venerable  Dabba,^  the  Mallian,^  seven 
years  after  his  birth.  All  that  there  is  to  be  attained 
by  a  disciple  had  been  fully  attained  by  him*;  for  him 
there  was  nothing  further  to  be  done,^  no  increase®  to 
(be  added  to)  that  which  had  been  done.  Then  the 
venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  as  he  was  meditating 
alone  and  in  solitude,  thought:  "  Perfection  was  realised 
by  me  seven  years  after  my  birth.  Whatever  there  is 
to  be  attained  by  a  disciple,  all  this  has  been  fully 
attained  by  me;  for  me  there  is  nothing  further  to  be 
done,  no  increase  (to  be  added)  to  that  which  has  been 
done.     What  now  if  I  should  render  a  service  to  the 

^  From  here  to  1,  9  below=Fm.  ii.  74-79;  trans,  at  Vin.  Texts  iii. 
4-18. 

2  VA.  576,  "  he  realised  arahanship  in  the  tonsure  hall " — i.e.,  as 
his  curls  were  being  cut  off.  C/.  Thag.,  verse  5,  and  Pss.  Breth., 
p.  10 ;  at  ^.i.  24  he  is  called"  chief  among  those  who  assign  quarters." 

^  The  son  of  the  raja  or  chief  of  the  Mallians. 

4  VA.  576,  "  the  threefold  wisdom,  the  four  branches  of  logical 
analysis,  the  six  super-knowings,  the  nine  other-worldly  matters." 

*  VA.  576,  "It  is  said  that  by  him  there  is  nothing  further  to 
be  done  in  the  four  true  things,  the  four  Ways,  owing  to  the  com- 
mission of  the  sixteenfold  thing  that  ought  to  be  done." 

«  paticaya.  This  is  trans,  at  Vin.  Texts  iii.  4  as  "  nothing  left 
that  he  ought  to  gather  up  as  the  fruit  of  his  past  labour."  But 
this,  I  think,  is  reading  more  into  these  words  than  is  justified. 
Bu.  at  VA.  576  says,  "  there  is  no  increasing  (vaddhana)  of  what 
ought  to  be  done,"  such  as  cleansing  (a  cleaned  bowl).  I  think  that 
this  is  the  right  interpretation.  Cf.  Vin.  i.  183, 185 ;  A,  iii.  376 ;  iv.  355 
for  phrase  katassa  vd  paticayam.  P(Ui°  as  at  Vin.  iii.  158  above  is 
unusual. 

271 


272  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  168-159 

Order  ?*'  Then  the  venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian, 
thought:  "  What  now  if  I  should  assign  lodgings  to  the 
Order,  and  should  distribute  the  meals  ?"  ||  1 1| 

Then  the  venerable,  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  rising  up 
from  his  meditation  at  evening  time,  approached  the 
lord,  and  having  approached  him  and  greeted  him,  he 
sat  down  to  one  side.  As  he  was  sitting  to  one  "side, 
the  venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  said  to  the  lord: 
"  Now,  lord,  as  I  was  meditating  alone  and  in  solitude, 
I  thought :  '  .  .  .  What  now  if  I  were  to  render  a  service 
to  the  Order  V  I  thought  of  this,  lord:  '  What  now  if  I 
were  to  assign  lodgings  to  the  Order  ?  What  if  I  should 
distribute  the  meals  ?'  " 

"  It  is  good,  it  is  good,  Dabba;  then,  you,  Dabba, 
assign  the  lodgings  to  the  Order  and  distribute  the 
meals." 

''  Very  well,  lord,"  the  reverend  Dabba,  the  Mallian, 
answered  the  lord.  ||2|| 

Then  the  lord  on  this  occasion^  in  this  connection, 
having  given  dhamma-talk,  addressed  the  monks: 
"  Monks,  let  the  Order  consent  that  Dabba,  the  Mallian, 
should  assign  the  lodgings,  and  should  distribute  the 
meals.  Monks,  this  should  be  authorised  thus:  Dabba 
should  first  be  asked  and  having  been  asked,  the 
Order  should  be  informed  by  an  experienced,  competent 
monk:  '  Honoured  sirs,  let  the  Order  hear  me.  If  it 
is  the  right  time  for  the  Order,  let  the  Order  consent 
that  the  venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  should  assign 
the  lodgings  and  distribute  the  meals.  [158]  That  is 
the  motion.  Honoured  sirs,  let  the  Order  hear  me. 
The  Order  agrees  that  the  venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian, 
should  assign  the  lodgings  and  distribute  the  meals. 
If  it  pleases  the  venerable  ones  and  there  is  permission 
that  the  venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  should  assign 
lodgings  and  distribute  the  meals,  then  be  silent;  if  it 
does  not  seem  good,  then  you  should  speak.  It  is 
agreed  by  the  Order  that  the  venerable  Dabba,  the 
Mallian,  should  assign  the  lodgings  and  distribute  the 


VIII.  1,  3-4]  FORMAL   MEETING  273 

meals.     It  is  agreed  .  .  .     Thus  do  I  understand.'  "* 

l|3|| 

Then  the  venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  being  so 
chosen,  assigned  one  lodging  in  the  same  place  for  those 
monks  who  belonged  to  the  same  company.  For  those 
monks  who  knew  the  Suttantas  he  assigned  a  lodging  in 
the  same  place,  saying:  *'  These  will  be  able  to  chant 
over^  the  Suttantas  to  one  another."  For  those  monks 
versed  in  the  Vinaya  rules,  he  assigned  a  lodging  in 
the  same  place,  saying:  "They  will  decide  upon  the 
Vinaya  with  one  another."  For  those  monks  teaching 
dhamma  he  assigned  a  lodging  in  the  same  place,  saying: 
"  They  will  discuss  dhamma  with  one  another."  For 
those  monks  who  were  musers  he  assigned  a  lodging 
in  the  same  place,  saying:  "They  will  not  disturb 
one  another."  For  those  monks  who  lived  indulging 
in  low  talk^  and  who  were  athletic  he  assigned  a 
lodging  in  the  same  place,  saying:  "These  reverend 
ones  will  live*  according  to  their  pleasure."  For 
those  monks  who  came  in  late  at  night^  he,  having 
attained  the  condition  of  heat,*  assigned  a  lodging  by  this 


^  Cf.  Vin.  n.  176,  where  it  is  said  that  "  at  that  time  there  was  no 
one  who  allotted  lodgings  for  the  Order,"  and  Vin.  ii.  175,  where  it 
is  said  that  "  at  that  time  there  was  no  one  who  distributed  meals 
for  the  Order." 

'  N.B.  not  to  read:  writing  was  apparently  very  little  used  at 
this  date. 

*  tiracchdnakathikdy  lit.  talkers  about  animals,  so:  talkers  on  low 
or  childish  subjects. 

*  acchissanti  ti  viharissanti,  VA.  579. 
^  vikdle. 

«  tejodhdtum  ^sarndpajjUvd.  At  Ud.  92  Dabba  is  credited  with 
this  same  power,  which  he  exerted  at  the  time  of  his  utter  waning 
out.  This  power  is  also  ascribed  to  Gotama  at  Vin.  i.  25;  and  to 
Uppalavanna  at  ThigA.  190.  See  Minor  Anthologies  of  the  Pali 
Canon,  ii.  S.B.B.  viii.,  p.  11,  n.  1,  where  Mr.  Woodward  considers 
that  this  *'  power  over  the  fire-element  is  probably  the  basis  of  sakti 
(suttee)  in  India."  I  think,  however,  that  suttee  is  connected 
with  sail,  the  good,  virtuous  wife;  while  sakti  is  lit.  ability,  will- 
power, influence.  Cf.  S.  i.  144  and  K.S.  i.  182,  n.  2;  also  A.  i.  176; 
ii.  165;Z).  iii.  27  228,247. 

I.  18 


274  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE       [III.  15&-160 

lifijht.^  So  much  so,  that  the  monks  came  in  late  at 
night  on  purpose,  (and)  they  thought:  "We  will  see 
the  wonder  of  the  psychic  potency  of  the  venerable 
Dabba,  the  Mallian."  And  having  approached  the 
venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  they  spoke  thus: 
"  Reverend  Dabba,  assign  a  lodging  to  us." 

The  venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  spoke  thus  to 
them:  "Where  do  your  reverences  desire  it  ?  Where 
shall  I  assign  it  ?" 

Then  these  (monks)  would  quote  a  distant  place  on 
purpose,  saying:  "  Reverend  Dabba,  assign  us  a  lodging 
on  the  Vulture's  Peak^;  your  reverence,  assign  us  a 
lodging  on  the  Robber's  Cliff;  your  reverence,  assign 
us  a  lodging  on  the  slopes  of  Isigili  HilP  on  the  Black 
Rock ;  your  reverence,  assign  us  a  lodging  on  the  slopes 
of  Vebhara*  at  Sattapanni  Cave;  your  reverence,  assign 
us  a  lodging  in  Sita's  Wood^  on  the  slopes  of  the 
Snake  Pool;  your  reverence,  assign  us  a  lodging  at 
the  Gomata  Glen;  your  reverence,  assign  us  a  lodging 
at  the  Tinduka  Glen;  your  reverence,  assign  us  a 
lodging  at  the  Tapoda  Glen^;  your  reverence,  assign 
us  a  lodging  at  the  Tapoda  Park®;  your  reverence, 
assign  us  [159]  a  lodging  at  Jivaka's  Mango   Grove;' 

1  VA.  579,  "  having  entered  upon  the  fourth  jhana  by  meditation 
ou  fire,  arising  from  that  his  fingers  were  glowing  as  a  result  of 
knowledge  in  the  six  super-knowings  ":  the  "power  of  iddhij  or  psychic 
potency,  was  one  of  the  six  abhinnd. 

2  A  mountain  near  Rajagaha.  These  place-names  also  occur 
atZ).  ii.  116. 

3  Isigilipassa.  Here  at  the  Black  Rock,  Godhika  took  his  own 
life,  S.  i.  120,  and  Vakkali,  S.  iii.  123.  From  here  the  other  peaks 
round  Rajagaha  could  be  seen,  M.  iii.  68. 

*  One  of  the  mountains  near  Rajagaha.  See  Pss.  Breth.  p.  45, 
n.,  and  illustrations  facing  p.  361. 

5  Vin.  i.  182. 

«  The  river  Tapoda  (hot  waters)  ran  beneath  the  Vebhara  Hill. 
See  above,  p.  188,  and  n.  1.  Samiddhi  was  tempted  by  a  devata  as 
he  was  bathing  in  the  Tapoda,  S,  i.  8  ff.,  which  is  very  similar  to  the 
Samiddhi  Jataka,  Jd.  ii.  56. 

'  A  garden  at  Rajagaha  belonging  to  the  physician  Ji  vaka  Koma- 
rabhacca.  Mentioned  at  ikf.  i.  368  (c/.  ilf. 4.  iii.  45).  The  Samaiiria- 
phala  Suttanta  was  spoken  here,  D.  i.  47;  this  is  referred  to  at 
Vin.  ii.  287. 


VIII.  1,  4-5]  FORMAL   MEETING  275 

your  reverence,  assign  us  a  lodging  in  the  deer-park 
at  Maddakucchi."! 

The  venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  having  attained 
the  condition  of  heat  for  these  (monks)  went  in  front  of 
each  with  his  finger  glowing;  and  they  by  the  light  of 
the  venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  went  behind  him. 
The  venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  assigned  a  lodging 
to  them  and  said:  "  This  is  the  couch,  this  the  bed, 
this  the  bolster,  this  the  pillow,  this  a  privy,  that  a 
privy,  this  the  drinking  water,  that  the  water  for. 
washing,  this  the  staff,  this  is  (the  form  of)  the  Order's 
agreement,  this  is  the  time  it  should  be  entered  upon, 
this  the  time  it  should  be  departed  from."  Then  the 
venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  having  assigned  a  lodging 
to  these  (men),  went  back  again  to  the  Bamboo  Grove.* 
I|4|| 

Now  at  that  time  the  monks  who  were  the  followers 
of  Mettiya  and  Bhummajaka^  were  newly  ordained  and 
of  little  merit ;  they  obtained  whatever  inferior  lodgings 
belonged  to  the  Order  and  inferior  meals.  At  that  time 
the  people  in  Rajagaha  wished  to  give  the  Elder  monks 
alms-food  having  a  specially  good  seasoning,*  and  ghee 
and  oil  and  dainties.^    But  to  the  monks  who  were  the 


1  At  Vin.  i.  105  the  Bliagavan  appeared  to  Mahakappina  here 
and  exhorted  him  to  observe  the  Uposatha.  At  both  S.  i.  27  and 
110  it  is  said  that  in  this  garden  Gotama's  foot  was  hurt  by  a 
splinter. 

*  VA.  579,  *'  talking  to  them  with  talk  about  the  country,  he 
did  not  sit  down,  .but  returned  to  his  own  dwelling." 

3  VA.  579,  "  the  chief  men  of  the  sixfold  group."  At  VA.  614 
(on  Vin.  iii.  179)  it  is  said  that  Assaji  and  Punabbasuka  are  the 
foremost  in  this  group,  and  at  MA.  iii.  186,  they  are  called  "  among 
these  six,  two  teachers  of  the  crowd." 

*  abhisafjkhdnka  pindapdta.  Abhi°  means  what  specially  belongs 
to  the  sarjkhdras,  merit-accumulating.  P.T.S.  Diet,  suggests 
tentatively  "  specially  prepared."  The  parallel  passage  at 
Vin.  ii.  77  omits  pindapdta.  The  reading  there  is  probably  defective, 
and  has  led  translators  of  Fin.  Texts  iii.,  p.  9,  to  render  abhi°  as  a 
"  wishing-gift."     See  ibid.,  n.  3. 

*  utiaribhanga\  also  at  Fin.  iv.  259;  J  a.  i.  349.  Ghee,  oil  and 
uttari°  are  mentioned  together  at  Vin.  ii.  214. 


276  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE      [III.  160-161 

followers  of  Mettiya  and  Bhummajaka  they  gave 
ordinary  food,  unseasoned  porridge  of  broken  rice^  ac- 
companied by  sour  gruel.  These,  after  they  had  eaten 
and  had  returned  from  their  meal,  asked  the  Elder 
monks:  *' What  did  you  get,  your  reverences,  at  the 
refectory  ?     What  did  you  ?" 

Some  Elders  spoke  thus:  "  There  was  ghee  for  us,  your 
reverences,  there  was  oil  for  us,  there  were  dainties 
for  us." 

But  the  monks  who  were  the  followers  of  Mettiya  and 
Bhummajaka  spoke  thus:  ^' Your  reverences,  there  was 
nothing  for  us,  (only)  ordinary  food,  unseasoned  por- 
ridge of  broken  rice  accompanied  by  sour  gruel."  ||  5  || 

At  that  time  a  householder  who  had  nice  food  gave 
to  the  Order  in  continuous  food  supply  a  meal  for  four 
monks.  He,  together  with  his  wife  and  children, 
attended  and  served  in  the  refectory.  One  offered 
boiled  rice,  another  offered  curry,  another  offered  oil, 
another  offered  dainties.  Now  at  that  time  a  meal 
given  by  the  householder  who  had  nice  food  was 
apportioned  for  the  following  day  to  the  monks  who 
were  the  followers  of  Mettiya  and  Bhummajaka.  Then 
the  householder  who  had  nice  food  went  to  the  park 
on  some  business  and  approached  the  venerable  Dabba, 
the  Mallian,  and  having  approached  the  venerable 
Dabba,  the  Mallian,  and  greeted  him,  he  sat  down  to 
one  side.  As  he  was  sitting  to  one  side,  [160]  the 
venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  rejoiced  .  .  .  gladdened 
with  dhamma-talk  the  householder  who  had  nice  food. 
Then  when  the  householder  who  had  nice  food  had  been 
rejoiced  .  .  .  gladdened  with  dhamma-talk  by  the 
venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  he  said  to  the  venerable 
Dabba,  the  Mallian:  "  For  whom,  honoured  sir,  is  the 
meal  apportioned  for  tomorrow  in  our  house  ?" 

"  Householder,  the  food  apportioned  in  your  house  for 
tomorrow  is  for  the  monks  who  are  the  followers  of 
Mettiya  and  Bhummajaka." 

^  kandjakam=sakundakabhaUam,  a  meal  with  husk-powder 
cake.     Cf.  Jd.  v.  383.'  * 


VIII.  1,  6-7]  FORMAL   MEETING  277 

Then  the  householder  who  had  nice  food  was  sorry 
and  said:  "How  can  these  depraved  monks^  enjoy 
themselves  in  our  house  V  And  going  to  his  house, 
he  gave  orders  to  a  female  slave,  saying:  "  Having  pre- 
pared for  those  who  come  to  eat  tomorrow  a  seat  in 
the  store-room,^  serve  them  with  porridge  of  broken  rice 
accompanied  by  sour  gruel." 

"  Very  well,  master,"  the  female  slave  answered  the 
householder  who  had  nice  food.  ||  6  || 

Then  the  monks  who  were  the  followers  of  Mettiya 
and  Bhummajaka  said  to  one  another:  "Yesterday, 
your  reverences,  a  meal  was  allotted  to  us  by  the  house- 
holder who  has  nice  food.  Tomorrow  the  householder 
who  has  nice  food,  attending  with  his  wife  and  children, 
will  serve  us.  Some  will  offer  boiled  rice,  some  will 
offer  curry,  some  will  offer  oil,  some  will  offer  dainties." 
These,  because  of  their  happiness,  did  not  sleep  that 
night  as  much  as  they  had  expected. 

Then  the  monks  who  were  the  followers  of  Mettiya 
and  Bhummajaka,  rising  up  early  and  setting'  out 
taking  their  bowls  and  robes,  approached  the  dwelling 
of  the  householder  who  had  nice  food.  The  female  slave 
saw  the  monks  who  were  followers  of  Mettiya  and 
Bhummajaka  coming  from  afar;  and  seeing  them  and 
making  ready  a  seat  in  the  store-room,  she  said  to  the 
monks  who  were  followers  of  Mettiya  and  Bhumma- 
jaka: "  Sit  here,  honoured  sirs." 

Then  the  monks  who  were  followers  of  Mettiya  and 
Bhummajaka  thought:  "  But  undoubtedly  the  food  will 


*  This  acquiescence  in  "  pdpabhikkhu  "  is  curious.  It  reminds  one 
of  the  lax  monks,  not  uncommon  in  Burma  at  the  present  day, 
wlio  do  not  keep  the  Vinaya  precepts.  There  are  said  to  be  good 
and  earnest  monks  who  do  keep  them,  but  who  are  not  seen 
about  much  for  the  very  reason  that  they  lead  the  good  life,  as 
intended. 

^  koUhaka,  a  store-room  for  various  things.  At  Vin.  ii.  153  a 
kotihaka  is  allowed  to  the  monks.  It  was  usually  built  over  the 
gateway.  Here  VA.  580,  says  it  was  outside  the  gateway  of  the 
vihara  in  the  Bamboo  Grove.  See  Vin.  Texts  iii.  109  for  m.eanings 
and  references. 


278  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE      [III.  161-162 

not  be  ready ,^  since  we  are  made  to  sit  in  the  store- 
room." 

Then  the  female  slave  came  up  with  the  porridge 
of  broken  rice  accompanied  by  sour  gruel  and  said: 
"  Eat,  honoured  sirs." 

'*  But,  sister,  we  are  those  who  enjoy  a  continuous 
supply  of  food." 

'*  I  know  that  the  masters  enjoy  a  continuous  supply 
of  food.  But  yesterday  I  was  ordered  by  the  house- 
holder: '  Having  prepared  a  seat  in  the  store-room  for 
those  who  come  for  a  meal  today,  serve  them  with 
porridge  of  broken  rice  accompanied  by  sour  gruel.' 
Eat,  honoured  sirs,"  she  said. 

Then  the  monks  who  were  the  followers  of  Mettiya 
and  Bhummajaka  said:  "Yesterday,  your  reverences, 
the  householder  who  has  nice  things  to  eat  went  to 
Dabba,  the  Mallian,^  in  the  park;  doubtless  Dabba, 
the  Mallian,  set  the  householder  at  variance  with  us." 
These  (monks)  on  account  of  their  lamentations  did  not 
eat  as  much  as  was  expected. 

Then  the  monks  who  were  the  followers  of  Mettiya 
and  Bhummajaka,  after  [161]  they  had  eaten  and  had 
returned  from  their  meal,  going  to  the  park  and  putting 
aside  their  bowls,  sat  down  outside  the  store-room  of 
the  park,^  squatting  against  their  outer  cloaks,*  silent, 
abashed,  their  shoulders  bent,^  their  heads  lowered, 
brooding,  speechless.*  |i  7  || 


'  siddha.  This  is  p.p.  of  (1)  sijjati,  to  boil,  to  cook;  (2)  sijjhati,  to 
be  accomplished,  (see  P.E.D.). 

2  Note  that  the  monks  now  drop  the  epithet  "  venerable  "  or 
"  reverend  "  in  speaking  of  Dabba. 

3  VA.  580,  "  outside  the  door  of  the  store-room  of  the  vihara 
of  the  Bamboo  Grove." 

*  sanghdti-pallatthikdya,  a  curious  expression.  PaUa°  also  means 
**  lolling,"  c/.  ^«^-iv.  129. 

5  pattakkhandhii.  Khandha  here,  I  think,  in  one  of  its  crude 
meanings,  of  back  or  shoulder,  and  not  as  suggested  at  Vin.  Texts 
iii.  13,  n.  1,  ^'faculties."  See  K.S.  i.  155,  n.  5.  VA.  580=M^.  ii. 
104  explains  puttakkhandhu  as  patitakkhatidhd. 

«  All    this    is    stock.     Cf.   A.   iii.   57;   S.   i.   124= If.   i. 
258. 


VIII.  1,  8]  FORMAL   MEETING  279 

Then  the  nun  Mettiya^  approached^  the  monks  Avho 
were  followers  of  Mettiya  and  Bhummajaka,  and  having 
approached  them  she  said  to  the  monks  who  were 
followers  of  Mettiya  and  Bhummajaka:  "  I  salute  you, 
masters."  When  she  had  spoken  thus  the  monks  who 
were  followers  of  Mettiya  and  Bhummajaka  did  not 
respond.  A  second  time  ...  A  third  time  the  monks 
who  were  followers  of  Mettiya  and  Bhummajaka  did 
not  respond. 

''  Do  I  offend  against  the  masters  ?  Why  do  the 
masters  not  respond  to  me  ?"  she  said. 

"  It  is  because  you  neglect  us,  sister,  when  we  are  got 
into  difficulties  by  Dabba,  the  Mallian." 

"  What  can  I  do,  masters  ?"  she  said. 

*'  If  you  would  like,  sister,  this  very  day  you  could 
make  the  lord  expel  Dabba,  the  Mallian." 

"  What  can  I  do,  masters  ?  How  am  I  able  to  do 
that  ?"  she  said. 

"  Come,  sister,  go  up  to  the  lord,  and  having  gone  up, 
say  to  the  lord:  '  Now,  lord,  it  is  not  suitable,  it  is  not 
becoming  that  this  quarter  which  should  be  without 
fear,  secure,  without  danger  is  the  very  quarter  which 
is  full  of  fear,  insecure,  and  full  of  danger.  Where 
there  was  a  calm,  now  there  is  a  gale.  It  seems  the  very 
water  is  blazing.  I  have  been  assaulted  by  master^ 
Dabba,  the  Mallian.'  " 

"  Very  well,  masters,"  the  nun  Mettiya  answered  the 
monks  who  were  followers  of  Mettiya  and  Bhummajaka, 
and  she  approached  the  lord.  Having  approached  and 
greeted  the  lord,  she  stood  to  one  side.  As  she  was 
standing  to  one  side,  the  nun  Mettiya  spoke  thus  to  the 
lord:  "Now,  lord,  it  is  not  suitable  ...  by  master 
Dabba,  the  Mallian."  ||  8  || 

1  The  following  narrative  down  to  ||9|l=ym.  ii.  78-79  and  is 
almost  exactly  the  same  as  that  recorded  at  Vin.  ii.  124-127,  except 
that  here  the  monks  send  Vaddha  to  the  lord  to  say  that  Dabba 
has  assaulted  Vaddha's  wife. 

2  ayi/ena,  instrumentive,  therefore  not  "  lord  "  (vocative)  as 
at  Vi7i.  Texts  iii.  14.  Ayj/a  was  a  usual  way  in  which  the  laity  and 
nuns  addressed  the  monks,  but  I  do  not  think  that  anyone  ever 
addressed  the  lord  thus. 


28o  BOOK  OF  THE  DISCIPLINE       [III.  162-163 

Now  the  lord  on  this  occasion  and  in  this  connection, 
having  had  the  Order  of  monks  convened,  asked  the 
venerable  Dahba,  the  Mallian: 

"  Dabba,  do  you  remember  doing  as  the  nun  Mettiya 
says  ?" 

"  Lord,  the  lord  knows  with  regard  to  me,"  he  said. 
A  second  time  ...  a  third  time  the  lord  said  to  the 
venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian  .  .  .  *'  with  regard  to 
me." 

**  Dabba,  the  Dabbas^  do  not  give  evasive  answers 
like  that.  If  what  was  done  was  done  by  you,  say  so; 
if  it  was  not  done  by  you,  say  it  was  not." 

"  Lord,  since  I  was  born,  I  cannot  call  to  mind^  ever 
indulging  in  sexual  intercourse  even  in  a  dream;  much 
less  so  when  I  was  awake." 

Then  the  lord  addressed  the  monks,  saying:  "Be- 
cause of  this,  expel  the  nun  Mettiya,^  [162]  and  take 
these  monks  to  task." 

Having  spoken  thus,  the  lord  rising  up  from  his 
seat  entered  the  vihara.  Then  these  monks  expelled 
the  nun  Mettiya.  Then  the  monks  who  were  followers 
of  Mettiya  and  Bhummajaka  said  to  those  monks: 

**  Your  reverences,  do  not  expel  the  nun  Mettiya; 
she  has  not  committed  any  sin;  she  was  urged  on  by  us, 
because  we  were  angry,  displeased  and  wanted  him  out 
of  the  way." 

"  But  are  not  your  reverences  defaming  the  venerable 
Dabba,  the  Mallian,  with  an  unfounded  charge  involving 
defeat  ?" 

"  It  is  so,  your  reverences,"  they  said. 

Then  those  who  were  modest  monks  became  annoyed, 
vexed  and  angry,  and  said:  "  How  can  the  monks  who 

*  They  are  wise,  VA.  581.  ^  abhijdndmi. 

^  This  is,  I  think,  clear  evidence  of  monkish  gloss.  In  every  case 
of  supposed  wrong-doing  the  lord  has  always  asked  the  supposed 
wrongdoer  "  Is  it  true  V*  and  has  never  condemned  anyone  without 
first  hearing  what  he  has  to  say.  It  is  so  noteworthy  as  to  be  sus- 
picious: where  a  woman  is  involved  she  is  given  no  chance  to  excul- 
pate herself  to  the  lord.  See  Horner,  Women  under  Primitive 
Buddhism,  p.  266. 


VIII.  1,  9—2]  FORMAL   MEETING  28t 

are  followers  of  Mettiya  and  Bhummajaka  defame  the 
venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  with  an  unfounded  charge 
involving  defeat  ?"  Then  these  monks  told  this  matter 
to  the  lord.     He  said : 

"  Is  it  true,  as  is  said,  monks,  that  you  defamed  Dabba, 
the  Mallian,  with  an  unfounded  charge  involving 
defeat  ?" 

"  It  is  true,  lord,"  they  said. 

Then  the  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  them, 
saying:  "  How  can  you,  foolish  men,  defame  Dabba, 
the  Mallian,  with  an  unfounded  charge  involving  defeat  ? 
It  is  not,  foolish  men,  for  the  benefit  of  unbelievers.  .  .  . 
Thus,  monks,  this  course  of  training  should  be  set 
forth: 

Whatever  monk,  malignant,  malicious  and  ill-tem- 
pered, should  defame  a  monk  with  an  unfounded  charge 
involving  defeat,  thinking:  '  Thus  perhaps  may  I  drive 
him  away  from  this  Brahma-life,'  then,  if  afterwards 
he,  being  pressed  or  not  being  pressed,  the  legal  ques- 
tion turning  out  to  be  unfounded,  if  the  monk  confesses^ 
his  malice,  it  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting 
of  the  Order."  11 9  11 1 1| 


Whatever  means:  who  ... 

Monk  means:  ...  in  this  meaning  monk  is  to  be 
understood. 

Monk^  means:  another  monk. 

Malignanty  malicious  means:  angry,  displeased,  dis- 
satisfied, the  mind  worsened,  stubborn.^ 

Ill-tempered  means :  with  this  anger,  with  this  hatred, 
and  with  this  displeasure,  and  with  this  dissatisfaction 
he  is  angry. 

^  patittkdti  with  more  general  meaning  of  *'  to  stand  fast."  But 
here,  judging  by  the  Old  Corny.,  see  below  at  end  of  ||  2  ||,  it  must 
mean  "  confess  "  with  the  sense  that  his  words  were  standing 
on  or  founded  in  malice.  The  verb,  however,  in  such  meanings  is 
followed  by  the  loc.     But  pati  governs  the  ace. 

2  ace. 

3  Cf.  Vin.  iv.  236,  238;  Z>.  iii.  238,  M.  i.  101 


282  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  163-164 


Unfounded  means:  unseen/  unheard,  unsuspected. 

Involving  defeat  means:  of  one  of  the  four  (headings 
involving  defeat). 

Should  defame  means :  should  reprove  or  should  cause 
to  reprove.^ 

Thus  perhaps  may  I  drive  him  aioayfrom  this  Brahma- 
life  means:  [163]  I  may  drive  (him)  awayjfrom  monkdom, 
I  may  drive  (him)  away  from  recluse-dhamma,^  I  may 
drive  (him)  away  from  the  aggregates  of  morality,  I  may 
drive  (him)  away  from  the  advantage  of  religious 
austerity.* 

Afterwards  means :  in  the  moment  in  which  he  is  de- 
famed that  moment,  that  minute,  that  second  has  passed. 

Being  pressed  means:  he  is  defamed  in  that  matter 
in  which  he  is  pressed. 

Not  heing^  pressed  means :  not  being  spoken  to  by  any- 
one. 

A  legal  question^  means :  there  aye  four  legal  questions : 
legal  questions  arising  out  of  disputes,  legal  questions 
arising  out  of  censure,  legal  questions  arising  out  of 
transgressions,  legal  questions  arising  out  of  obligations. 

If  the  monk  confesses  his  malice  means :  empty  words 
have  been  spoken  by  me,  a  lie  has  been  spoken  by  me, 
untruth  has  been  spoken  by  me,  it  has  been  spoken  by 
me  not  knowing. 

Offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  rnQd^n^  .  .  . 
on  account  of  this  it  is  called  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  2  || 

^  VA.  585,  not  seen  by  self  or  others,  nor  by  the  bodily  eye.,  nor 
by  clairvoyance. 

2  VA.  587,  "  should  reprove  means  he  reproves  him  himself 
with  the  words  '  you  have  fallen  into  defeat '  .  .  .  should  cause 
to  reprove  means  ...  he  enjoins  another  monk  and  this  one 
reproves  him  with  his  {i.e.,  the  enjoiner's)  words." 

^  samana-dhamma,  explained  at  A.  iii.  371:  therefore  not  "the 
ascetic's  path  "  as  at  Jd.  i.  31. 

*  iapoguna. 

6  adhikarana.  =Vin.  iv.  126=238.  Cf.  Via.  ii.  88  flf.,  where 
the  nature  of  these  questions  is  explained,  and  ii.  99  £f.,  which 
explains  the  ways  of  settling  these  questions.  _  At  M.  ii.  247  ff» 
Gotama  is  represented  as  explaining  all  this  to  Ananda. 


VIII.  3,  1-2]  FORMAL   MEETING  283 

He  is  unseen  by  him  committing^  an  offence  involving 
defeat,^  but  if  he  reprimands  him  saying:  "  Seen  by  me, 
you  are  one  who  has  committed'  a  matter  involving 
defeat,  you  are  not  a  (true)  recluse,  you  are  not  a  (true) 
son  of  the  Sakyans,  there  is  no  (holding)  the  observance- 
day  (ceremony),*  or  the  ceremony  held  at  the  end  of 
the  rains,^  or  the  ceremony  performed  by  a  chapter  of 
monks^  with  you," — for  each  speech^  there  is  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. ^ 

He  is  unheard  by  him  committing  an  offence  involving 
defeat,  but  if  he  reprimands  him  saying:  "  Heard  by 
me,  you  are  .  .  ." — for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

He  is  unsuspected  by  him  of  committing  an  offence 
involving  defeat,  but  if  he  reprimands  him  saying: 
''  Suspected  by  me,  you  are  .  .  ." — for  each  speech 
there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order.  |i  1  i| 

He  is  unseen  by  him  committing  an  offence  involving 
defeat,  but  if  he  reprimands  him  saying:  *' Seen  and 
heard  by  me,  )^ou  are  one  who  has  committed  an  offence 
involving  defeat  .  .  ." — for  each  speech  there  is  an 
offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

He  is  unseen  by  him  committing  an  offence  involving 
defeat,  but  if  he  reprimands  him  saying:  "Seen  and 
suspected  by  me  .  .  .  Seen,  heard  and  suspected  by 
me  .  .  ." — for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

He  is  unheard  by  him  committing  an  offence  involving 
defeat,  but  if  he  reprimands  him  saying:  "  Heard  and 

*  ajjhdpajjanta,  pres.  part.  ^  Pdrdjika  dhamma. 
^  Ajjhdpanna,  past  part. 

*  Uposafha,  a  chapter  of  monks  meoting  on  the  fifteenth  day  of 
each  half-month  to  expound  dhamma,  Vin.  i.  102.  E.  M.  Hare, 
G.S.  iv.  140,  170,  gives  "  observance-day  "  for  uposafha. 

*  Pavdrand,  when  the  monks  invite  one  another  to  tell  of  anything 
seen,  heard  or  suspected  to  be  wrong,  Vin.  i.  160  and  cf.  Vin.  ii.  32. 

«  Sanghakamma,  the  monks  being  assembled  together  in  solemn 
conclave.      Cf.  Vin.  i.  123,  143. 

'  Vdcdya  vdcaya.  *  Cf.  below,  p.  292. 


284  BOOK   OF  THE    DISCIPLINE       [III.  104-165 

suspected  by  me  .  .  .  Heard  and  seen  by  me  .  .  . 
Heard,  seen  and  suspected  by  me  .  .  ." — for  each  speech 
there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order. 

He  is  unsuspected  by  him  of  committing  an  offence 
involving  defeat,  but  if  he  reprimands  him  sayijtig: 
"  Suspected  and  seen  by  me  .  .  .  Suspected  and  heard 
by  me  .  .  .  Suspected,  seen  and  heard  by  me  .  .  ." — 
for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  2 1|  [164] 

He  is  seen  by  him  committing  an  offence  involving 
defeat,  but  if  he  reprimands  him  saying:  *'  Heard  by 
me  .  .  .  Suspected  by  me  .  .  .  Heard  and  suspected 
by  me,  you  are  one  who  has  committed  an  offence  in- 
volving defeat  .  ^  ." — for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

He  is  heard  by  him  committing  an  offence  involving 
defeat,  but  ii  he  reprimands  him  saying:  "Suspected 
by  me  .  .  .  Seen  by  me  .  .  .  Suspected  and  seen 
by  me  .  .  ." — for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence  en- 
tailing a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

He  is  suspected  by  him  of  committing  an  offence  in- 
volving defeat,  but  if  he  reprimands  him  saying:  "  Seen 
by  me  .  .  .  Heard  by  me  .  .  .  Seen  and  heard  by 
me  .  .  ." — for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence  entailing 
a  foripial  meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  3  || 

He  is  seen  by  him  committing  an  offence  involving 
defeat;  but  he  is  in  doubt  as  to  the  sight,  he  does  not 
trust  the  sight,  does  not  remember  the  sight,  is  con- 
fused as  to  the  sight.  He  is  in  doubt  as  to  what  he  has 
heard  ...  is  confused  as  to  what  he  heard.  He  is  in 
doubt  as  to  the  suspicion  ...  he  is  confused  as  to 
what  he  suspected;  yet  he  reprimands  him  saying: 
"  Suspected  and  seen  by  me  .  .  .  Suspected  and  heard 
by  me  .  .  .  Suspected  and  seen  and  heard  by  me  .  .  ." 
— for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  4  || 


VIII.  3,  5—4,  1]  FORMAL   MEETING  285 

He  is  unseen  by  him  committing  an  offence  involving 
defeat,  but  if  he  causes  him  to  be  reprimanded  saying: 
''You  are  seen,  you  are  one  who  has  committed  an 
offence  involving  defeat  .  .  ." — for  each  speech 
there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order. 

He  is  unheard  ...     He  is  unsuspected  .  .  .  ||  5  || 

He  is  unseen  by  him  committing  an  offence  involving 
defeat,  but  if  he  causes  him  to  be  reprimanded  saying : 
"  You  are  seen  and  heard  .  .  .  You  are  seen  and  sus- 
pected .  .  .  You  are  seen  and  heard  and  suspected 
.  .  ." — for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  ||6|| 

He  is  seen  by  him  committing  an  offence  involving 
defeat,  but  if  he  causes  him  to  be  reprimanded  saying : 
"  You  are  heard  .  .  .  You  are  suspected  .  .  .  You 
are  heard  and  suspected  ..." 

He  is  heard  by  him  ...  He  is  suspected  by 
him...||7|i 

He  is  seen  by  him  committing  an  offence  involving 
defeat ;  he  is  in  doubt  as  to  the  sight  ...  he  is  confused 
as  to  what  he  suspected,  yet  he  causes  him  to  be  repri- 
manded saying:  "You  are  suspected  and  seen  .  .  ." 
...  he  is  confused  as  to  what  he  suspected,  yet  he 
causes  him  to  be  reprimanded  saying:  "You  are  sus- 
pected and  heard  ..."  ...  he  is  confused  as  to 
what  he  suspected,  yet  he  causes  him  to  be  reprimanded 
saying:  "You  are  suspected  and  seen  and  heard  .  .  . 
involving  defeat  .  .  ." — ^for  each  speech  there  is  an 
offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  8  ||  3 1| 
[165] 


There  is  a  view  of  what  is  pure  in  what  is  impure, 
a  view  of  what  is  impure  in  what  is  pure,  there  is  a 
view  of  what  is  impure  in  what  is  impure,  a  view  of 
what  is  pure  in  what  is  pure.  ||  1 1| 


286  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  166 

If  a  man  is  impure,  committing  a  certain  offence  in- 
volving defeat,  even  though  there  exist  a  view  of 
purity,  if  he  speaks  desiring  his  expulsion,  but  without 
having  gained  his  leave,^  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing together  with  an  offence  requiring  a  formal -meet- 
ing of  the  Order. 

If  a  man  is  impure  ...  if  he  speaks  desiring  his 
expulsion,  but  having  gained  his  leave,  it  is  an  offence 
requiring  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

If  a  man  is  impure  .  .  .  not  having  gained  his  leave, 
he  spoke  intending  abuse,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing together  with  one  of  insulting  speech. 

If  a  man  is  impure  .  .  .  having  gained  his  leave,  he 
spoke  intending  abuse,  it  is  an  offence  of  insulting 
speech.  ||2|| 

If  a  man  is  pure,  not  committing  a  certain  offence 
involving  defeat,  even  though  there  exist  a  view  of 
impurity,  if  he  speaks  desiring  his  expulsion,  but 
without  having  gained  his  leave,  there  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing. 

If  a  man  is  pure  .  .  .  having  gained  his  leave,  he 
speaks  intending  his  expulsion,  there  is  no  offence. 

If  it  is  a  pure  man  .  .  .  without  having  gained  his 
leave,  he  speaks  intending  abuse,  it  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing  with  one  of  insulting  speech. 

If  it  is  a  pure  man  .  .  .  having  gained  his  leave,  he 
speaks  intending  abuse,  it  is  an  offence  of  insulting 
speech.  ||3|| 

If  a  man  is  impure,  committing  a  certain  offence 
involving  defeat,  even  though  there  exist  a  view  as 
to  impurity,  he  speaks  wishing  his  expulsion,  but  not 
having  gained  his  leave,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing ...  it  is  not  an  offence  ...  it  is  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing  with  one  of  insulting  speech  .  .  .  it  is  an 
offence  of  insulting  speech.  ||  4  || 

*  See  Vin.  i.  114,  where  it  is  said  that  no  monk  who  has  not  given 
leave  may  be  reproved  for  an  offence. 


VIII.  4,  5-6]  FORMAL   MEETING  287 

If  a  man  is  pure,  not  committing  an  offence  leading 
to  defeat,  even  though  there  exist  a  view  as  to 
purity  .  .  .  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing  with  an 
offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  ...  it 
is  an  offence  requiring  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order 
...  it  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing  with  one  of  insulting 
speech  .  .  .  it  is  an  offence  of  insulting  speech.  ||  5  || 

There  is  no  offence  if  there  is  a  view  as  to  what 
is  impure  in  what  is  pure,  if  there  is  a  view  as  to 
what  is  impure  in  what  is  impure,  if  he  is  mad,  if  he  is  a 
beginner.  ||  6  ||  4  || 

Told  is  the  Eighth  Offence  entailing  a  Formal  Meeting 
of  the  Order :  that  concerned  with  what  is  unfounded 


FORMAL  MEETING  (SANGHADISESA)  IX 

...  at  Rajagaha  in  the  Bamboo  Grove  at  the 
squirrels'  feeding-place.  At  that-  time  as  the  monks 
who  were  the  followers  of  Mettiya  and  Bhummaja 
were  descending  from  the  slope  of  the  Vulture's  Peak, 
they  saw  a  he-goat  copulating  with  a  nanny-goat;  [166] 
seeing  them  they  said:  '*  Look  here,  your  reverences, 
let  us  call  this  he-goat  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  and  this 
nanny-goat  Mettiya,  the  nun;  thus  we  will  express  it: 
'  Formerly,  your  reverences,  we  spoke  to  Dabba,  the 
Mallian,  about  what  was  heard,  but  now  we  have  our- 
selves seen  him  sinning  with  the  nun  Mettiya."  These 
gave  that  he-goat  the  name  of  Dabba,  the  Mallian, 
and  called  that  nanny-goat  Mettiya,  the  nun. 

These  told  the  monks:  "  Formerly,  your  reverences, 
we  spoke  to  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  about  what  was  heard, 
but  now  we  ourselves  have  seen  him  sinning  with 
Mettiya,  the  nun." 

The  monks  said:  "  Your  reverences,  do  not  speak  like 
that;  the  venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  would  not  do 
that." 

Then  these  monks  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  The 
lord,on  that  occasion,  in  that  connection,  having  had  the 
Order  of  monks  convened,  asked  the  venerable  Dabba, 
the  Mallian: 

"  Do  you  remember,^  Dabba,  to  have  done  as  these 
monks  say  ?" 

'*  Lord,  the  lord  knows  with  regard  to  me,"  he  said. 

A  second  time,  the  lord  ...  a  third  time  the  lord 
said  to  the  venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian  ..."  knows 
with  regard  to  me,"  he  said. 

1  Cf,  above,  p.  280. 
288 


IX.  1,  1-2]  FORMAL   MEETING  289 

"  Do  not,  Dabba,  ..."  ..."...  how  much  more 
when  I  was  awake,"  he  said. 

Then  the  lord  addressed  the  monks:  "Because  of 
this,  monks,  you  should  put  questions  to  these  monks." 
Having  spoken  thus,  the  lord  rising  up  from  his  seat, 
entered  the  vihara.  ||  1 1| 

Then  these  monks  put  questions^  to  the  monks  who 
were  followers  of  Mettiya  and  Bhummajaka.  These, 
being  questioned  by  the  monks,  told  this  matter  to  the 
monks. 

*'  Did  you  not  defame  the  venerable  Dabba,  the 
Mallian,  your  reverences,  with  a  charge  of  falling  into 
defeat,  taking  up  some  point  as  a  pretext  in  a  legal 
question  really  belonging  to  something  else  ?" 

"  It  is  so,  your  reverences,"  they  said. 

Then  those  who  were  modest  monks  became  annoyed, 
vexed  and  angry,  and  said:  "  How  can  the  monks  who 
are  followers  of  Mettiya  and  Bhummajaka  defame  the 
venerable  Dabba,  the  Mallian,  with  ...  to  something 
else  ?" 

Then  these  monks  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  He 
said:  "Is  it  true  as  is  said,  that  you,  monks,  defamed 
Dabba,  the  Mallian,  with  ...  to  something  else  ?" 

"  It  is  true,  lord,"  they  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  them,  saying: 
"  How  can  you,  foolish  men,  defame  Dabba,  the  Mallian, 
with  ...  to  something  else  ?  Foolish  men,  it  is  not 
for  the  benefit  of  unbelievers  .  .  .  And  thus,  monks, 
this  course  of  training  should  be  set  forth : 

Whatever  monk,  malignant,  malicious  and  ill-tem- 
pered, [167]  should  defame  a  monk  with  a  charge  in- 
volving defeat,  taking  up  some  point  as  a  pretext  in 
a  legal  question  really  belonging  to  something  else, 
saying:    '  Thus  perhaps  may  I  drive  him  away  from 

^  VA.  598,  "  Where  did  you  see  Dabba  with  Mettiya  ?  ...  at 
what  time  ?  .  .  .  where  were  you  going  then  ?  .  .  .  Who  knows  you 
were  at  that  time  in  the  Bamboo  Grove  ?  .  .  ." 

I.  19 


290  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  168 

this  Brahma-life  ' ;  then,  if  afterwards,  he,  being  pressed 
or  not  being  pressed,  the  legal  question  turning  out  to 
belong  to  something  different,  if  the  monk  confesses  his 
nialice  and  (confesses)  having  taken  up  some  point  as  a 
pretext:  it  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of 
the  Order."  11 2  11 1 11 


Whatever  means:  .  .  .  (= Formal  Meeting  VIII.  2) 
...  is  angry.  ||  1  || 

In  a  legal  question  really  belonging  to  something  else 
means:  either  it  is  an  offence  of  a  different  kind  ot  it 
is  a  legal  question  of  a  different  kind. 

How  is  a  legal  question  connected  with  a  different 
kind  of  legal  question  ?  The  legal  question  arising  out 
of  disputes  may  belong  to  something  different :  to  a  legal 
question  arising  out  of  censure,  to  a  legal  question 
arising  out  of  transgressions,  to  a  legal  question  arising 
out  of  obligations.  A  legal  question  arising  out  of 
censure  ...  a  legal  question  arising  out  of  trans- 
gressions ...  a  legal  question  arising  out  of  obligations 
may  belong  to  something  different:  to  a  legal  question 
arising  out  of  disputes,  to  a  legal  question  arising  out 
of  transgressions,  to  a  legal  question  arising  out  of 
obligations.  Thus  a  legal  question  may  belong  to  a 
different  legal  question. 

How  is  a  legal  question  connected  with  a  legal  ques- 
tion ?  A  question  arising  out  of  disputes  is  connected 
with  a  question  arising  out  of  disputes.  A  question 
arising  out  of  censure  is  connected  with  a  question 
arising  out  of  censure.  A  question  arising  out  of 
transgression  may  be  connected  with  a  question  arising 
out  of  transgression,  or  it  may  be  connected  with  some- 
thing else.  How  is  a  question  arising  out  of  transgres- 
sion connected  with  something  other  than  a  question 
arising  out  of  transgression  ?  An  offence  involving 
defeat  through  sexual  intercourse  may  belong  to  some- 
thing else :  to  an  offence  involving  defeat  through  taking 
something  that  was  not  given,  to  an  offence  involving 


IX.  2,  2-3]  FORMAL   MEETING  29I 

defeat  through  taking  up  human  form,  to  an  offence 
involving  defeat  through  claiming  states  of  further- 
men.  An  offence  involving  defeat  through  taking  some- 
thing that  was  not  given  ...  an  offence  involving 
defeat  through  taking  up  human  form  ...  an  ofTence 
involving  defeat  through  claiming  states  of  further-men 
may  belong  to  something  else:  to  an  offence  involving 
defeat  through  sexual  intercourse,  to  an  offence  involving 
defeat  through  taking  something  that  was  not  given, 
to  an  offence  involving  defeat  through  taking  up  human 
form.  Thus  a  question  arising  out  of  transgression 
may  belong  to  something  other  than  a  question  arising 
out  of  transgression.  And  how  can  a  question  arising 
out  of  transgression  belong  to  a  question  arising  out 
of  transgression  ?  An  offence  involving  defeat  through 
sexual  intercourse  may  belong  to  an  offence  involving 
defeat  through  sexual  intercourse  ...  an  offence  in- 
volving defeat  through  claiming  states  of  further-men 
may  belong  to  an  offence  involving  defeat  through 
claiming  states  of  further-men.  Thus  does  a  question 
arising  out  of  transgression  belong  to  a  question  arising 
out  of  transgression.  A  question  arising  out  of  obliga- 
tions may  belong  to  a  question  arising  out  of  obligations. 
Thus  may  a  legal  question  belong  to  a  legal  question. 

II 2 11 

Taking  up  some  point  as  a  pretext.^  A  pretext  means 
that  there  are  ten  pretexts:  [168]  the  pretext  of  birth, 
the  pretext  of  name,  the  pretext  of  family,  the  pretext 
of  characteristic,  the  pretext  of  offence,  the  pretext  of 
a  bowl,  the  pretext  of  a  robe,  the  pretext  of  a  teacher, 
the  pretext  of  a  preceptor,  the  precept  of  lodgings. 

The  pretext 'of  birth  means :  A  noble  is  seen  committing^ 
a  matter  involving  defeat;  seeing  another  noble^  he 
reprimands  him,  saying:  "  A  noble  is  seen  by  me;  you 
are  one  who  has  committed*  a  matter  involving  defeat, 

*  Lesa.  ^  Ajjhdpajjanta. 

3  VA.  601,  who  was  a  monk,  he  seizes  the  pretext  of  his  khattiya 
birth. 

*  Ajjhdpanna. 


292  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  169 

you  are  not  a  (true)  recluse,  you  are  not  a  (true)  son  of 
the  Sakyans;  there  is  no  (holding)  the  observance-day 
(ceremony)  with  you,  or  the  ceremony  at  the  termina- 
tion of  the  rains,  or  the  ceremony  performed  by  a  chapter 
of  monks  " — for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.^ 

A  brahmin  is  seen  ...  a  merchant  is  seen  ...  a 
low-caste  man  is  seen  ...  for  each  speech  there  is  an 
offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

The  pretext  of  name  means:  one  who  is  a  Buddha- 
rakkhita  is  seen  .  .  .  one  who  is  a  Dhammarakkhita 
is  seen  .  .  .  one  who  is  a  Sangharakkhita  is  seen  com- 
mitting a  matter  involving  defeat;  seeing  another 
Sangharakkhita  ...  for  each  speech  there  is  an 
offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

The  pretext  of  family  means :  a  Gotama  is  seen  .  .  . 
a  Moggallana  is  seen  ...  a  Kaccana  is  seen  ...  a 
Vasittha  is  seen  committing  an  offence  involving  defeat ; 
seeing  another  Vasittha  ...  for  each  speech  there  is  an 
offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

The  pretext  of  characteristic  means:  a  tall  man  is 
seen  ...  a  short  man  is  seen  ...  a  dark  man  is 
seen  ...  a  fair  man  is  seen  committing  an  offence 
involving  defeat  ...  for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

The  pretext  of  an  offence  means:  one  is  seen  com- 
mitting a  slight  offence,  and  if  he  reprimands  him  for 
a  matter  involving  defeat,  saying:  "You  are  not  a 
(true)  recluse  ..."  ...  for  each  speech  there  is  an 
offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

The  pretext  of  a  bowl  means:  one  carrying  a  copper 
bowl  is  seen  .  .  .  one  carrying  a  bowl  of  hide^  is  seen 
.  .  .  one  carrying  a  cracked  bowP  is  seen  committing 
a  matter  involving  defeat  ...  for  each  speech  there 
is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

1  CJ.  above,  p.  283. 

2  YA.  602,  sdlakajyatta,  "  like  the  copper  bowl  it  is  well-turned, 
of  beautiful  liide,  glossy,  of  black  colour  (lit.  bee-coloured),  it  is 
called  a  clay  bowl." 

«  VA.  602,  "  it  was  an  ordinary  clay  bow^l." 


IX.  2,  3 — 3,  1]  FORMAL   MEETING  293 

The  pretext  of  a  robe  means :  one  wearing  robes  taken 
from  the  dust-heap  is  seen  .  .  .  one  wearing  house- 
holders' robes  is  seen  committing  a  matter  involving 
defeat  ...  for  each  speech  there-  is  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

The  pretext  of  a  teacher  means :  the  pupil  of  such  and 
such  a  one  is  seen  committing  a  matter  involving  defeat 
...  for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a 
formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

The  pretext  of  a  preceptor  means :  the  novice  of  such 
and  such  a  one  is  seen  committing  a  matter  involving 
defeat  ...  for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

The  pretext  of  lodgings  means :  a  dweller  in  such  and 
such  lodgings  is  seen  [169]  committing  a  matter  involv- 
ing defeat  ...  for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence  entail- 
ing a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  3  || 

With  a  charge  involving  defeat  means:  one  of  the 
four  .  .  .  (=  Formal  Meeting  VIII.  2  )  ...  a  question 
arising  out  of  obligations. 

Taking  up  some  point  as  a  pretext  means :  taking  up  a 
certain  pretext  among  these  pretexts. 

If  the  monk  confesses  his  malice  mesms:  .  .  .  (= Formal 
Meeting  VIII.  2)  .  .  .  because  of  this  it  is  called  an 
offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  4  ||  2 1| 


A  monk  is  seen  committing  an  offence  which  entails 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order;  in  the  offence  which 
entails  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  there  is  a  wrong 
view  as  to  an  offence  which  entails  a  formal  meeting  of 
the  Order.  If  he  reprimands  him  for  a  matter  involving 
defeat,  saying:  "  You  are  not  a  (true)  recluse  .  .  .  nor 
a  ceremony  performed  by  a  chapter  of  monks/'  thus  it  is 
connected  with  a  different  kind  of  offence  and  a  pretext 
is  taken  up :  for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

A  monk  is  seen  committing  an  offence  which  entails 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order;  in  the  offence  which 


294  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  170 

entails  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  there  is  the  wrong 
view  that  it  is  a  grave  offence  .  .  .  there  is  the  wrong 
view  that  it  is  an  oifence  requiring  expiation  .  .  .  there 
is  the  wrong  view  that  it  is  an  offence  which  ought  to 
be  confessed  .  .  .  there  is  the  wrong  view  that  it  is  an 
offence  of  wrong-doing  .  .  .  there  is  the  wrong  view  that 
it  is  an  offence  of  evil  speech.  If  he  reprimands  him 
...  for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence  entailing  -  a 
formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

A  monk  is  seen  committing  a  grave  offence  ...  an 
offence  requiring  expiation  ...  an  offence  which  ought 
to  be  confessed  ...  an  offence  of  wrong-doing  ...  an 
offence  of  evil  speech;  in  the  evil  speech  there  is  a  wrong 
view  of  evil  speech.  If  he  reprimands  him  ...  for 
each  speech  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
nxeeting  of  the  Order. 

A  monk  is  seen  committing  an  offence  of  evil  speech; 
there  is  the  wrong  view  that  in  the  offence  of  evil  speech 
there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order;  there  is  the  wrong  view  that  in  the  evil  speech 
there  is  a  grave  offence,  an  offence  requiring  expiation, 
an  offence  which  ought  to  be  confessed,  an  offence  of 
wrong-doing.  If  he  reprimands  him  .  .  .  for  each 
speech  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting 
of  the  Order. 

Beginning  severally,  the  series,  with  this  exception, 
should  be  put  together.  ||  1 1| 

A  monk  is  seen  committing  an  offence  entailing  a 
formal  meeting  of  the  Order ;  in  the  offence  which  entails 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  there  is  a  wrong  view  as 
to  an  offence  which  entails  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order.  If  he  causes  him  to  be  reprimanded  for  an 
offence  involving  defeat,  saying:  "  You  are  not  a  (true) 
recluse  ..."  ...  for  each  speech  there  is  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

A  monk  is  seen  committing  an  offence  entailing  a 
formal  meeting  of  the  Order ;  in  the  offence  which  entails 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order  there  is  a  wrong  view 


IX.  8,  2-3]  FORMAL   MEETING  295 

that  it  is  a  grave  offence  ...  a  wrong  view  that  it  is 
an  offence  of  evil  speech  .  .  :  a  monk  is  seen  committing 
an  offence  of  evil  speech  .  .  .  there  is  a  wrong  view 
that  it  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  If  he  causes  him 
to  be  reprimanded  ...  for  each  speech  there  is  an 
offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  2 1| 

There  is  no  offence  if,  thinking  what  is  true,^  he  repri- 
mands him  or  causes  him  to  be  reprimanded,  if  he  is 
out  of  his  mind,  if  he  is  a  beginner.  ||  3  ||  3 1| 


Told^  is  the  Ninth  Offence  entailing  a  Formal  Meeting 
of  the  Order  [170] 

^  Tathdsafini,  cf.tathagata,  the  "  truth-finder." 
2  Samalla,  instead  of  the  more  usual  nitlhifa. 


FORMAL  MEETING   (SANGHADISESA)   X 

...  at  Rajagaha  in  the  Bamboo  Grove  at  the 
squirrels'  feeding  place.  And  then  Devadatta^  came  up 
to  Kokalika,^  and  to  Katamorakatissaka,  and  to  the 
son  of  the  lady  Khanda,  and  to  Samuddadatta,  and 
having  come  up  he  said  to  Kokalika,  Katamoraka- 
tissaka, and  the  son  of  the  lady  Khanda,  and  to 
Samuddadatta :  "  Now  we,  your  reverences,  will  make 
a  schism  in  the  Order  of  the  recluse  Gotama,  a  breaking 
of  the  concord."^ 

When  he  had  spoken  thus  Kokalika  said  to  Devadatta : 
"  Your  reverence,  the  recluse  Gotama  has  great  psychic 
power,  and  great  might.  How  can  we  make  a  schism  in 
the  Order  of  the  recluse  Gotama,  a  breaking  of  the 
concord  ?" 

'^  Now  we,  your  reverence,  having  approached  the 
recluse  Gotama,  will  beg  for  five  items :  '  Lord,  the  lord 
in  many  ways  speaks  in  praise  of  desiring  little,  of  being 
contented,  of  expunging  (evil),  of  being  punctilious,  of 
what  is  gracious,  of  decrease  (of  the  obstructions),  of  put- 
ting forth  energy.*  Lord,  these  five  items  are  conducive 
in  many  ways  to  desiring  little,  to  contentment,  to 
expunging  (evil),  to  being  punctilious,  to  what  is  gracious, 

1  This  story  is  given  almost  word  for  word  at  Vin.  ii.  196  ff. 

2  These  schismatics  appear  again  in  Formal  Meeting  XL 
Mentioned  at  Vin.  iv.  66,  335.  At  S.  i.  149=:^.  v.  110=Sn., 
p.  123,  Kokalika  tried  to  defame  the  two  chief  disciples. 

3  Vin.  Texts  iii.  251,  "  let  us  stir  up  a  division  in  the  samana 
Gotama's  sarigha  and  in  the  body  of  his  adherents,"  with  n.  that 
"in  cakka-bhedam  the  first  word  no  doubt  connotes  'kingship, 
lordship  '  as  in  dharama-cakka,  cakkavatti,  etc."  But  it  can  also 
mean  breaking  a  wheel,  and  symbolically  cakkabheda  has  special 
meaning  of  "  breaking  up  the  peace,  sowing  discord." 

*  =Vin.  i.  45=ii.  2=iii.  21=iv.  213.       ' 

296 


X.  1,  1-2]  FORMAL   MEETING  297 

to  decrease  (of  the  obstruction),  to  putting  forth  energy. 
It  were  good,  lord,  if  th^  monks  for  as  long  as  life  lasted, 
should  be  forest-dwellers;  whoever  should  betake  him- 
self to  the  neighbourhood  of  a  village,  sin^  would 
besmirch^  him.  For  as  long  as  life  lasts  let  them  be 
beggars  for  alms;^  whoever  should  accept  an  invitation, 
sin  would  besmirch  him.  For  as  long  as  life  lasts  let 
them  be  wearers  of  robes  taken  from  the  dust-heap; 
whoever  should  accept  a  robe  given  by  a  householder, 
sin  would  besmirch  him.*  For  as  long  as  life  lasts  let 
them  live  at  the  foot  of  a  tree  f  whoever  should  go  under 
cover,  sin  would  besmirch  him.  For  as  long  as  life 
lasts  let  them  not  eat  fish  and  flesh;®  whoever  should 
eat  fish  and  flesh,  sin  would  besmirch  him." 

"  The  recluse  Gotama  will  not  allow  these  things. 
Then  we.  will  win  over  the  people  by  means  of  these  five 
items." 

"  It  is  possible,  your  reverence,  with  these  five  items, 
to  make  a  schism  in  the  Order  of  the  recluse  Gotama, 
a  breaking  of  the  concord.  For,  your  reverence,  people 
esteem  austerity."^  ||  1 1| 

Then  Devadatta  together  with  his  friends  went  up 
to  the  lord,  and  having  gone  up  and  greeted  the  lord, 
he  sat  down  to  one  side.  As  he  was  sitting  to  one  side, 
Devadatta  said  to  the  lord:  "  Lord,  the  lord  in  many 

1  vajja. 

2  fhuseyya  from  phusati  to  touch,  not  from  phusati  to  sprinkle. 
VA.  603,  "  let  hatred  touch  that  monk,  let  the  lord  deal  with 
him  for  the  offence.'* 

^  Those  who  only  eat  the  alms  received  in  the  begging-bowl. 

*  At  Vin.  i.  280  it  is  laid  down  that  the  monks  may  wear  either 
the  paijsukula  robes  or  accept  lay  robes,  as  they  please. 

^  At  Vin.  i.  152  monks  are  forbidden  to  spend  vassa  out  in  the 
open. 

«  At  Vin.  i.  238  and  below,  p.  298,  it  is  laid  down  that  fish  and 
meat  are  pure  for  the  monks  if  they  do  not  see,  hear  or  suspect  that 
it  has  been  killed  for  them.  Cf.  pp.  98,  99  above,  where  there 
seems  to  be  no  offence  in  eating  meat. 

'  lakhappasanna,  cf.  A.  ii.  71,  where  this  is  one  of  the  four  types 
of  persons  who  estimate  by  and  esteem  outward  form.  Each  type 
is  explained  at  Pug.  53. 


298  BOOK  OF  THE   DISCIPLINE      [III.  171-172 

ways  speaks  in  praise  of  desiring  little  .  .  .  who  should 
eat  fish  or  flesh,  sin  would  besmirch  him/' 

"  Enough,  Deyadatta,"  he  said.  "  Whoever  wishes, 
let  him  be  a  forest-dweller;  whoever  wishes,  let  him 
dwell  in  the  neighbourhood  of  a  village ;  whoever  wishes, 
[171]  let  him  be  a  beggar  for  alms;  whoever  wishes, 
let  him  accept  an  invitation;  whoever  wishes,  let  him 
wear  rags  taken  from  the  dust-heap;  whoever  wishes, 
let  him  accept  a  householder's  robes.  For  eight 
months,  Devadatta,  lodging  at  the  foot  of  a  tree  is 
permitted  by  me.^  Fish  and  flesh  are  pure  in  respect 
of  three  points :  if  they  are  not  seen,  heard  or  suspected 
(to  have  been  killed  for  him^)." 

Then  Devadatta  thinking:  "  The  lord  does  not  allow 
these  *five  items,"  was  joyful  and  exultant.*  He  rose 
from  his  seat,  and  having  greeted  the  lord,  and  paid 
homage  to  him  keeping  him  on  his  right  side,  he  de- 
parted together  with  his  friends.  Then  Devadatta, 
entering  Rajagaha,  taught  the  people  by  means  of  the 
five  items:  "We,  your  reverences,  having  approached 
the  recluse  Gotama,  begged  for  five  items:  'Lord, 
the  lord  in  various  ways  speaks  in  praise  of  desiring 
little  .  .  .  whoever  should  eat  fish  and  flesh,  sin 
would  besmirch  him.'    The  recluse  Gotama  does  not 

^  I.e.y  not  in  the  four  months  of  the  rains. 

*  VA.  604,  *'  not  seen  means,  having  killed  deer  and  fish  for  the 
benefit  of  the  monks,  their  being  caught  was  not  seen;  not  heard 
means,  having  killed  ...  of  the  monks,  the  taking  (of  them)  was 
not  heard  ";  not  suspected  means,  if  the  monks  see  men  going  from 
a  village  to  the  jungle  with  nets  and  snares  in  their  hands;  and  if 
on  the  next  day  they  receive  fish  and  flesh  with  their  alms  in  the 
village  they  suspect:  *'  Was  not  this  done  for  the  benefit  of  the 
monks  ?"  They  ask  the  men,  who  deny  it,  and  say  it  was  done 
for  their  own  benefit.  Or  the  monks  may  hear  it  said  that  men  are 
going  out  to  the  jungle  with  nets  and  snares,  or  they  may  neither 
see  the  hunters  nor  hear  it  said  they  that  have  gone  out,  but  simply 
receive  fish  and  flesh  in  their  begging-bowls.  The  same  doubts 
assail  them,  and  they  ask  if  the  killing  took  place  for  their  benefit. 
But  if  it  was  not  done  expressly  for  the  monks'  benefit,  inasmuch  as 
there  is  no  doubt  as  to  this,  everything  is  quite  in  order. 

^  VA.  606,  says  he  was  joyful  and  exultant  because  he  now  thought 
he  could  cause  a  schism. 


X.  1,  2-3]  FORMAL  MEETING  299 

allow  these.    But  we  live  in  conformity  with  these  five 
items."  II 2  II 

Then  those  who  were  men  of  no  faith,  not  virtuous, 
and  of  poor  enlightenment,  said:  "  These  recluses,  sons 
of  the  Sakyans,  are  punctilious^  and  practise  the  ex- 
punging of  evil;  but  the  recluse  Gotama  is  luxurious 
and  strives  after  abundance." 

Then  those  who  were  faithful,  virtuous,  clever,  en- 
lightened people  became  vexed,  annoyed,  angry  and 
said:  "How  can  this  Devadatta  go  forward  with  a 
schism  in  the  Order  of  the  lord,  with  a  breaking  of  the 
concord  ?" 

Then  the  monks  heard  these  people  who  were  vexed, 
annoyed,  angry.  Those  who  were  modest  monks  were 
.  .  .  angry,  and  said:  "How  can  this  Devadatta  go 
forward  with  a  schism,  with  a  breaking  of  the  con- 
cord ?"  Then  these  monks  told  this  matter  to  the 
lord. 

He  said:.  "  Is  it  true,  as  is  said,  Devadatta,  that  you 
went  forward  with  a  schism  in  the  Order,  with  a  breaking 
of  the  concord  ?" 

"  It  is  true,  lord,"  he  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  him,  saying: 
"  How  can  you,  foolish  man,  go  forward  with  a  schism 
in  the  Order,  with  a  breaking  of  the  concord  ?  It  is 
not,  foolish  man,  for  the  benefit  of  unbelievers  .  .  . 
Thus,  monks,  this  course  of  training  should  be  set 
forth: 

Whatever  monk  should  go  forward  with  a  schism  of 
the  Order  which  is  harmonious,  or  should  persist  in 
taking  up  some  legal  question  leading  to  a  dissension: 
that  monk  should  be  spoken  to  thus  by  the  monks: 
'  Do  not,  venerable  one,  go  forward  with  a  schism  of  the 
Order  which  is  harmonious,  or  persist  in  taking  up  some 
legal  question  leading  to  a  dissension.     Let  the  venerable 


^  VA.  607,  they  are  dhuta  because  they  are  endowed  with  the 
patipadd  which  shakes  off  the  hilesas ;  they  are  sallekhavtUtt  because 
their  course  of  life  (vtUti)  reduces  the  kilesas. 


300  BOOK   OF  THE    DISCIPLINE       [III.  172-178 

one  be  associated  with  the  Order;  for  the  Order  is 
harmonious,  on  friendly  terms,  not  quarrelsome,  it 
dwells  comfortably  under  a  single  rule.'^  And  if  that 
monk,  after  he  has  been  spoken  to  thus  by  the  monks, 
[172]  should  persist,  that  monk  should  be  admonished 
up  to  three  times  by  the  monks  together  concerning 
his  giving  up  such  a  course.  Should  he  give  it  up  after 
being  admonished  up  to  three  times,  this  is  good. 
Should  he  not  give  it  up,  there  is  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order."  ||  3  ||  ||  1 1| 


Whatever  means:  he  who  ... 

Monk  means:  ...  in  this  meaning  is  monk  to  be 
understood. 

Harmonious  means:  an  Order  belonging  to  the 
same  community^  is  established  within  the  same 
boundary.^  * 

Should  go  forward  with  a  schism  means:  saying,  "  How 
should  these  folk  be  separated,  how  should  they  be 
separated,  how  should  they  be  at  variance  ?"  seeking 
a  faction,  he  gets  a  group  together. 

A  legal  question  leading  to  a  dissension  means:  the 
eighteen  ways  of  causing  a  division.* 

Taking  up  means:  taking. 

Leading  to  means :  kindling. 


^  I.e.,  not  Gotama's  authority,  but  that  of  tlie  Patimokkha  rules. 
This  word,  ekuddesa,  occurs  in  the  Parajikas  in  definition  of  samvasa^ 
communion. 

2  VA.  607.     There  is  no  separation  as  to  mind. 

3  VA.  607.  There  is  no  separation  as  to  body.  Belonging  to 
the  same  community  means  that  there  are  none  living  together 
holding  various  heretical  views  or  various  religious  proceedings; 
that  there  is  no  mental  separation  from  those  of  the  same  mind. 
Within  the  same  boundary  means  there  is  no  bodily  separation  from 
those  in  bodily  concord.  For  these  expressions  see  also  Vin.  i. 
321. 

*  These  are  given  at  Vin.  ii.  204  and  are  the  same  as  the  eighteen 
things  by  which  you  may  conclude  that  a  monk  is  a  speaker  of 
what  is  not  dhamma,  Vin.  i.  354.  The  first  ten  are  also  given  at 
A,  i.  19. 


X.  2]  FORMAL  MEETING  30I 

Should  persist  means :  should  not  give  up. 

That  monk  means:  that  schismatic  monk. 

By  the  monks  means:  by  other  monks,  whoever  see, 
whoever  hear;  these  should  say:  "Do  not,  venerable 
one,  go  forward  with  a  schism  of  the  Order  which  is 
harmonious,  nor  persist  in  taking  up  a  legal  question 
leading  to  a  dissension.  Let  the  venerable  one  be 
associated  with  the  Order.  The  Order,  harmonious, 
on  friendly  terms,  not  quarrelsome,  dwells  comfortably 
under  a  single  rule,"  A  second  time  they  should  say  .  .  . 
A  third  time  they  should  say  ...  If  he  gives  it  up, 
this  is  good.  If  he  does  not  give  it  up,  it  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing.  If  having  heard,  they  do  not  speak, 
there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  That  monk,  having 
been  pulled  to  the  middle  of  the  Order,  they  are  to  say: 
"  Do  not,  venerable  one,  go  forward  with  a  schism  of 
the  Order,  which  is  harmonious,  nor  persist  in  taking  up 
a  legal  question  leading  to  a  dissension.  Let  the  vener- 
able one  be  associated  with  the  Order.  The  Order, 
harmonious  .  .  .  comfortably  under  a  single  rule."  A 
second  time  they  should  say  ...  A  third  time  they 
should  say  ...  If  he  gives  it  up,  that  is  good.  If 
he  does  not  give  it  up,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. 

That  7nonk  should  be  admonished.  Thus,  monks, 
should  he  be  admonished :  the  Order  should  be  informed 
by  an  experienced,  competent  monk:  "  Honoured  sirs, 
let  the  Order  listen  to  me.  This  monk,  so  and  so, 
proceeds  with  a  schism  of  the  Order  which  is  harmonious. 
He  does  not  give  up  this  course.  If  it  is  the  right  time 
for  the  Order,  let  the  Order  admonish  this  monk,  so 
and  so,  so  that  he  may  give  up  his  course.  This  is  the 
motion.  Honoured  sirs,  let  the  Order  hear  me.  This 
monk,  so  and  so  .  .  .  does  not  give  up  his  course. 
The  Order  [173]  together  admonishes  the  monk,  so  and 
so,  that  he  may  give  up  his  course.  If  it  seems  good 
to  the  venerable  ones,  together  admonishing  this  monk, 
so  and  so,  that  he  should  give  up  his  course,  be  silent; 
if  it  does  not  seem  good,  th^n  you  should  speak.  A 
second  time  I  speak  this  matter  ...     A  third  time 


302  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  174 

I  speak  this  matter  .  .  .  then  you  should  speak.  It 
has  been  said  by  the  Order  that  the  monk,  so  and  so, 
should  give  up  his  course.  It  seems  good  to  the  Order 
.  .  .  Thus  do  I  understand." 

According  to  the  motion  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing ;  according  to  the  two  resolutions^  there  are  grave 
offences  ;2  according  to  the  end  of  a  resolution  th^ere  is 
an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  If 
he  is  committing  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting 
of  the  Order,  the  offence  of  wrong-doing  according  to 
the  motion  and  the  grave  offences  according  to  the  two 
resolutions,  subside.^ 

An  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of '  the  Order 
means :  .  .  .  because  of  this  it  is  called  an  offence  entail- 
ing a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  2 1| 


Thinking  a  legally  valid  act*  to  be  a  legally  valid  act, 
he  does  not  give  it  up,  there  is  a^i  offence  entailing  a 
formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  Being  in  doubt  as  to 
whether  it  is  a  legally  valid  act,  he  does  not  give  it  up, 
there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order.  Thinking  an  act  wjiich  is  not  legally  valid  to  be 
an  act  which  is  legally  valid,  he  does  not  give  it  up, 
there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order.  Thinking  an  act  which  is  legally  valid  to  be 
an  act  which  is  not  legally  valid,  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. Being  in  doubt  as  to  whether  it  is  not  a  legally 
valid  act,  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  Not  thinking 
an  act  which  is  legally  valid  to  be  an  act  which  is  not 
legally  valid,  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.^  ||  1 1| 


^  kammavdcd,  resolution;  nalti,  motion,  cf.  Vin.  i.  317  and 
Vin,  Texts  i.  169,  n.  2;  ii.  265,  n.  2. 

*  VA.  609.  He  to  whom  these  three  offences  do  not  seem  good, 
should  speak. 

3  =below,  pp.  307,  313. 

*  VA.  609,  "  a  legally  valid  act,  an  act  which  has  been  repeated 
together."  An  unlawful  act  is  explained  at  Vin.  i.  317  f.  It  is 
connected  with  natti  and  kammavdcd. 

«  ==below,  pp.  307,  313. 


X.  3,  2]  FORMAL   MEETING  303 


There  is  no  offence  if  he  has  not  been  admonished,  if 
he  gives  it  up,  if  he  is  mad,  out  of  his  mind,  in  pain, 
a.beginner.i  ||2||  ||3|| 

Told  is  the  Tenth  Offence  entailing  a  Formal  Meeting 
of  the  Order :  that  of  a  schism  in  the  Order 

1  =below,  pp.  308,  313. 


1 


FORMAL  MEETING  (SANGHAdISESA)  XI* 

...  at  Rajagaha  in  the  Bamboo  Grove  at  the 
squirrels'  feeding-place.  At  that  time  Devadatta  pro- 
ceeded to  a  schism  in  the  Order,  a  breaking  of  the 
concord.  The  monks  spoke  thus:  "  Devadatta  is  not 
one  who  speaks  dhamma,  Devadatta  is  not  one  who 
speaks  vinaya.^  How  can  this  Devadatta  proceed  with 
a  schism  in  the  Order,  with  a  breaking  of  the  concord  ?" 
Having  spoken  thus,  Kokalika,  Katamorakatissa,  and 
the  son  of  the  lady  Khanda  and  Samuddadatta^  said 
to  these  monks: 

"Do  not  speak  thus,  venerable  ones;  [174]  Deva- 
datta is  one  who  speaks  dhamma,  Devadatta  is  one  who 
speaks  vinaya,  and  Devadatta  having  adopted^  our 
desire  and  objective,  gives  expression  to  them;  he  knows 
that  what  he  says  for  us*  seems  also  good  to  us." 

Then  those  who  were  modest  monks  were  .  .  .  angry, 
and  said :  "  How  can  these  monks  become  those  throwing 
in  their  lot  with^  and  taking  part  in^  Devadatta's  pro- 
ceeding for  a  schism  in  the  Order  ?"  Then  these  monks 
told  this  matter  to  the  lord. 

"Is  it  true  as  they  say,  monks,  that  (these)  monks 
are  those  who  are  throwing  in  their  lot  with  and  taking 
part  in  Devadatta's  proceeding  for  a  schism  in  the 
Order  ?" 

1  At  D.  iii.  135  these  words  occur  in  a  kind  of  definition  of  "  Tatha- 
gata." 

2  The  same  monks  as  in  Formal  Meeting  X,  above. 

3  dddya,  lit.  having  taken. 

*  jdndti  no  bhdsati,  VA.  611,  he  knows  our  desires,  and  so  on. 

5  anuvattaka,  VA.  611,  "  those  following  him  by  taking  up  (his) 
opinions,  pleasures,  approvals." 

*  vaggavddaka.  "  They  speak  words  not  on  the  side  of  unanimity," 
VA.  611. 

304 


XI.  1-2]  FORMAL   MEETING  30 3 

"  It  is  true,  lord,"  they  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  them,  saying : 
"  How,  monks,  can  these  foolish  men  become  those  to 
throw  in  their  lot  with,  to  take  part  in  Devadatta's 
proceeding  for  a  schism  in  the  Order  ?  It  is  not,  monks, 
for  the  benefit  of  unbelievers  .  .  .  Thus,  monks,  this 
course  of  training  should  be  set  forth : 

If  a  monk  has  monks :  one  or  two  or  three,  who  throw 
in  their  lot  with  him  or  take  his  part,  and  if  these  should 
speak  thus :  '  Do  not,  venerable  ones,  say  anything 
against  this  monk ;  this  monk  is  one  who  speaks  dhamma, 
this  monk  is  one  who  speaks  vinaya;  and  this  monk, 
adopting  our  desire  and  objective,  gives  expression  to 
them;  he  knows  that  what  he  says  for  us  seems  also 
good  to  us.'  These  monks  should  be  spoken  to  thus  by 
monks:  'Do  not,  venerable  ones,  speak  thus.  This 
monk  is  not  one  who  speaks  dhamma,  this  monk  is 
not  one  who  speaks  vinaya.  Please  do  not  let  a  schism 
in  the  Order  seem  good  to  the  venerable  ones;  let  the 
venerable  ones  be  at  one  with  the  Order,  for  the  Order 
being  harmonious  and  on  friendly  terms,  not  quarrel- 
some, dwells  comfortably  under  one  rule.'  If  these 
monks  having  been  spoken  to  by  the  monks  should 
persist,  then  these  monks  should  be  admonished  up 
to  three  times  by  these  monks  in  a  body,  for  giving  up 
their  course.  If  these,  having  been  admonished  up 
to  three  times,  should  give  it  up,  that  is  good;  if  they 
should  not  give  it  up,  that  is  an  offence  entailing  a 
formal  meeting  of  the  Order."  ||  1 1| 


//  a  monk  means :  if  a  schismatic  monk. 

Has  monks  means:  has  other  monks. 

Throio  in  their  lot  with  means:  he  is  one  having  that 
view,  that  allegiance,  that  objective;  and  these  are  those 
liaving  that  view,  that  allegiance,  that  objective.^ 

Take  his  part  means:  these  are  standing  for  his  sort, 
his  faction. 


Cf.  above,  p.  163,  and  D.  i.  187;  M.  i.  487. 

20 


306  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  175  176 

One  or  two  or  three  means:  there  are  one  or  two  or 
three. 

If  these  should  speak  thus  means:  "  Do  not,  venerable 
ones,  speak  against  this  monk.  This  monk  is  one  who 
speaks  dhamma,  and  this  monk  is  one  who  speaks 
vinaya,  and  this  monk  is  one  who  having  adopted  our 
desire  and  allegiance,  [175]  gives  expression  to  them.  He 
knows  that  what  he  says  for  us  seems  also  good  to  us." 

These  monks  means :  these  monks  who  throw  in  their 
lot  with. 

By  monks  means:  by  other  monks  who  see,  and  who 
hear.  These  should  say:  "Do  not,  venerable  ones, 
speak  thus.  This  monk  is  not  one  who  speaks  dhamma, 
and  this  monk  is  not  one  who  speaks  vinaya.  Please 
do  not  let  a  schism  in  the  Order  seem  good  to  the 
venerable  ones.  Let  the  venerable  ones  be  at  one  with  the 
Order;  for  the  Order  being  harmonious  and  on  friendly 
terms,  not  quarrelsome,  dwells  comfortably  under  one 
rule."  A  second  time  they  should  say  .  .  .  A  third  time 
they  should  say  ...  if  they  give  it  up,  that  is  good; 
if  they  do  not  give  it  up,  it  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

These  monks,  having  pulled  them  into  the  middle 
of  the  Order,  should  say:  "  Do  not,  venerable  ones,  speak 
thus.  He  is  not  .  .  .  under  one  rule."  A  second 
time  they  should  say  ...  a  third  time  they  should 
say  ...  if  they  give  up  their  course  it  is  good ;  if  they 
do  not  give  it  up  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

These  monks  should  be  admonished  means:  Thus, 
monks,  they  should  be  admonished  .  .  .  the  Order 
should  be  informed  by  an  experienced,  competent  monk : 
**  Let  the  Order  hear  me,  honoured  sirs.  Such  and  such 
monks,  having  thrown  in  their  lot  with  such  and  such 
a  monk,  are  taking  his  side  in  a  proceeding  for  making 
a  schism  in  the  Order.  These  do  not  give  up  this 
course.  If  it  is  the  right  time  for  the  Order,  let  the 
Order  as  a  body  admonish  such  and  such  monks  about 
giving  up  this  course.  This  is  the  motion.  Honoured 
sirs,  let  the  Order  hear  me:  such  and  such  monks  .  .  . 
not  give  up  the  course.  The  Order  as  a  body  admonishes 
such  and  such  monks  about  giving  up  this  course.     If 


XT.  2—3,  1]  FORMAL  MEETING  307 

it  seems  good  to  the  venerable  ones  to  admonish  such 
and  such  monks  for  giving  up  this  course,  you  should 
be  silent ;  if  it  does  not  seem  good  to  you,  you  should 
speak.  A  second  time  I  proclaim  this  matter.  A  third 
time  I  proclaim  this  matter  .  .  .  you  should  speak. 
Let  the  Order  as  a  body  admonish  such  and  such  monks 
for  giving  up  this  course.  It  seems  good  to  the  Order 
.  .  .     Thus  do  1  understand." 

According  to  the  motion  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing; according  to  two  resolutions  there  are  grave 
offences ;  at  the  end  of  the  resolution  there  is  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  If  they  are 
committing  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order,  the  offence  of  wrong-doing  according  to  the 
motion  and  the  grave  offences  according  to  the  two 
resolutions,  subside.^ 

Two  or  three  should  be  admonished  together;  further 
than  that^  they  should  not  be  admonished. 

An  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order 
means:  .  .  .  because  of  that  it  is  called  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  ||2||  [176] 


Thinking  a  legally  valid  act  to  be  a  legally  valid 
act,  they  do  not  give  it  up,  there  is  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  Being  in  doubt  as  to 
whether  it  is  a  legally  valid  act,  they  do  not  give  it  up, 
there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order.  Thinking  an  act  which  is  not  legally  valid  to 
be  an  act  which  is  legally  valid,  they  do  not  give  it 
up,  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order.  Thinking  an  act  which  is  legally  valid  to  be  an 
act  which  is  not  a  legally  valid  act,  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing. Being  in  doubt  as  to  whether  it  is  not  a  legally 
valid  act,  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  Not  thinking 
an  act  which  is  legally  valid  to  be  an  act  which  is  not 
legally  valid,  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.^  ||  1 1| 

1  =above,  p.  302;  below,  pp.  313,  327. 

2  taduttari.  ^  =above,  p.  302;  below,  pp.  313,  3^7. 


308  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  177 

It  is  not  an  offence  if  they  have  not  been  admonished, 
if  they  give  it  up,  if  they  are  mad,  out  of  their  minds, 
in  pain,  beginners.^  II 2  ||  3 1| 


Told  is  the  Eleventh  Offence  entailing  a  Formal  Meeting 
of  the  Order :  that  of  siding  in  with  a  schism 

J  Cf.  above,  p.  303;  below,  pp.  313,  327. 


FORMAL  MEETING  (SANGHADISESA)  XII 

.  .  .  at  Kosambi  in  Ghosita's  park.  At  that  time  the 
venerable  Channa^  indulged  in  bad  habits.  The  monks 
said:  "Reverend  Channa,  do  not  do  that,  it  is  not 
suitable.  "2 

He  said :  "  What  do  you,  your  reverences,  think  should 
be  said  to  me  ?  It  is  I  who  should  tell  you.^  The  en- 
lightened one  is  for  us,  dhamma  is  for  us,  dhamma  is 
realised  for  us  by  a  master.*  Just  as  a  great  wind  blow- 
ing would  raise  up  grass,  sticks,  ferns  and  rubbish 
together;  or  just  as  a  mountain-born^  river  would  raise 
up  various  water  plants*  together,  so  you,  having  gone 
forth  from  various  names,  from  various  clans,  from 
various  lineages,  from  various  families,  are  raised  up 
together.  What  do  you,  your  reverences,  think  should 
be  said  to  me  ?  It  is  I  who  should  tell  you.  The  en- 
lightened one  is  for  us,  dhamma  is  for  us,  dhamma  is 
realised  for  us  by  a  master." 

Then  those  who  were  modest  monks  were  .  .  .  angry, 
and  said:   "How  can  the  venerable  Channa,  himself 

1  =Vin.  iv.  141.  ^  ^igo  in  Formal  Meeting  VII. 

3  VA.  612,  "  I  am  worthy  to  say  to  you:  '  Do  this,  do  not  do 
that.  For  when,  as  our  enlightened  one,  mounting  Kanthaka  (his 
horse),  left  the  household  life  with  me,  I  went  forth  into  home- 
lessness.'  " 

*  Ibid.  "  The  fourfold  true  things  having  been  penetrated  for 
us  by  a  master  (ayyapiitta),  dhamma  is  for  us.  But  thinking  that 
the  Order  was  hostile  to  him,  he  did  not  say,  '  The  Order  is  for  us.'  " 

^  pabbateyya,  ibid.,  "  Its  source  is  on  a  mountain." 

*  sankha-sevdla-panaka :  sahkha,  a  water-plant,  probably  un- 
identified; seya/«=Blyxa  octandra  moss;  j9a/mAa  or^«/i«a/:aa  name 
of  a  water-plant,  most  likely  a  fern  (so  P.T.S.  Diet.).  VA.  612, 
"  sahkha  is  called  the  leaf  and  the  moss,  with  a  long  root;  sevdla 
is  dark  sevdla  (moss);  the  rest  are  water-plants,  sesame  plants  and 
seeds;  and  everything  that  is  to  be  styled  a  water-plant." 

309 


310  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  177-178 

being  spoken  to  by  the  monks  in  accordance  with 
dhamma,  reckon  himself  as  one  not  to  be  spoken  to  ?" 

Then  these  monks  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.  He 
said : 

"  Is  it  true,  as  they  say,  Channa,  that  you,  yourself 
being  spoken  to  by  the  monks  in  accordance  with 
dhamma,  reckon  yourself  as  one  not  to  be  spoken  to  ?" 

"  It  is  true,  lord,"  he  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  him,  saying: 

"  How  can  you,  foolish  man,  yourself  being  spoken 
to  by  the  monks  in  accordance  with  dhamma,  reckon 
yourself  as  one  not  to  be  spoken  to  ?  It  is  not,  foolish 
man,  [177]  for  the  benefit  of  unbelievers  .  .  .  Thus, 
monks,  this  course  of  training  should  be  set  forth : 

If  a  monk  is  one  who  is  difficult  to  speak  to,^  and  if 
himself  being  spoken  to  by  the  monks  according  to 
dhamma^  concerning  the  courses  of  training  included 
in  the  exposition,^  he  reckons  himself  as  one  not  to  be 
spoken  to,  saying:  '  Do  not  say  anything  to  me,  vener- 
able ones,  either  good  or  bad,  and  I  will  not  say  anything 
to  the  venerable  ones,  either  good  or  bad;  refrain, 
venerable  ones,  from  speaking  to  me  '^— (then)  that  monk 
should  be  spoken  to  thus  by  the  monks:  *  Do  not, 
venerable  one,  reckon  yourself  as  one  not  to  be  spoken 
to;  let  the  venerable  one  reckon  himself  as  one  to  be 
spoken  to;  let  the  venerable  one  speak  to  the  monks  in 
accordance  with  dhamma,*  and  then  the  monks  will 


^  Dubbacajdtika.  VA.  612,  says  that  dubbaca  means  that  it  is 
impossible  to  speak  to  him.  Edd.  Vin.  Texts  i.  12  get  nearer  to 
this  in  their  note  than  in  their  trans.,  which  reads:  "  refuses  to  listen 
to  what  is  said  to  him."  I  follow  trans,  at  G.S.  ii.  151  (of  A.  ii. 
147)  and  at  K.S.  ii.l37  (of  S,  ii.  206).  But  at  G.S.  iii.  133  {A.  iii. 
178)  the  reading  is,  "  they  are  speakers  of  ill,"  and  at  G.S.  v.  104 
(A.  V.  152),  "  of  foul  speech."  But  Channa,  above,  has  given  no 
indication  that  his  speech  was  evil.  Chalmers,  Fur.  Dial.  i.  69 
(M.  i.  95),  has  "  unruly,"  but  MA-  ii.  66  explains:  so  dukkhena 
vattabbo  hoti,  with  which  cf.  SA.  ii.  173,  dukkham  vattabbd. 

2  Sahadhammikam,  here  adverbial.  VA.  613,  "  according  to 
the  courses  of  training  made  known  by  the  enlightened  one."  For 
similar  use,  see  Vin.  i.  60;  iv.  141. 

3  I.e.,  in  the  Patimokkha,  see  below,  Old  Corny. 
*  Saha  dhammena. 


XII.  1-2]  FORMAL   MEETING  3II 

speak  to  the  venerable  one  in  accordance  with  dhamma. 
Thus  is  the  multitude  increased  for  the  lord,  that  is  to 
say  by  speaking  with  one  another,  by  assisting  one 
another.^  And  if  that  monk  when  he  has  been  spoken 
to  by  the  monks  should  persist  as  before,  then  that 
monk  should  be  admonished  up  to  three  times  by  the 
monks  together  for  giving  up  his  course.  And  if  after 
being  admonished  up  to  three  times  by  the  monks 
together,  he  gives  up  his  course,  that  is  good;  if  he  does 
not  give  it  up,  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a  formal 
meeting  of  the  Order."  ||  1 1| 


If  a  monk  is  one  who  is  difficult  to  speak  to  means :  he 
is  difficult  to  speak  to,  endowed  with  qualities  which 
make  him  difficult  to  speak  to,^  intractable,^  incapable 
of  being  instructed.* 

In  the  courses  of  training  included  in  the  exposition 
means :  in  the  courses  of  training  included  in  the  Pati- 
mokkha. 

By  the  monks  means :  by  other  monks. 

According  to  dhamma  means:  that  course  of  training 
made  known  by  the  lord,  this  is  called  according  to 
dhamma. 

Himself  being  spoken  to  he  reckons  himself  as  one  not 
to  he  spoken  to,  saying :  ''Do  not,  venerable  ones,  say 

^  Annamanna-vuUhdpanena,  trans,  at  Vin.  Texts  i.  12, ''  by  mutual 
help."  Vidthdpeti  is  also  to  ordain,  to  rehabilitate,  cf.  Vin.  iv. 
226,  317,  where  vuUJidpeti=upasampddeti  in  Old  Corny. 

2  VA.  612,  "  endowed  with  these  conditions,  they  make  a  man 
difficult  to  talk  to."  There  are  said  to  be,  loc.  cit.,  nineteen  such 
conditions  enumerated  here;  sixteen  at  MA.  ii.  66. 

3  Akkhama,  VA.  613,  "  he  does  not  submit  to,  does  not  endure 
the  exhortation." 

^  Appadakkhinaggdhi  anusdsanim,  lit.  a  left-handed  {i.e.,  un- 
skilled, clumsy)  taker  of  the  teaching.  They  do  not  take  the 
teaching  with  deference,  but  disrespectfully  {cf.  VA.  613  and  MA.  ii. 
66),  possibly  also  referring  to  the  fact  that  they  do  not  (depart) 
keeping  the  right  side  towards  the  teacher,  which  is  padakkhinam 
karoti. 

This  whole  phrase  is  stock,  occurring  at,  e.g.,  S.  ii.  201;  A.  ii.  147; 
iii.  178;v.  152;  Jf.  i.  95. 


312  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE       [III.  178-179 

anything  to  me,  either  good  or  had,  and  I  ivill  not  say 
anything  to  the  venerable  ones,  either  good  or  bad  ;  refrain, 
venerable  ones,  from  speaking  to  me  ''■ — (then)  that  monk 
means:  that  monk  who  is  difficult  to  speak  to. 

By  the  monks  means:  by  other  monks,  these  see, 
these  hear.  He  should  be  spoken  to  by  these,  saying: 
*'  Venerable  one,  do  not  reckon  yourself  as  one  not 
to  be  spoken  to,  let  the  venerable  one  reckon  himself 
as  one  to  be  spoken  to,  let  the  venerable  one  speak  to 
the  monks  in  accordance  with  dhamma,  and  then  the 
monks  will  speak  to  the  venerable  one  in  accordance 
with  dhamma.  Thus  is  the  multitude  increased  for 
the  lord,  that  is  to  say  by  speaking  to  one  another,  by 
assisting  one  another."  A  second  time  he  should  be 
spoken  to  .  .  .  A  third  time  he  should  be  spoken 
to  .  .  .  If  [178]  he  gives  it  up,  that  is  good;  but  if  he 
does  not  give  it  up,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 
If,  having  heard,  they  do  not  speak,  there  is  an  offence 
of  wrong-doing.  That  monk,  having  been  pulled  into 
the  middle  of  the  assembly,  should  be  told:  "  Do  not, 
venerable  one,  reckon  yourself  as  one  not  to  be  spoken 
to  ...  by  ordaining  one  another."  .  A  second  time  he 
should  be  told  ...  A  third  time  he  should  be  told 
...  If  he  gives  it  up,  that  is  good;  if  he  does  not  give 
it  up,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  That  monk 
should  be  admonished.  And  thus,  monks,  should  he 
be  admonished.  The  Order  should  be  informed  by  an 
experienced,  competent  monk :"  Honoured  sirs,  let 
the  Order  hear  me.  This  monk,  so  and  so,  being 
remonstrated  with  by  the  monks  in  accordance  with 
dhamma,  reckons  himself  as  one  not  to  be  spoken  to: 
he  does  not  give  up  this  course.  If  it  is  the  right  time 
for  the  Order,  let  the  Order  admonish  this  monk  so  that 
he  may  give  up  this  course.  That  is  the  motion. 
Honoured  sirs,  let  the  Order  hear  me.  This  monk, 
so  and  so  .  .  .     Thus  do  I  understand." 

According  to  the  motion  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing; according  to  the  two  resolutions  there  are  grave 
offences;  at  the  end  of  a  resolution  there  is  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.     If  he  is  com- 


XII.  2-3^   2]  FORMAL   MEETING  313 

mitting  an  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the 
Order,  the  offence  of  wrong-doing  according  to  the  motion 
and  the  grave  offences  according  to  the  two  resolutions, 
subside.^ 

An  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order 
means:  ...  on  account  of  this  it  is  called  an  offence 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  ||  2  || 


Thinking  a  legally  valid  act  to  be  a  legally  valid  act, 
he  does  not  give  it  up,  there  is  an  offence  entailing  a 
formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  Being  in  doubt  as  to 
whether  it  is  a  legally  valid  act  .  .  .  Not  thinking  an 
act  that  is  legally  valid  to  be  an  act  that  is  not  legally 
valid  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.^  ||  1 1| 

There  is  no  offence  if  he  has  not  been  admonished,  if 
he  gives  it  up,  if  he  is  mad,  if  he  is  a  beginner.^  II 2 1|  3  || 


Told  is  the  Twelfth  Offence  entailing  a  Formal  Meeting 

of  the  Order :  that  concerning  one  to  whom  it  is 

difficult  to  speak 

1  =above,  pp.  302,  307;  below,  p.  327. 

2  Cf.  above,  pp.  302,  307;  below,  p.  327. 

3  Cf.  above,  pp.  303,  308;  below,  p.  327. 


FORMAL  MEETING  (SANGHADISESA)  XIII 

...  at  Savatthi  in  the  Jeta  Grove  in  Anathapindika's 
park.  Now  at  that  time/  unscrupulous,  depraved 
monks  who  were  the  followers  of  Assaji  and  Punabbasu^ 
were  in  residence^  at  Kitagiri.*  They  indulged  in  the 
following  kinds  of  bad  habits :  they  planted  and  caused 
to  be  planted  small  flowering  trees;  they  watered 
them  [179]  and  caused  them  to  be  watered;  they  plucked 
them  and  caused  them  to  be  plucked;  they  tied  them  up 
into  (garlands)  and  caused  them  to  be  tied  up ;  they  made 
and  caused  to  be  made  garlands  having  a  stalk  on  one 
side^ ;  they  made  and  caused  to  bfe  made  garlands  having 
a  stalk  on  both  sides^ ;  they  made  and  caused  to  be  made 
a  branching  flower-stalk';  they  made  and  caused  to  be 

1  This  whole  passage=Fm.  ii.  10  ff. 

*  VA.  614,  "  they  were  the  foremost  of  the  sixfold  group  of  monks  " 
— the  bad  group,  often  giving  trouble.  'They  say,  '  alms  in  the 
countryside  are  now  abundant,  now  short.  Let  us  not  live  in  one 
place  but  in  three  places.'  So  they  chose  KasI  of  the  kingdom 
of  Kosala,  Anga  of  the  kingdom  of  Magadha,  and  Kitagiri.  They 
did  things  not  to  be  done  and  neglected  the  courses  of  training 
which  had  been  set  forth.  So  they  are  called '  unscrupulous,  evil 
monks. ^  "  At  VA.  579  (on  Vin.  in.  160)  it  is  said  that  Mettiya 
and  Bhummajaka  are  the  leaders  of  the  sixfold  group. 

^  dvdsika.  VA.  613,  dvdso  ti  vihdro.  ^' Avdsikd  are  those  to 
whom  this  dvdsa  belongs,  for  they  have  the  care  of  the  new 
buildings  and  the  repairs  to  the  old:  these  are  the  residents.  Those 
who  only  stay  in  a  vihara  are  called  inmates  {nevdsika),  but  these 
were  residents  {dvdsika^."  MA.  iii.  187  defines  dvdsikd  as  nibandha- 
vdsino,  "  continual  dwellers." 

*  VA.  613,  "  that  was  the  name  of  the  countryside,"  while 
MA.  iii.  186  says,  "  that  was  the  name  of  the  township." 

*  ekatovantikamdla.  VA.  617,  "  a  garland  made  with  the  stalks 
on  one  side  of  the  flowers." 

*  ubhatovantikamdla.  Ibid.,  "  a  garland  made  with  the  stalks  of 
the  flowers  on  both  sides." 

'  manjarika.    Ibid.,  "  an  arrangement  of  flowers." 

314 


XIII.  1,  1]  FORMAL  MEETING  315 

made  a  wreath^;  they  made  and  caused  to  be  made  a 
garland  worn  round  the  forehead^ ;  they  made  and  caused 
to  be  made  an  ear-ornament;  they  made  and  caused  to 
be  made  a  breast-plate.^  These  (monks)  take  or  send 
garlands  having  a  stalk  on  one  side  to  wives  of  reputable 
families,  to  daughters  of  reputable  families,  to  girls  of 
reputable  families,  to  daughters-in-law  of  reputable 
families,  to  female  slaves  of  reputable  families.  They 
take  or  send  garlands  having  a  stalk  on  both  sides; 
they  take  or  send  a  branching  flower-stalk;  they  take 
or  send  a  wreath;  they  take  or  send  a  garland  worn 
round  the  forehead;  they  take  or  send  an  ear-ornament; 
they  take  or  send  a  breast-plate.  These  eat  from  one 
dish  together  with  wives  of  reputable  families,  with 
daughters  of  reputable  families,  with  girls  of  reputable 
families,  with  daughters-in-law  of  reputable  families, 
with  female  slaves  of  reputable  families.  They  drink 
from  one  beaker;  they  sit  down  on  one  seat;  they  share* 
one  couch ;  they  share  one  mat^ ;  they  share  one  coverlet ; 
they  share  one  mat  and  coverlet.  They  eat  at  the 
wrong  time;  they  drink  intoxicants;  they  wear  gar- 
lands, (use)  perfumes  and  cosmetics;  they  dance  and 
sing  and  play  musical  instruments,  and  they  sport. 
They  dance  when  she  dances,^  they  sing  when  she 
dances,  they  play  musical  instruments  when  she  dances, 
they  sport  when  she  dances;  they  dance  when  she  sings 
.  .  .  they  dance  when  she  plays  musical  instruments 
.  .  .  they  dance  when  she  sports  .  .  .  they  sport  when 
she  sports.  ||  1 1| 

1  vidhutika.  Ibid.,  "It  is  done  by  piercing  the  flowers  of  the 
Vitex  negundo  tree  [sinduvara]  with  a  needle  or  small  stick." 

2  vatamsaka.  Corny,  of  no  use  here.  Sometimes  as  at  Vv.  38 
an  ear-ornament=^awmA;a,  VvA.  174.  But  here  next  item,  dvela 
=kanmkd,  VA.  617. 

3  uracchada.  VA.  617,  "  floral  garlands  like  a  hdra  to  be  put  on 
the  breast." 

*  VA.  620,  "  they  lie  down  on." 

*  attharana,  lit.  strewing,  spreading  (neut.).  Hence  probably  a 
mat  or  rug,  or  even  something  spread  over  them,  some  cover. 

«  VA.  620,  "  when  a  nautch-girl  dances,  they  go  dancing  in  front 
of  her  or  behind  her." 


3l6  BOOK   OF   THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  180 

They  play^  on  a  chequered  board  for  gambling^ ;  they 
play  on  a  draught-board^;  they  play  with  imaginmg 
such  boards  in  the  air*;  they  play  a  game  of  keeping 
stepping  on  to  diagrams^ ;  they  play  with  spillikans' ; 
they  play  at  dice ;  they  play  tip-cat' ;  they  play  brush- 
hand®;  they  play  with  a  balP;  they  play  at  blowing 
through  toy-pipes  made  of  leaves^°;  they  play  with  a 
toy  plough^^;  they  play  at  turning  somersaults^^;  they 
play  with  a  toy  windmilP^ ;  they  play  with  a  toy  measures 

1  For  these  games  cf.  D.  i.  6  ff.,  and  see  Dial.  i.  11  ff.  for  dis- 
cussions on  the  terms. 

2  atthapada.  VA.  620,  "  they  play  at  dice  on  the  chequered 
board,'"  having  eight  squares  on  each  side. 

3  dasapada — i.e.,  a  board  with  ten  squares  on  each  side.  Corny. 
on  this  passage  to  "  deformities,"  he\ow=DA.  i.  85  f. 

*  VA.  620,  "  as  they  play  on  the  dice  or  draught  board,  so  they 
play  in  space." 

5  parihdmpatha.  VA.  621=DA.  i.  85,  "  having  drawn  a  circle 
with  various  lines  on  the  ground,  there  they  play  avoiding  the  line 
to  be  avoided."  * 

^  santikdya  kilanti.  VA.  621,  "  putting  together  chessmen  and 
little  stones  into  heaps,  they  move  them  away  and  put  (new  ones) 
with  the  nails  without  letting  them  trernble;  but  if  one  trembles 
there  is  defeat." 

'  ghatikena  kllar^i,  VA.  621,  "  they  move  about  hitting  a  short 
stick  with  a  long  stick." 

»  saldkahatthena  kilanti,  VA.  621= moistening  the  brush-hand  in 
crimson  lac  or  in  floury  water,  and  beating  it  on  the  ground  or  on 
a  wall,  he  says,  "  '  What  shall  it  be  ?'  and  they  play  showing  the 
form  required  " — elephants  and  horses. 

"  akkhena  kilanti,  VA.  621,  gulena,  with  a  ball.  Tr.  Crit.  Pali 
Diet,  says  akkha  is  a  die. 

^^  pangacirena  kilanti,  VA.  621,  ''they  play  blowing  that  leafy 
pipe." 

"  vankakena  kilanti,  VA.  621,  "  they  play  with  the  plaything, 
the  small  .plough  of  village  boys."     v.ll.  cangakena,  vangakena. 

12  mokkhacikdya  kilanti,  derivation  extremely  obscure,  see  art. 
P.T.S.  Diet,  and  J.P'.T.S.  1885,  p.  49.  VA.  621  says  "  it  is  called 
a  game  of  rolling  about  {sampirivattaka)  "  {cf.  J  a.  ii.  142).  "  Holding 
a  stick  in  the  air,  and  putting  the  head  on  the  ground,  they  play 
turning  about  by  being  upside  down."  At  Vin.  i.  275  the  son  of 
a  great,  merchant  disabled  himself  by  playing  this  way.  See 
also  Vin.  Texts  ii.  184,  n. 

13  eingulakena  kilanti,  VA.  621,  "a  wheel  that  is  made  of  the 
leaves  of  palm-trees  and  so  on;  the  wheel  reels  round  at  a  breath  of 
wind — they  play  with  this."     On  eihgulaka  see  J. P.T.S.  1885,  p.  50. 


XIII.  1,  2]  FORMAL   MEETING  317 

of  leaves^ ;  they  play  with  a  toy  cart^ ;  they  play  with  a 
toy  bow^;  they  play  a  game  of  guessing  at  letters*;  they 
play  a  mind-reading  game^ ;  they  play  a  game  of  mimick- 
ing deformities* ;  they  train  themselves  in  elephant  lore' ; 
they  train  themselves  in  horse  lore';  they  train  them- 
selves in  cart  lore;  they  train  themselves  in  archery;, 
they  train  themselves  in  swordsmanship ;  then  they  run 
in  front  of  an  elephant,  they  run  in  front  of  a  horse  and 
they  run  in  front  of  a  chariot;  now  they  run  backwards, 
now  they  run  forwards,®  and  they  whistle,^  and  they 
snap  their  fingers,^ °  and  they  wrestle,"  and  they  fight 
with  fists,  and  having  spread  out  their  upper  robes  as 


1  pattdlhaJcena  ktlanti,  V A.  621,  pafidlhakamvucx(Uipannandlikd, 
and  it  also  says,  "  they  play  measuring  the  leafy  pipe  with  this 
sand  and  so  on."  On  the  measures,  dlhaka  and  ndlikd,  see  above, 
p.  103. 

2  rathakena,  VA.  621,  with  a  little  cart. 

3  dhanukena  kilanti,  VA.  621,  "  with  a  little  bow."  These  last 
six  and  "  tip-cat  "  are  given  as  examples  of  childish  ^ames  at 
M.  I  2m=A.  V.  203==M^7?^.  230. 

*  akkharikdya  kilanti,  VA.  621,  "  they  play  the  game  of  recog- 
nising syllables  in  the  air  or  on  their  backs." 

5  manesikdya,  F^.  621,  "  they  play  the  game  of  knowing  the  mind 
and  thoughts." 

*  yathdvajjena  kilanti.  This  means  the  blind,  the  lame,  the 
deformed  and  so  on:  imitating  that  which  is  a  deformity,  they  play 
the  game  of  exhibiting  it. 

'  VA.  621,  "  they  learn  the  learning  which  is  to  be  learnt  for  the 
(craft  and  care)  of  elephants  "  and  horses. 

8  dhdvanti  pi  ddhdvanti,  VA.  621,  dhdvanti pi  ti parammukhd  gac- 
chantd  dhdvanti.  Adhdvanii  pi  ti  yattakam  dhdvanti  tattakam  eva 
abhimukhd  puna  dgacchantd  ddhdvanti. 

»  usselhenti.  So  far  this  word  appears  only  to  come  here  and 
at  the  parallel  passage,  Vin.  ii.  10.  The  translators  at  Vin.  Texts  ii. 
349,  n.  1,  "  are  quite  uncertain  how  to  render  this  word."  I  admit 
I  do  not  agree  with  their  rendering,  "  they  used  to  exhibit  signs  of 
anger,"  as  I  think  that  all  these  activities  were  entered  upon  in  a 
friendly  spirit.  See  P.T.S.  Diet,  under  seleti;  also  Morris,  J.P.T.S., 
1885,  p.  54,  who  is  inclined  to  think  usselheti  is  connected  with 
seleti,  and  signifies  "  to  shout  out."  SnA.  485  (on  Sn.  682)  explains 
selenti  as  mukhena  usselanasaddam  muncanti. 

*i«  Here,  and  at  Vin.  ii.  10,  appothenti.  P.T.S.  Did.  gives  only 
apphoteti,  with  meaning  of  "to  snap  the  fingers  or  clap  the  hands." 
But  at  Miln.  13,  20  appothe"  is  given  as  a  variant  reading,  also 
apphothe°.  ^^  VA.  622,  "  they  make  a  wrestling  contest." 


3l8  BOOK  OF  THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  180-181 

a  stage,'  they  say  to  a  dancing  girl:  "Dance  here, 
sister,"  and  they  applaud,^  and  indulge  in  various  bad 
habits.  II 2  II 

At  one  time  a  certain  monk,  rising  up  from  spending 
the  rains  among  the  people  of  Kasi,  and  going  to  Savatthi 
for  the  sake  of  seeing  the  lord,  [180]  arrived  at  Kitagiri. 
Then  this  monk  getting  up  early  and  taking  his  bowl 
and  robe  entered  Kitagiri  for  alms-food.  He  was  pleasing 
whether  he  was  approaching  or  departing,  whether  he 
was  looking  before  or  looking  behind,  whether  he  was 
drawing  in  or  stretching  out  (his  arm),^  his  eyes  were 
cast  down,  he  was  possessed  of  pleasant  behaviour.* 

People  seeing  this  monk,  spoke  thus : 

"  Who  can  this  be  like  an  idiot  of  idiots,  like  a  fool 
of  fools,  like  a  very  supercilious  person?^  Who  will 
go  up  to  him  and  give  him  alms  ?  Our  masters,  the 
followers  of  Assaji  and  Punabbasu  are  polite,*  genial, 
pleasaijt  of  speech,  beaming  with  smiles,  saying:  '  Co  ne, 
you  are  welcome.'  They  are  not  supercilious,  they  are 
easily  accessible,  they  are  the  first  to  speak.''  There- 
fore alms  should  be  given  to  these." 

A  certain  lay  follower  saw  that  monk  wandering  in 
Kitagiri  for  alms ;  seeing  that  monk  he  approached  him, 
and  having  approached  and  greeted  him,  he  said: 

**  Honoured  sir,  are  alms  obtainable  ?" 


^  rangamajjha;  cf.  S.  iv.  306,  Jd.  iv.  495. 

2  naiktikam  denti,  which  P.T.S.  Diet,  says,  "  gives  a  frown." 
But  Bu.  at  VA.  622  says,  *'  they  say, '  Very  good,  sister,'  and  placing 
their  fingers  on  their  own  foreheads  they  then  place  them  on  her 
forehead." 

^  From  "  he  was  pleasing  "  is  more  or  less  stock,  cf.,  e.g.,  M.  iii.  35, 
90;  D.  i.  70;  A.  ii.  104,  106,  210. 

*  iriydptUha  can  mean  "  good  behaviour  "  besides  the  postures, 
of  which  there  are  four. 

«  bhdkutikabfidkutiko.  VA.  622,  *'  having  frowned  when  he  cast 
down  his  eyes,  they  say  that  he  goes  about  like  an  angry  man  with 
his  mouth  clenched."  These  last  two  words  are  in  Pali  kutitamukha, 
for  which  there  are  v.ll.  sankiUi°,  sankuci°. 

•  'sanha=mpuna.  "  They  greet  a  lay  woman  and  are  not  like 
a  fool  of  fools,"  so  F^.  622. 

'  Cy.  Z).  i.  116  for  some  of  these  words. 


XIII.  1,  3  5]  FORMAL   MEETING  319 

"  Alms  are  not  obtainable,  your  reverence,"  he  said. 
"  Come,  honoured  sir,  we  will  go  to  my  house."  ||  3  || 

Then  the  lay  follower  having  taken  this  monk  to  his 
house  and  made  him  eat,  said : 

"  Where,  honoured  sir,  will  the  master  go  ?" 

"  I  will  go  to  Savatthi,  your  reverence,  to  see  the 
lord,"  he  said. 

"  Then,  honoured  sir,  in  my  name  salute  the  lord's 
feet  with  your  head  and  say :  '  Lord,  the  residence  at 
Kitagiri  has  been  corrupted.  At  Kitagiri  are  residing 
unscrupulous,  depraved  monks  who  are  the  followers 
of  Assaji  and  Punabbasu.  These  indulge  in  the  follow- 
ing bad  habits  .  .  .  they  indulge  in  a  variety  of  bad 
habits.  Lord,  those  men  who  formerly  had  faith  and 
were  virtuous  now  have  no  faith  and  are  not  virtuous. 
Those  who  formerly  were  channels  for  gifts^  to  the 
Order  are  now  cut  off;  they  neglect  the  well-behaved 
monks,  and  the  depraved  monks  stay  on.  It  were  good, 
lord,  if  the  lord  would  send  monks  to  Kitagiri,  so  that 
this  residence  in  Kitagiri  may  be  settled. "^  ||4|| 

"  Very  well,  your  reverence,"  and  that  monk  having 
answered  and  rising  up  from  his  seat,  departed  for 
Savatthi.  In  due  course  he  approached  Savatthi,  the 
Jeta  Grove  and  Anathapindika's  park  and  the  lord; 
and  having  approached  and  greeted  the  lord,  he  sat 
down  to  one  side.  It  is  usual  for  enlightened  ones,  for 
lords,,  to  exchange  greetings  with  in-coming  monks. 
So  the  lord  said  to  this  monk : 

"  I  hope,  monk,  that  it  is  going  well  with  you,  I  hope 
that  you  are  keeping  going,  I  hope  that  you  have  accom- 
plished your  journey  with  but  little  fatigue.  And 
where  do  you  come  from,  monk  ?" 

"  Things  go  well,  lord,  I  am  keeping  going,  lord,  and 
I,  lord,  [181]  accomplished  my  journey  with  but  little 


*  ddnupatha. 


^  ddnupama. 

2  miiiihaheyya;  or,  may  be  put  iu  order,  may  continue,  may  be 
established. 


320  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [HI.  182 

fatigue.  Now,  I,  lord,  having  spent  the  rains  among 
the  people  of  Kasi,  and  coming  to  Savatthi  for  the  sake 
of  seeing  the  lord,  arrived  at  Kitagiri^.  Then  I,  lord, 
rising  up  early,  and  taking  my  bowl  and  robe,  entered 
Kitagiri  for  alms-food.  Then,  lord,  a  certain  lay 
follower  saw  me  as  I  was  wandering  in  Kitagiri  for 
alms-food,  and  seeing  me  he  approached,  and  having 
approached  and  greeted  me,  he  said:  'Are  alms  obtain- 
able, honoured  sir  ?'  '  No,  your  reverence,  alms  are 
not  obtainable,'  I  said.  '  Come,  honoured  sir,  we  will 
go  to  my  house,'  he  said.  Then,  lord,  that  lay  follower, 
taking  me  to  his  house  and  feeding  me,  said:  '  Where, 
honoured  sir,  w^\  the  master  go?'  I  said:  'Your 
reverence,  I  will  go  to  Savatthi  for  the  sake  of  seeing 
the  lord.'  Then  he  said  ...  '  may  be  settled.' 
Therefore,  lord,  do  I  come."  ||  5  || 

Then  the  lord,  on  that  occasion,  in  that  connection, 
having  had  the  Order  of  monks  convened,  asked  the 
monks : 

"  Mqnks,  is  it  true  as  is  said,  that  the  monks  who 
are  followers  of  Assaji  and  Punabbasu,  residing  in 
Kitagiri,  are  unscrupulous  and  depraved  and  indulge 
in  the  following  bad  habits:  they  plant  small  flowering 
trees  .  .  .  indulge  in  a  variety  of  bad  habits  .  .  .  and 
those  men,  monks  .  .  .  and  the  depraved  monks 
stay  on  ?" 

"  It  is  true,  lord,"  they  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  them, 
saying: 

"  How,  monks,  can  these  foolish  men  indulge  in  this 
kind  of  bad  habit,  how  can  they  plant  small  flowering 
trees  or  cause  them  to  be  planted  ?  How  can  they  water 
them  or  cause  them  to  be  watered  ?  How  can  they 
pluck  them  or  cause  them  to  be  plucked  ?  How  can 
they  tie  up  garlands  or  cause  them  to  be  tied  up  ?  How 
can  they  make  or  cause  to  be  made  .  .  .  How  can 
they  take  or  send  .  .  .  How  can  they  eat  .  .  .  How 
can  they  drink  .  .  .  sit  .  .  .  stand  .  .  .  eat  .  .  .  drink 
.  .  .  run  .  .  .  dance  and  sing  and  play  musical  in- 


XIII.  1,  6-7]  FORMAL   MEETING  321 

struments  and  sport  .  .  .  play  .  .  .  train  themselves 
.  .  .  run  .  .  .  run  round  facing  .  .  .  how  can  they  whistle 
and  snap  their  fingers  and  wrestle  and  fight  with  fists, 
and  having  spread  out  their  upper  robes  as  a  stage, 
say  to  a  nautch  girl:  '  Dance  here,  sister,'  and  applaud 
and  indulge  in  a  variety  of  bad  habits  ?  It  is  not, 
monks,  for  the  benefit  of  unbelievers  ..."  and  having 
rebuked  them  and  given  them  talk  on  dhamma,  he 
addressed  Sariputta  and  Moggallana : 

"You  go,  Sariputta^  and  Moggallana;  and  having 
gone  to  Kitagiri  make  an  act  of  banishment^  from 
Kitagiri  against  those  monks  who  are  followers  of 
Assaji  and  Punabbasu;  these  are  fellow  monks  of 
yours.  "^ 

They  said:  "Lord,  how  can  we  [182]  ma'ke  an  act 
of  banishment  from  Kitagiri  against  the  monks  who  are 
followers  of  Assaji  and  Punabbasu  ?  These  monks  are 
violent  and  rough." 

"  Then,  Sariputta  and  Moggallana,  go  together  with 
many  monks." 

"  Very  well,  lord,"  Sariputta  and  Moggallana  answered 
the  lord.  ||  6  || 

"  And  this,  monks,  is  how  it  should  be  done.  First, 
the  monks  who  are  the  followers  of  Assaji  and  Punab- 
basu should  be  reproved;  having  been  reproved  they 
should  be  reminded ;  having  been  reminded  they  should 
be  accused  of  the  offence;  having  been  accused  of  the 
offence,  the  Order  should  be  informed  through  an  ex- 
perienced, competent  monk:  '  Let  the  Order  listen  to 
me,  honoured  sirs.     These  monks  who  are  followers  of 

.  1  Sariputta.  Use  of  karotha  and  later  karoma  clearly  indicates 
that  both  the  chief  disciples  are  meant.  Cf.  Vin.  i.  351  for  similar 
use  of  Anuruddhdl 

2  jpahhdjaniyakamtna.  This  is  directed  against  those  who  bring 
families  into  disrepute. 

3  saddhivihdrino.  At  Vin.  ii.  171  the  followers  of  Assaji  and 
Punabbasu  refused  to  prepare  lodgings  for  Sariputta  and  Moggallana 
saying  that  they  were  men  of  evil  desires.  This  Assaji  is  not  the  same 
as  he  who  converted  Sariputta  and  Moggallana  to  the  teaching  of 
the  lord. 

I  21 


322  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  183 

Assaji  and  Punabbasu  are  those  who  bring  a  family 
into  disrepute,  they  are  of  evil  conduct;  their  evil 
conduct  is  seen  and  also  heard,  and  respectable  families 
corrupted  by  them  are  seen  and  also  heard.  If  it  seems 
the  right  time  for  the  Order,  let  the  Order  make  an  act 
of  banishment  from  Kitagiri  against  the  monks  who 
are  the  followers  of  Assaji  and  Punabbasu,  so  that  the 
monks  who  are  the  followers  of  Assaji  and  Punabbasu 
may  not  be  in  Kitagiri.  This  is  the  motion.  Let  the 
Order  listen  to  me,  honoured  sirs.  These  monks  who 
are  .  .  .  seen  ^nd  also  heard.  The  Order  issues  an 
act  of  banishment  from  Kitagiri  against  the  monks  who 
are  followers  of  Assaji  and  Punabbasu  so  that  the  monks 
who  are  followers  of  Assaji  and  Punabbasu  may  not 
be  in  Kitagiri.  If  it  seems  good  to  the  venerable  ones 
to  make  an  act  of  banishment  from  Kitagiri  against  the 
monks  who  are  followers  of  Assaji  and  Punabbasu  so 
that  the  monks  who  are  the  followers  of  Assaji  and 
Punabbasu  may  not  be  in  Kitagiri,  then  be  silent ; 
if  it  does  not  seem  good  (to  you)  then  you  should  speak. 
A  second  time  I  speak  forth  this  matter  .  .  .  And  a 
third  time  do  I  speak  forth  this  matter:  Let  the  Order 
listen  to  me  .  .  .  should  speak.  By  the  Order  there 
has  been  made  an  act  of  banishment  from  Kitagiri 
against  the  monks  who  are  followers  of  Assaji  and 
Punabbasu  so  that  the  monks  who  are  followers  of 
Assaji  and  Punabbasu  may  not  be  in  Kitagiri.  If  it 
seems  good  to  the  Order,  then  be  silent;  so  do  I  under- 
stand." II  7  II 

Then^  Sariputta  and  Moggallana,  at  the  head  of  a 
company  of  monks,  having  gone  to  Kitagiri  made  an 
act  of  banishment  from  Kitagiri  against  the  monks  who 
were  followers  of  Assaji  and  Punabbasu,  so  that  the 
monks  who  were  followers  of  Assaji  and  Punabbasu 
might  not  be  in  Kitagiri.  The  act  of  banishment  having 
been  made  by  the  Order,  these  did  not  conduct  them- 

1  Vin.  ii.  13  here  has  some  matter  not  given  at  Vin.  iii.  183. 
But  the  story  continues  in  Vin.  ii.  14  as  above. 


XIII.  1,  8]  FORMAL   MEETING  323 

selves  properly/  nor  did  they  become  subdued,^  nor 
did  they  mend  their  ways,^  they  did  not  ask  the  monks 
for  forgiveness,*  they  cursed  them,^  they  reviled  them,* 
they  offended  by  following  a  wrong  course  through 
desire,  by  following  a  wrong  course  through  hatred,  by 
following  a  wrong  course  through  stupidity,  by  follow- 
ing a  wrong  course  through  fear^ ;  and  they  went  away, 
and  they  left  the  Order.^ 

Those  who  were  modest  monks  became  angry  .  .  . 
and  annoyed,  and  said:  "  How  can  the  monks  who  are 
followers  of  Assaji  and  Punabbasu,  banished  by  the 

1  VA.  625,  "  they  did  not  do  well  in  the  eighteen  duties." 

2  "  Through  not  following  a  suitable  course  they  are  not  subdued," 
VA.  625,  and  taking  the  v.U.  pannalomd,  pannalotmi  instead  of  pana 
na  loma,  as  given  in  the  printed  edition  of  the  VA.  P.T.S.  Diet. 
says,  lomam  pdteti  means  to  let  the  hair  drop,  as  a  sign  of  modesty 
or  subduedness.  By  this  must  be  meant  some  analogy  with  an 
animal  (such  as  a  dog  or  cat)  who,  having  raised  the  fur  (Zowa), 
lets  it  fall  back  as  a  sign  of  good  temper  restored.  Henc6  this 
phrase  is  almost  certainly  meant  to  be  taken  metaphorically. 
In  Corny,  on  Vin.  ii.  5  (see  Vin.  ii.  309),  where  this  same  ex- 
pression occurs,  Bu.  explains  lomam  pdfenti  by  pannalomd  honti, 
which  means  those  whose  down  is  flat,  not  standing  up  in  excitement, 
and  whose  minds  are  therefore  subdued.  Cf.  "he  takes  up  the 
wrong  course,"  MA.  ui.  153  on  M.  i.  442. 

3  Na  netthdram  vattanti.  VA.  625,  "  they  did  not  follow  the  way 
of  the  overcoming  of  self."  Comy.  on  Vin.  ii.  5,  given  at  Vin.  ii.  309, 
is  fuller:  netthdrain  vattanti  ti  uittharantdnam  etan  ti  netthdram  yena 
sakkd  nissdraiid  nittharitum  tarn  atthdrasavidham  samnidvattam 
vattanti  ti  aXtho.  Same  phrase  occurs  at  M.  i.  442,  trans,  at  Fur. 
Dial.  i.  316  "  fails  to  atone,"  but  this  rendering  is,  I  think,  too 
Christian  in  tone  to  fit.  MA.  iii.  153  on  if.  i.  442  says:  na  nitthdram 
vattati  ti  nitthdranakavattam  hi  na  vattati  dpattivutthdnattham  turi- 
taturito  chandajdto  na  hoti.     v.l.  nitthdra,  as  at  M.  i.  442. 

*  VA.  625,  "  '  we  have  done  badly,  we  will  not  do  so  again,  forgive 
us.'    They  did  not  ask  for  forgiveness." 

^  Ibid.f  *'  They  swore  at  those  who  did  the  commission  of  the 
Order  with  the  ten  expressions  of  cursing."  These  are  given  at 
DhA.  i.  211-212. 

•  Ibid.,  "  They  made  dread  appear  in  these." 

'  Thes^  are  the  four  so-called  agatis.  At  D.  iii.  133 -^.  iv.  370, 
they  occur  among  the  nine  "  Impossibles  "  (abhabbatthdna)  for  a 
monk  who  is  khindsava.  The  agati-  formula  is  stock;  cf.,  e.g.,  Vin.  i. 
283;  ii.  167,  176,'  177;  iii.  238,  246;  D.  iii.  182,  228;  ^.  i.  72;  ii.  18; 
iii.  274. 

'  vibbharnanti.     VA.  625  says,  ekaccegihihqnti.     Qf.  p.  60,  n.  3. 


324  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE       [III.  18a-184 

Order,  not  conduct  themselves  properly,  not  become 
subdued,  not  mend  their  ways  ?  [183]  Why  do  they 
not  ask  for  forgiveness  from  the  monks  ?  Why  do  they 
curse  and  revile  them  ?  Why  do  they,  following  a 
wrong  course  through  desire,  hatred,  stupidity  and 
fear,  go  away  and  leave  the  Order  ?"  Then  these 
monks  told  this  matter  to  the  lord.^ 

He  asked:  "Is  it  true  as  is  said,  monks,  that  the 
monks  who  are  the  followers  of  Assaji  and  Punabbasu, 
having  been  banished  by  the  Order,  do  not  conduct 
themselves  properly  .  .  .  leave  the  Order  ?" 

"  It  is  true,  lord,"  they  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  them,  saying 
..."  And  thus,  monks,  this  course  of  training  should 
be  set  forth : 

If  a  monk  lives  depending  on  a  certain  village  or  little 
town,  and  is  one  who  brings  a  family  into  disrepute 
and  is  of  depraved  conduct,  and  if  his  evil  conduct  is 
seen  and  heard,  and  families  corrupted  by  him  are  seen 
and  also  heard,  let  that  monk  be  spoken  to  thus  by  the 
monks:  '  The  venerable  one  is  one  who  brings  families 
into  disrepute,  and  is  of  depraved  conduct.  The  vener- 
able one's  depraved  doings  are  seen  and  heard,  and 
families  corrupted  by  the  venerable  one  are  seen  and 
also  heard.  Let  the  venerable  one  depart  from  this 
residence;  you  have  lived  here  long  enough.'  And  if 
this  monk  having  been  spoken  to  thus  by  the  monks 
should  say  to  these  monks:  '  The  monks  are  followers 
of  desire  and  the  monks  are  followers  of  hatred  and 
the  monks  are  followers  of  stupidity  and  the  monks  are 
followers  of  fear;  they  banish  some  for  such  an  offence, 
they  do  not  banish  others  ' — this  monk  should  be  spoken 
to  thus  by  the  monks:  '  Venerable  one,  do  not  speak 
thus.  The  monks  are  not  followers  of  desire  and  the 
monks  are  not  followers  of  hatred  and  the  monks  are 
not  followers  of  stupidity  and  the  monks  are  not  fol- 

^  Here  at  Vin.  iii.  181,  the  next  normal  step  is  omitted:  "  Then 
the  lord  on  that  occasion,  in  that  connection,  having  convened 
the  Order  of  monks,  asked  the  monks."  This  is  given  at  parallel 
passage,  Vin.  ii.  14, 


Xm.  1,  8—2]  FORMAL   MEETING  325 

lowers  of  fear.  The  venerable  one  is  one  who  brings 
families  into  disrepute  and  is  of  depraved  conduct. 
The  depraved  doings  of  the  venerable  one  are  seen  and 
heard,  and  families  corrupted  by  the  venerable  one  are 
seen  and  also  heard.  Let  the  venerable  one  depart 
from  this  residence;  the  venerable  one  has  dwelt  in 
this  residence  long  enough.'  If  this  monk,  when  spoken 
to  thus  by  the  monks,  should  persist  as  before,  that 
monk  should  be  admonished  up  to  three  times  by  the 
monks  for  giving  up  his  course.  If  after  being  admon- 
ished up  to  three  times,  he  gives  up  that  course,  it  is 
good.  If  he  does  not  give  it  up,  it  is  an  offence  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order."  ||  8  ||  1 1| 


A  monk  (is  dependent  on)  a  certain  village  or  a  little 
toivn  means:  a  village  and  a  little  town  and  a  city,  and 
thus  a  village  and  a  little  town. 

Lives  depending  on  means :.  there  they  are  dependent 
for  the  requisites  of  robes,  alms-food,  lodgings  and 
medicine  for  the  sick. 

A  family  means:  there  are  four  kinds  of  families: 
a  noble  family,  a  brahmin  [184]  family,  a  merchant 
family,  a  low-caste  family.' 

One  who  brings  a  family  into  disrepute  means :  he  brings 
families  into  disrepute  by  means  of  a  flower^  or  a  fruit* 
or  with  chunam  or  clay  or  with  a  toothpick  or  with 
bamboo  or  with  medical  treatment*  or  with  going 
messages  on  foot.^ 

•  =Vin.  iv.  272. 

^  VA.  626,  a  monk  must  not  steal  a  flower  from  lay  followers  in 
order  to  make  a  gift  or  to  offer  in  worship  at  a  cetiya,  or  to  give  to 
people  to  use  in  worship;  and  it  is  not  right  to  urge  people  to  use 
flowers  in  worship. 

3  Ihid.,  a  fruit  means  his  own  property,  which  he  can  give  tq  his 
parents  and  relations;  but  he  must  not  give  his  own  property  or 
that  of  others  to  win  favour  with  families,  but  to  sick  men  or  to  lords 
who  have  arrived,  or  to  those  whose  earnings  are  destroyed. 

*  VA.  628,  "  here  it  is  the  art  of  medical  treatment  as  explained 
in  the  Commentary  on  the  Third  Parajika." 

5  Ibid.,  "  taking  up  a  householder's  order: — this  should  not  be 
done;  taking  it  up  and  going  is  a  dukkata  offence  for  each  step." 


326  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  186 

Of  depraved  condiict  means:  he  plants  or  causes 
to  be  planted  a  little  flowering  tree ;  he  waters  it  and 
causes  it  to  be  watered;  he  plucks  it  and  causes  it  to 
be  plucked ;  he  ties  up  garlands  and  causes  them  to  be 
tied  up. 

Are  seen  and  also  heard  means :  those  who  are  face  to 
face  with  them  see ;  those  who  are  absent  hear. 

Families  corrupted  by  him  means:  formerly  they  had 
faith,  now  thanks  to  him  they  are  without  faith ;  having 
been  virtuous,  now  they  are  without  virtue. 

Are  seen  and  also  heard  means :  those  who  are  face  to 
face  with  them  see ;  those  who  are  absent  hear. 

That  monk  means:  that  monk  who  brings  a  family 
into  disrepute. 

By  the  monks  means :  by  other  monks ;  these  see,  these 
hear;  it  should  be  said  by  these:  *  The  venerable  one 
is  one  who  brings  families  into  disrepute  and  is  of 
depraved  conduct;  the  venerable  one's  depraved  con- 
duct .  .  .  has  lived  here  long  enough.'  And  if  the 
monk  being  spoken  to  thus  by  the  monks  should 
say :  '  .  .  .  they  do  not  banish  others ' ;  this  monk 
means,  this  monk  against  whom  proceedings  have  been 
taken. 

By  the  monks  means:  by  other  monks;  these  see,  these 
hear;  it  should  be  said  by  these:  '  Do  not,  venerable 
one,  speak  thus  .  .  .  the  venerable  one  has  lived  here 
long  enough.'  A  second  time  should  they  say  .  .  . 
A  third  time  should  they  say  ...  if  he  gives  up  the 
course  that  is  good;  if  he  does  not  give  it  up  it  is  an 
offence  of  wrong-doing.  If,  having  heard,  they  do  not 
speak,  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.  That  monk 
having  been  drawn  into  the  middle  of  the  Order,  should 
be  told :  *  Do  not,  venerable  one,  speak  thus  .  .  .  you 
have  lived  here  long  enough.'  A  second  time  he  should 
be  told  ...  A  third  time  he  should  be  told  ...  if 
he  gives  up  his  course  it  is  good,  but  if  he  does  not  give 
it  up  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing. 

That  monk  should  be  admonished.  The  Order  should 
be  informed  thrqugh  an  experienced,  competent  monk: 
*  Let  the  Order  listen  to  me,  honoured  sirs.     This  monk, 


Xlll.  2—3,  2]  FORMAL   MEETING  327 

SO  and  so,  banished  by  an  act  of  the  Order,  makes  the 
monks  fall  into  wrong  courses  by  following  desire,  by 
following  hatred,  by  following  confusion,  by  following 
fear;  and  he  does  not  give  up  his  course.  If  it  seems 
the  right  time  to  the  Order,  let  the  Order  admonish  this 
monk  for  the  sake  of  giving  up  his  course.  This  is  the 
motion.  Let  the  Order  listen  to  me  .  .  .  Thus  do  I 
understand. 

According  to  the  motion  there  is  an  offence  of  wrong- 
doing .  .  .  grave  offences  subside. 

An  offence  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order 
means:  the  Order  places  him  on  probation  on  account 
of  his  offence,  it  sends  him  back  to  the  beginning,  it 
inflicts  the  manatta  discipline,  it  rehabilitates;  it  is  not 
many  people,  it  is  not  [185]  one  man,  therefore  it  is 
called  an  offence  which  in  the  earlier  as  well  as  in  the 
later  stages  requires  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 
A  synonym  for  this  class  of  offence  is  a  work;  there- 
fore, again,  it  is  called  an  offence  which  in  the  earlier 
as  well  as  in  the  later  stages  entails  a  formal  meeting 
of  the  Order.i  11  2 II 


Thinking  a  legally  valid  act  to  be  a  legally  valid  act, 
he  does  not  give  it  up — there  is  an  offence  entailing  a 
formal  meeting  of  the  Order.  Being  in  doubt  as  to 
whether  it  is  a  legally  valid  act  .  .  .  Not  thinking  an 
act  which  is  legally  valid  to  be  an  act  which  is  not 
legally  valid,  is  an  offence  of  wrong-doing.^  ||  1 1| 

It  is  not  an  offence  if  he  is  not  admonished,  if  he  gives 
it  up,  if  he  is  mad,  if  he  is  a  beginner.  ||  2  ||  3 1| 


Told  is  the  Thirteenth  Offence  entailing  a  Formal  Meet- 
ing of  the  Order :  that  of  bringing  families  into 
disrepute 


Cf.  above,  p.  196.  ^  Cf.  pp.  302.  307,  313. 


328  BOOK   OF   THE    DISCIPLINE  [III.  186 

The  thirteen  matters  which  require  a  formal  meeting 
of  the  Order  have  been  set  down,  venerable  ones — nine 
which  become  offences  at  once,^  and  four  which  are  not 
completed  until  the  third  admonition. ^ 

If  a  monk  offends  against  one  or  other  of  these,  for 
as  many  days  as  he  knowingly  conceals  his  offence,^  for 
so  many  days  should  probation  be  spent  by  this  monk, 
even  against  his  will.*  When  this  monk  has  spent  his 
probation,  a  further  six  days  are  to  be  allowed  for  the 
monk's  manatta  discipline.  If,  when  the  monk  has  per- 
formed the  manatta  discipline,  the  company  of  monks 
numbers  twenty,  that  monk  may  be  rehabilitated.^ 
But  if  the  Order  of  monks  should  rehabilitate  that  monk 
when  numbering  less  than  twenty  even  by  one,  that 
monk  is  not  rehabilitated  and  these  monks  are  blame- 
worthy. This  is  the  proper  course  there.  Now  I  ask 
the  venerable  ones :  I  hope  that  you  are  pure  in  this 
matter  ?^  A  second  time  I  ask:  I  hope  that  you  are 
pure  in  this  matter  ?  A  third  time  I  ask:  I  hope  that 
you  are  pure  in  this  matter  ?  The  venerable  ones  are 
pure  in  this  matter,  therefore  they  are  silent.  Thus 
do  I  understand.^ 

Told  are  the  thirteen.     The  summary  of  this  is: 

Emission  and  bodily  contact;  lewd  talk  and  one's 

own  pleasure. 
Acting  as  a  go-between;  and  a  hut,  and  a  vihara; 

without  foundation,/ 


1  pathamdpattikd. 

2  ydvalatiyakd :  name  of  the  last  four  Sanghadisesas,  where  before 
punishment  can  be  inflicted,  the  monks  must  have  been  admonished 
so  as  to  give  up  their  wrong  courses,  even  up  to  the  third  time. 

^  VA.  629,  "  for  as  many  days  as  he  knowingly  conceals  his 
offence,  saying:  '  I  have  fallen  into  such  and  such  an  offence,'  and 
does  not  tell  his  co-religionists." 

*  Ihid.,  taking  up  probation  (parivdsa)  it  may  be  spent  unwillingly, 
not  under  his  power. 

*  Abbheti,  to  rehabilitate  after  suspension  for  breach  of  rules. 

*  I.e.,  of  being  at  least  a  group  of  twenty. 
'  For  this  passage  cf.  Yin.  iv.  242. 


XIII.  3,  2]  FORMAL  MEETING  329 

And  some  point,  and  a  schism,  even  siding  in  with. 
Difficult  to  speak  to,  and  bringing  a  family  into  dis- 
repute— these  are  the  thirteen  offences  entailing 
a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order. 

Told  are  the  thirteen  sections  [186] 


[These  two  Undetermined  Matters,  venerable  ones,  come 
up  for  exposition.] 

UNDETERMINED  (ANIYATA)  I 

At  one  time  the  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  was  staying 
at  Savatthi  in  Anathapindika's  park  in  the  Jeta  Grove, 
At  that  time  the  venerable  Udayin  was  dependent  oh 
families  in  Savatthi  and  approached  many  families. 
Now  at  that  time  the  young  girl  of  a  family  who  was 
supporting  the  venerable  Udayin  had  been  given  (in 
m'arriage)  to  a  boy  of  a  certain  family.  Then  the 
venerable  Udayin,  getting  up  early  and  taking  his  bowl 
and  robe;  approached  that  family,  and  having  approached 
them  he  asked  the  people : 

"  Where  is  (the  girl)  called  so  and  so  ?"  They  said: 
"  Honoured  sir,  she  was  given  to  a  boy  of  a  certain 
family."  Now  this  family  supported  the  venerable 
Udayin.  Then  the  venerable  Udayin  approached  this 
family,  and  having  approached  them  he  asked  the 
people: 

"  Where  is  (the  girl)  called  so  and  so  ?'*  They  said: 
"  Master,  she  is  sitting  in  the  inner  room." 
Then  *  the  venerable  Udayin  approached  this  girl, 
and  having  approached  her,  he  sat  down  together  with 
that  girl,  a  man  and  a  woman,  in  a  secret  place  on  a 
secluded,  convenient  seat,^  conversing  at  the  right  time, 
speaking  dhamma  at  the  right  time.^ 

Now  at  that  time  Visakha,  Migara's  mother,  had  many 
children  and  many  grandchildren.^    The  children  were 

*  Old  Corny.,  see  below,  p.  333,  and  VA.  631-632  explain  that  this 
means  a  seat  where  *'  it  is  possible  to  indulge  in  sexual  intercourse." 

*  VA.  631,  "  talking  for  a  time  when  anyone  comes  and  goes  in 
their  presence,  then  he  says :  '  You  should  perform  a  seeming  observ- 
ance-day, you  should  give  food  to  be  distributed  by  ticket.'  " 

*  VA.  631,  "  they  say  that  she  had  ten  sons  and  ten  daughters 
.  .  .  and  that  her  sons  and  her  daughters  each  had  twenty  children, 
so  that  in  addition  to  her  own,  she  had  four  hundred  children." 

330 


I.  1]  UNDETERMINED  33I 

healthy  and  the  grandchildren  were  healthy  and  she 
was  considered  to  be  auspicious.^  People  used  to 
regale  Visakha  first  at  sacrifices,  festivals^  and  feasts.^ 
So  Visakha,  being  invited,  went  to  that  family.  Visakha 
saw  the  venerable  Udayin  sitting  together  with  that 
girl,  a  man  and  a  woman,*  in  a  secret  place  on  a  secluded, 
convenient  seat.  Seeing  this,  she  said  to  the  venerable 
Udayin : 

"  This  is  not  proper,  honoured  sir,  it  is  not  suitable 
that  the  master  should  sit  together  with  women-folk, 
a  man  and  a  woman,  in  a  secret  place  on  a  secluded, 
convenient  seat.  [187]  Although,  honoured  sir,  the 
master  has  no  desire  for  that  thing,^  unbelieving  people 
are  difficult  to  convince."* 

But  the  venerable  Udayin  took  no  heed  after  he  had 
been  spoken  to  thus  by  Visakha.  Then  Visakha,  when 
she  had  departed,  told  this  matter  to  the  monks.  Those 
who  were  modest  monks  became  annoyed,  vexed,  angry 
and  said: 

"  How  can  the  venerable  Udayin  sit  together  with 
womenfolk,  a  man  and  a  woman,  in  a  secret  place  on 
a  secluded,  convenient  seat  ?"  And  these  monks  told 
this  matter  to  the  lord.     He  said: 

"  Is  it  true,  as  is  said,  Udayin,  that  you  sat  together 
with  womenfolk,  a  man  and  a  woman,  in  a  secret  place 
on  a  secluded,  convenient  seat  ?" 

"  It  is  true,  lord,"  he  said. 

The  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  rebuked  hini,  saying: 
,  "  How  can  you,  foolish  man,  sit  together  with  women- 
folk, a  man  with  a  woman,  in  a  secret  place  on  a  secluded, 
convenient  seat  ?  It  is  not,  foolish  man,  for  the  bene- 
fit of  unbelievers  .  .  .  And  thus,  monks,  this  course 
of  training  should  be  set  forth : 

Whatever  monk  should  sit  down  together  with  a 


1  Abhimangalasammata. 

2  VA.  631,  "  The  blessings  of  leading  the  bride  to  one's  own  home 
and  away  from  her  own  home  " — i.e.,  wedding  feasts. 

3  Feasts  at  the  beginning  and  at  the  end  of  the  rains. 

*  Eko  ekdya.  *  Tena  dhamm^na. 

«  I.e.y  that  he  and  the  woman  were  on  purely  platonic  terms. 


332  BOOK   OF  THE   DISCIPLINE  [III.  188 

woman,  the  one  with  the  other,  in  a  secret  place  on  a 
secluded,  convenient  seat,  and  if  a  trustworthy^  woman 
lay-follower  seeing  him  should  speak  concerning  a  certain 
one  of  three  matters:  either  one  involving  defeat,^  or 
one  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order,*  or  one 
involving  expiation,*  and  the  monk  himself  acknowledg- 
ing that  he  was  sitting  down,  should  be  dealt  with 
according  to  a  certain  one  of  three  matters:  as  to  whether 
it  is  one  involving  defeat,  or  as  to  whether  it  is  one 
entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order,  or  as  to  whether 
it  is  one  involving  expiation.  Or  that  monk  should  be 
dealt  with  according  to  what  that  trustworthy  woman 
lay-follower  should  say.  This  is  an  undetermined 
matter.''^  ||  l  ll 


Whatever  means:  he  who  ... 

Monk  means:  this  is  how  monk  is  to  be  understood 
in  this  sense. 

Woman  means:  a  human  woman,  not  a  female  yakkha, 
not  a  female  departed  one,  not  a  female  animal,  even  a 
girl  born  on  this  very  day,  much  more  an  older  one.® 

Together  with  means:  together. "^ 

A  man  with  a  woman^  means :  there  is  a  monk  and  also 
a  woman. 

A  secret  place  means:  secret  from  the  eye,  secret  from 
the  ear.  Secret  from  the  eye  means:  if  covering  the 
eye  or  raising  the  eyebrow  or  raising  the  head  he  is 
unable  to  see.  Secret  from  the  ear  means :  he  is  unable 
to  hear  ordinary  speech. 

A  secluded  seat  means:  it  is  secluded  by  a  wall  built 
of  wattle  and  daub,  or  by  a  door  or  [188]  by  a  screen 
or  by  a  screen  wall  or  by  a  tree  or  by  a  pillar  or  by  a 
sack  or  it  is  concealed  by  anything  whatever.^ 

1  VA.  632,  "  one  who  has  attained  the  fruit  of  stream-entry." 

2  The  First  Defeat.  ^  The  Second  Formal  Meeting. 

'  Pac.  44,  45.  ^  It  depends  upon  circumstances. 

'■■  =  above,  p.  202.  '  =above,  p.  202. 

**  Lit.  one  (masc.)    with  one  (fern.). 

»  Cf.  Undetermined  II.  2,  1  and  Vin.  iv.  269. 


I.  2,  1-2]  UNDETERMINED 


333 


Convenient  means:  it  is  possible  to  indulge  in  sexual 
intercourse. 

Should  sit  down  means:  when  the  woman  is  sitting 
the  monk  is  sitting  or  lying  close  to  her ;  when  the  monk 
is  sitting  the  woman  is  sitting  or  lying  close  to  him;  both 
are  sitting,  or  both  are  lying. 

Trustworthy  means:  (a  woman  who)  has  attained  the 
fruit,^  one  who  possesses  complete  understanding,^  one 
who  has  learned  the  teaching. 

Female  lay-follower  means :  one  going  to  the  enlightened 
one  for  refuge,  one  going  to  dhamma  for  refuge,  one 
going  to  the  Order  for  refuge. 

Seeing  means:  seeing.^  ||  1 1| 

Should  speak  concerning  a  certain  one  of  three  matters  : 
either  one  involving  defeat,  or  one  entailing  a  formal  meet- 
ing of  the  Order,  or  one  involving  expiation,  and  the  monk 
himself  acknowledging  that  he  was  sitting  do  ton,  should 
be  dealt  with  according  to  a  certain  one  of  three  matters : 
as  to  whether  it  is  one  involving  defeat,  or  as  to  whether 
it  is  one  entailing  a  formal  meeting  of  the  Order,  or  as  to 
whether  it  is  one  involving  expiation.  Or  that  monk 
should  be  dealt  with  according  to  what  that  trustworthy 
woman  lay-follower  should  say. 

If  she  should  say  this:  "  The  master  was  seen  by  me 
sitting  and  indulging  in  sexual  intercourse  with  a 
woman,"  and  if  he  acknowledges  this,  he  should  be 
dealt  with  for  an  offence. 

If  she  should  say  this:  "  The  master  was  seen  by  me 
sitting  and  indulging  in  sexual  intercourse  with  a 
woman,"  and  if  he  should  say  this:  "  It  is  true  that  I 
was  sitting  but  I  was  not  indulging  in  sexual  inter- 
course," he  should  be  dealt  with  for  sitting  down. 

If  she  should  say  this:  "  The  master  was  seen  by  me 
sitting  and  indulging  in  sexual  intercourse  with  a 
woman,"  and  if  he  should  say  this:  "  I  was  not  sitting 


^  Of  stream-attainment,  VA.  632. 

2  VA.  632,  "  one  who  has  penetrated  the  four  truths.' 

^  disvd  ti  passitvd. 


334  BOOK  OF  THE   DISCIPLINE         [III.  189-90 

but  I  was  lying  down,"  he  should  be  dealt  with  for  lying 
down. 

If  she  should  say  this:  '*  The  master  was  seen  by  me 
sitting  and  indulging  in  sexual  intercourse  with  a 
woman,"  and  if  he  should  say  this:  "  I  was  not  sitting 
but  I  was  standing,"  he  is  not  to  be  dealt  with. 

If  she  should  say  this :  "  The  master  was  seen  by  me  lying  down 
and  indulging  in  sexual  intercourse  with  a  woman,"  if  he  aclcnow- 
ledges  this,  he  should  be  dealt  with  for  an  offence. 

If  she  should  say  this:  *'  The  master  was  seen  .  .  .  with  a 
woman,"  and  he  should  say  this:  "  It  is  true  that  I  was  lying  down 
but  I  was  not  indulging  in  sexual  intercourse,"  he  should  be 
dealt  with  for  lying  down. 

If  she  should  say  this:  "The  master  .  .  .with  a  woman," 
and  if  he  should  say  this :  "  I  was  not  lying  down  but  I  was 
sitting,"  he  should  be  dealt  with  for  sitting  down. 

If  she  should  say  this:'*  The  master  .  .  .  [189]  with  a  woman," 
and  he  should  say  this:  "  I  was  not  lying  down  but  I  was 
standing,"  he  should  not  be  dealt  with. 

If  she  should  say  this:  "  The  master  was  seen  by  me  sitting 
together  with  a  woman  and  indulging  in  physical  contact,"  and 
if  he  acknowledges  this  he  should  be  dealt  with  for  an  offence. 
.  .  .  "It  is  true  that  I  was  sitting,  but  I  did  not  indulge  in 
physical  contact,"  he  should  be  de^lt  with  for  sitting  down  .  .  . 
"  I  was  not  sitting,  but  I  was  lying  down,"  he  should  be  dealt 
with  for  lying  down.  ...  "I  was  not  sitting  but  I  was  stand- 
ing," he  should  not  be  dealt  with. 

If  she  should  say  this:  "  The  master  was  seen  by  me  lying 
down  together  with  a  woman  and  indulging  in  physical  contact," 
and  if  he  acknowledges  this  he  should  be  dealt  with  for  an 
offence  ...  "  It  is  true  that  I  was  lying  down,  but  I  did  not 
indulge  in  physical  contact,"  he  should  be  dealt  with  for  lying 
down.  ...  "I  was  not  lying  down  but  I  was  sitting  down  " 
..."  I  was  not  lying  down,  I  was  standing,"  he  should  not  be 
dealt  with. 

If  she  should  say  this:  "  The  master  was  seen  by  me  sitting 
together  with  a  woman,  the  one  with  the  other,  in  a  secret  place 
on  a  secluded  seat  suitable  (for  sexual  intercourse),"  and  if  he 
acknowledges  this  he  should  be  dealt  with  for  sitting  down  .  .  . 
"  I  was  not  sitting  down,  but  I  was  lying  down,"  he  should  be 
dealt  with  for  lying  down  ...  "I  was  not  sitting  down,  I  was 
standing,"  he  should  not  be  dealt  with. 

If  she  should  say  this:  "  The  master  was  seen  by  me  lying 
down  ...  on  a  secluded  seat  suitable  (for  sexual  intercourse)," 


I.  2,  2—3]  UNDETERMINED  335 

and  if  he  acknowledges  this  he  should  be  dealt  with  for  lying  down. 
...  "I  was  not  lying  down,  I  was  sitting  down,"  he  should 
be  dealt  with  for  sitting  down  ..."  I  was  not  lying  down, 
I  was  standing,"  he  should  not  be  dealt  with. 

Undetermined  means:  not  determined  as  to  whether 
it  involves  defeat,  or  formal  meeting  of  the  Order,  or 
expiation.  |i2||2|| 


He  acknowledges  going,^  he  acknowledges  sitting 
down,  he  acknowledges  an  offence,^  he  should  be  dealt 
with  for  an  offence.^  He  acknowledges  going,  he  does 
not  acknowledge  sitting  down,  but  he  acknowledges  an 
offence,  he  should  be  dealt  with  for  an  offence.  He 
acknowledges  going,  he  acknowledges  sitting  down, 
but  he  does  not  acknowledge  an  offence,  he  should  be 
dealt  with  for  sitting  down.  He  acknowledges  going, 
he  does  not  acknowledge  sitting  down  and  he  does  not 
acknowledge  an  offence,  he  should  not  be  dealt  with. 
He  does  not  acknowledge  going,  but  he  acknowledges 
sitting  down  and  he  acknowledges  an  offence,  he  should 
be  dealt  with  for  an  offence.  He  does  not  acknowledge 
going,  he  does  not  acknowledge  sitting  down,  {190]  but 
he  acknowledges  an  offence,  he  should  be  dealt  with 
for  an  offence.  He  does  not  acknowledge  going,  but 
he  acknowledges  sitting  down,  though  he  does  not 
acknowledge  an  offence,  he  should  be  dealt  with  for 
sitting  down.  He  does  not  acknowledge  going,  he  does 
not  acknowledge  sitting  down,  he  does  not  acknowledge 
an  offence,  he  should  not  be  dealt  with.  ||  3 1| 


Told  is  the  First  Undetermined  Offence 


1  VA.  633,  "  saying:  '  I  am  going  to  a  secret  place  for  the  sake  of 
sitting  down.'  " 

2  VA.  633,  "  a  certain  offence  among  the  three" — i.e.,  either  a 
parajika  or  a  sanghadisesa  or  a  pacittiya. 

3  VA.  633,  dpaUiyd  kdretabbo,  "  he  should  be  dealt  with  according 
to  which  of  the  three  he  acknowledges." 


UNDETERMINED  (ANIYATA)  II 

At  one  time  the  enlightened  one,  the  lord,  was  staying 
at  Savatthi  in  the  Jeta  Grove  in  Anathapindika's  park. 
At  that  time  the  venerable  Udayin  said:  "  It  has  been 
forbidden  by  the  lord  to  sit  together  with  womenfolk, 
a  man  and  a  woman,  in  a  secret  place  on  a  secluded, 
convenient  seat,"  but  he  sat  together  with  that  young 
girl,  the  one  with  the  other,  in  a  secret  place,  conversing 
at  the  right  time,  talking  dhamma  at  the  right  time. 
A  second  time  did  Visdkha,  Migara's  mother,  being 
invited,  come  to  that  family.  Visakha  saw  the  vener- 
able Udayin  sitting  together  with  that  girl,  the  one 
with  the  other,  in  a  secret  place,  and  seeing  them  she 
said  to  the  venerable  Udayin: 

"  This,  honoured  sir,  is  not  right,  it  is  not  suitable 
for  the  master  to  sit  together  with  womenfolk,  a  man 
and  a  woman,  in  a  secret  place.  Although,  honoured 
sir,  the  master  has  no  desire  for  that  thing,  unbelieving 
people  are  difficult  to  convince." 

But  the  venerable  Udayin  took  no  heed  after  he  had 
been  spoke